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Vibrato is a musical effect consisting of a regular, pulsating change of pitch. It is used to add expression to instrumental music. Vibrato is characterised in terms of two factors: the amount of pitch variation and the speed with which the pitch is varied. In singing it can occur spontaneously through variations in the larynx; the vibrato of a string instrument and wind instrument is an imitation of that vocal function. The terms vibrato and tremolo are sometimes incorrectly used interchangeably, although they are properly defined as separate effects with vibrato defined as a periodic variation in the pitch of a musical note, tremolo as a fast repetition of the same note in order to produce the audible effect of a longer note on instruments which do not have the ability of producing long sustained notes, such as the guitar. In practice, it is difficult for a singer or musical instrument player to achieve a pure vibrato or tremolo, variations in both pitch and volume will be achieved at the same time.

Electronic manipulation or generation of signals makes it easier to achieve or demonstrate pure tremolo or vibrato. In the world of electric guitar and record production vibrato retains the same meaning as in the classical world but tremolo describes a periodic variation in volume achieved using outboard effects units. A Leslie speaker creates vibrato as a byproduct of tremolo production; as a Leslie speaker is moved by the rotating mechanism on which it is mounted, it moves closer to or farther away from any given object not mounted on the mechanism. Because amplitude varies directly with sound pressure and sound pressure varies directly with distance, such that amplitude varies directly with distance, the amplitude of the sound as perceived by the listener will be greatest when the speaker is at the point in its rotation closest to the listener and least when the speaker is farthest away; because the speaker is moving either toward or away from the listener, the mechanism's rotation is affecting the listener-perceived sound's wavelength by either "stretching" the wave or "squeezing" it — and because frequency, i.e. pitch, is inversely proportional to wavelength, such that increasing wavelength decreases frequency and vice versa, any listener for whom the speaker's motion changes the sound's perceived amplitude must perceive a change in frequency.

The use of vibrato is intended to add warmth to a note. In the case of many string instruments the sound emitted is directional at high frequencies, the slight variations in pitch typical of vibrato playing can cause large changes in the directional patterns of the radiated sound; this can add a shimmer to the sound. This directional effect is intended to interact with the room acoustics to add interest to the sound, in much the same way as an acoustic guitarist may swing the box around on a final sustain, or the rotating baffle of a Leslie speaker will spin the sound around the room; the extent of the variation in pitch during vibrato is controlled by the performer. The extent of vibrato for solo singers is less than a semitone either side of the note, while singers in a choir use narrower vibrato with an extent of less than a tenth of a semitone either side. Wind and bowed instruments use vibratos with an extent of less than half a semitone either side. Vibrato is sometimes thought of as an effect added onto the note itself, but in some cases it is so a part of the style of the music that it can be difficult for some performers to play without it.

The jazz tenor sax player Coleman Hawkins found he had this difficulty when requested to play a passage both with and without vibrato by Leonard Bernstein when producing his record album "What is Jazz" to demonstrate the difference between the two. Despite his technique, he was unable to play without vibrato; the featured saxophonist in Benny Goodman's Orchestra, George Auld, was brought in to play the part. Many classical musicians singers and string players, have a similar problem; the violinist and teacher Leopold Auer, writing in his book Violin Playing as I Teach It, advised violinists to practise playing without vibrato, to stop playing for a few minutes as soon as they noticed themselves playing with vibrato in order for them to gain complete control over their technique. The use of vibrato in classical music is a matter of some dispute. For much of the 20th century it was used continuously in the performance of pieces from all eras from the Baroque onwards by singers and string players.

A drastic change in approach cannot be understood wholly without regarding the rise of notionally informed performance from the 1970s onwards. However, there is no actual proof. Vocal music of the renaissance is never sung with vibrato as a rule, it seems unlikely it was. There are only a few texts from the period on vocal production, but they all condemn excessive use of vibrato. However, it should be understood that "vibrato" occurs over a wide range of inte

Ben Honeyman

Ben Honeyman is a former Australian football player who plays cricket for Glenrothes Cricket Club. Honeyman began his career with Dundee United but made just two appearances, scoring on his début in the 1-0 Scottish Challenge Cup quarter-final away win over Clydebank in September 1995 and appearing as a substitute in the league defeat at Dumbarton eleven days later. Honeyman failed to appear in another matchday squad and began the following season with Forfar Athletic, where he stayed for three years. After a short spell at East Fife in 1999, Honeyman spent three years with Brechin City, where he finished his senior career in 2002. Following this, Honeyman spent time in junior football, earning a player/manager role with Arniston Rangers, which made him the league's youngest manager at 28 years old. In 2006, Honeyman turned his back on football and began playing cricket in Fife for Glenrothes, being appointed captain at the start of the 2008 season. Ben Honeyman at Soccerbase

Silver Valley, Queensland

Silver Valley is a locality in the Tablelands Region, Australia. It is known for its mining in the late early 1900s; the Wild River forms the western boundary of the locality. The Kennedy Highway passes from west to east through the southern edge of the locality; the locality is mountainous, rising from an elevation of 650m in Bulldog Gully in the south of the locality through to numerous unnamed peaks of up to 1050m. The land is undeveloped apart from some areas now laid bare as the result of mining. James Venture Mulligan is credited with the first discovery of silver at Silver Valley in 1880. By 1883, outcrops of silver and galena had been found in the area and it was named Silver Valley and mining commenced, it was known as Newellton after a pioneer family. However, while the silver mines were productive, after a few years the silver lode was exhausted and the mines abandoned. However, in 1895, three prospector George Harrod discovered two rich lodes of tin and, with Hammond and White, established the Lancelot mine and, with Hammond and Daniels, established the Hadleigh Castle mine.

In 1899 a German company purchased the Lancelot Mine and proposed naming the area Lancelot after the mine and proposed to establish a new town called New Frankfurt. However, the German company did build a 5-head battery. However, by 1910 the lodes were exhausted and diamond drills were used to search for new lodes, but without success. In 1911 the mines were sold to John Moffat. However, the popular story is that the Germans operated the mine up until the start of World War I whereupon they disappeared overnight, but this story reflects the anti-German sentiment in response to World War I rather than actual events. Despite the apparent cessation of mining in the area, Silver Valley was described in 1912 as being "rich in minerals" with "beautiful scenery and shooting"; the Silver Valley Hotel could provide accommodation for 20 people for 6 / - per 30 / - per week. Like most old mines, there were occasional flurries of renewed activity whenever there were prospects of poorer ore lodes being profitably mined in response to rising metal prices or more efficient extraction technologies, but such mining is short-lived as it is price-sensitive.

Coolgarra Provisional School opened on 29 April 1901 and closed on 1934. On 1 January 1909 it became Coolgarra State School. In July 1916 it became a half time provisional school in conjunction with Lower Nettles Provisional School; however Lower Nettles closed in 1916 and Coolgarra was again a full time state school. Coolgarra State School closed in 1934. Lancelot Provisional School closed in 1906 when insufficient students enrolled, it reopened circa 1920 and closed in 1926. Silver Valley has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Coolgarra Station: Coolgarra Battery Stirling, James. Monograph on the geology and mining features of Silver Valley, North Queensland, Australia. Lancelot Freehold Tin & Copper Mines. Media related to Silver Valley, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons

Ruth McColl

Ruth Stephanie McColl is a judge of the Court of Appeal of the Supreme Court of New South Wales, the highest court in the State of New South Wales, which forms part of the Australian court hierarchy. McColl studied at Willoughby Girls' High School, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws from the University of Sydney in 1975. McColl worked as a solicitor in the NSW Crown Solicitor's Office from 1976-80. In 1980, McColl was admitted to the NSW Bar, she was appointed Senior Counsel in 1994. From 1981 until 2001 McColl was elected as a member of the Bar Council of the NSW Bar Association and from 1999-2001 she was President of the New South Wales Bar Association - the first woman to serve in that position. From 2001-02, McColl was President of the Australian Bar Association,McColl has served as Vice-President of Australian Women Lawyers and President of NSW Women Lawyers, she has been a part-time Commissioner of the New South Wales Law Reform Commission, President of the Public Interest Law Clearing House, Assistant Commissioner of the Independent Commission Against Corruption, Counsel assisting the Coroner in relation to the inquest into the 1997 Thredbo landslide.

In 2003, McColl was appointed a Judge of Appeal of the NSW Court of Appeal. McColl is the current President of the Judicial Conference of Australia. In 2004, McColl was made an Officer of the Order of Australia for service to the law, to continuing professional development and education for women, to the community in matters affecting Indigenous groups and youth

Nikos Nikolaou

Nikos Nikolaou was a major figure in Greek art during the 20th century. In 1929 Nikolaou was admitted into the Athens School of Fine Arts, where he studied under Konstantinos Parthenis and Umbertos Argyros. In 1932, he had his first exhibition when he participated in the group exhibition of the Athens School of Fine Arts students. In 1935 he participated in the Parnassos exhibition; that same year, Nikolaou came to the defense of a new artist, Constantine Andreou, whose artwork was so lifelike he was accused of cheating. This was the start of a lifelong friendship between the two. In 1937, Nikolaou followed Yiannis Moralis to Italy and in 1939 he received a scholarship to study in Paris. In 1949 he formed, with other artists including Nikos Hadjikyriakos-Ghikas, Yannis Tsarouchis, Yiannis Moralis, Nikos Engonopoulos and Panayiotis Tetsis, the "Armos" art group; this group had its first exhibition in 1950 in Athens' Zappeion. In 1960 he moved to Aegina and his house became a meeting place for artists and other luminaries.

A few years he managed to convince his long-time friend and colleague Andreou to buy a house on the island. Νίκος Νικολάου: Υδρα. Retrieved 2007-02-15. Art in modern Greece Contemporary Greek art

Brian Guiliana

Brian Guiliana in an American college baseball coach and former outfielder. He played college baseball at George Washington University from 1993 to 1996 for head coach Jay Murphy. Guiliana was the head baseball coach at the New Jersey Institute of Technology from 2013 to 2018. On June 20, 1991, Guiliana committed to play baseball at George Washington. Guiliana leading the Colonials in home runs in his senior season. From 2006 through 2010, he served as a scout for the Florida Marlins, covering the New Jersey and the northeast, he worked as the only full-time assistant coach at NJIT in 2011 and 2012, handling recruiting and on field duties, took over as head coach after the firing of Mike Cole. In all of his seasons, he has led the Highlanders to 20 wins or more. On August 23, 2018, Guiliana stepped down as the head coach at NJIT. Brian Guiliana Steps Down as Head Baseball Coach NJIT Highlanders