Craig Dawson is an English professional footballer who plays for West Bromwich Albion as a defender. He played for Radcliffe Borough, Bolton Wanderers and Rochdale. Prior to becoming a professional footballer, Dawson worked as a glass collector at his local pub, while playing for a local team called Rochdale St Clements, he started his football career at Northern Premier League side Radcliffe Borough in the middle of the 2007–08 season, became a first team regular after just a few games. In the two seasons he was at the club he scored 15 goals. Dawson signed for his local club Rochdale in February 2009 on a two-year contract. Although a Rochdale player, Dawson stayed at Radcliffe on loan until the end of the season. In the season he left, he was voted the Player of the season by Radcliffe. Dawson made his debut for Rochdale reserves. Dawson was set to make his debut in the second half of the 2008–09 season. Dawson got his Rochdale debut on 8 August by starting in the League Two clash with Port Vale at Vale Park.
The match ended in a 1–1 draw. Dawson's second game was at Hillsborough Stadium in the League Cup against Sheffield Wednesday. Despite conceding three goals, Rochdale fans gave Dawson rave reviews and named him man of the match, he scored 10 goals in all competitions during the 2009–10 season and won a place in the League Two PFA Team of the Year. On 31 August 2010, Dawson signed for Premier League club West Bromwich Albion for an undisclosed fee on a three-year contract, he made his competitive Baggies debut in a 4–1 League Cup win at Bournemouth in August 2011 and the following day was called up into the England Under-21s squad by Stuart Pearce, who watched him from the stands at the Seward Stadium. On Tuesday 26 July 2011, Craig Dawson was rewarded with a new-and improved Albion contract on 21 February 2012; the centre-half penned a three-and-a-half-year deal to June 2015, plus a further year's option in the club's favour. Dawson made his first Premier League start on Saturday 17 September 2011, away from home against Swansea City as a fill-in central defender for the suspended Gabriel Tamaş in a disappointing 3–0 defeat.
He re-appeared in the starting eleven for the game against Manchester City in which West Brom went on to lose 4–0. Again, Dawson appeared in the next league game against Queens Park Rangers, West Brom went on to win the game 1–0. On 28 September 2014, Dawson scored his first Premier League goal for West Brom in a 4–0 home win against Burnley He scored his next goal of the season in a 1–2 loss to West Ham United on 2 December 2014. After the arrival of new Albion manager Tony Pulis at the start of 2015, Dawson became a regular feature in the starting lineup. While not chipping in with any more goals that season, Dawson played his part in the team achieving survival. During the 2015/16 season Dawson was again a regular starter, his first goal of the season came in a 2–3 loss to Everton on 28 September 2015. His next goal came in a 2–2 draw away at Liverpool on 13 December 2015. On 18 February 2016 he signed a contract extension to keep him at the club until the summer 2018. Two weeks after signing his contract extension he scored a goal in a 3–2 home win against Crystal Palace.
He was involved in the winning goal for Saido Berahino. On 25 April 2016 he became the fourth Premier League player of the season to score an own goal and a goal in the same match in a 1–1 draw away to Tottenham. On 18 March 2017, he scored two headers from corners, as West Brom defeated Arsenal 3–1 in the Premier League, he was named man of the match. After signing for West Brom, he was loaned back to Rochdale for the remainder of the 2010–11 season. On 23 January 2013, despite interest from Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City, Leeds United and Nottingham Forest, championship club Bolton Wanderers won the race to sign Dawson on loan for the rest of the season. On 23 February, Dawson scored twice in a 4–1 win against Hull City Just three days on 26 February, he scored the only goal in a 1–0 home win against Peterborough United, he scored for the third successive match on 2 March, scoring the winning goal in a 3–2 win against Barnsley. Dawson scored two goals on his England under-21 debut against Azerbaijan on 1 September 2011.
He played 15 matches for scoring six goals. On 2 July 2012, Dawson was selected by Stuart Pearce for the 2012 Great Britain Olympic football team, he featured in the 1–0 victory over Uruguay as a last minute substitution for goalscorer Daniel Sturridge. He featured in the Olympic quarter-final against South Korea, coming on as a substitute for an injured Micah Richards, scoring in the penalty shoot-out; as of match played 13 May 2018 Craig Dawson profile at West Bromwich Albion F. C. Craig Dawson at Soccerbase
Sir Stanley Ford Rous, CBE was the 6th President of FIFA, serving from 1961 to 1974. He served as secretary of the Football Association from 1934 to 1962 and was an international referee. Rous was born in Mutford near Lowestoft in East Suffolk and attended Sir John Leman School in Beccles, he was the eldest son of a provision master but trained as a teacher in Beccles before serving in World War I as a non-commissioned officer in the 272nd brigade of the Royal Field Artillery in France, Palestine and Lebanon. After the war Rous attended St Luke's College in Exeter and became a sports teacher at Watford Boys Grammar School. Rous played football at amateur level as a goalkeeper for clubs including Kirkley and Lowestoft Town, but was forced to retire from playing after breaking a wrist, he developed an interest in refereeing whilst watching Norwich City and qualified as a referee while studying at St Luke’s and became a football league referee in 1927. He officiated in his first international match, a 2–0 friendly win for Belgium against the Netherlands, in the Bosuilstadion, Antwerp, on 13 March in the same year.
He officiated in a total of 34 international matches. He rose to the top tier of the game when he was appointed to referee the 1934 FA Cup Final at Wembley Stadium, where Manchester City defeated Portsmouth by 2 goals to 1; the following day, after travelling to Belgium to control an international match, Stanley Rous retired from refereeing. Rous made a major contribution to the game by rewriting the Laws of the Game in 1938, making them simpler and easier to understand, he was the first to employ the diagonal system of control for referees as a standard practice. According to Belgian referee John Langenus, in charge of the 1930 FIFA World Cup Final, he had seen referees from his country making a similar attempt at scientific positioning on the field of play, he moved into the sphere of football administration. He served as secretary of the Football Association from 1934 to 1962, president of FIFA from 1961 to 1974. During his time as FIFA President, Rous witnessed the crowning of England as Champions of the World in 1966.
He was known for his support for the apartheid-era South African Football Association. South Africa had been admitted to FIFA in 1954, but expelled from the CAF in 1958, they were suspended from FIFA in 1961 after failing to fulfill an ultimatum regarding anti-discrimination rules. In 1963, they were readmitted to FIFA after Rous travelled to the country to "investigate" football in the country, concluding that the game could disappear in the country if they were not readmitted and after the South African Football Association proposed playing an all-white team for the 1966 finals and an all-black team in 1970, it turned out to be short-lived. At FIFA's next annual congress, held in Tokyo just after the Olympic Games, a greater turnout of African and Asian representatives led to South Africa being suspended again, they were expelled from FIFA twelve years later. Rous, continued to press for them to be readmitted, to the point that he was prepared to establish a Southern African confederation so that South Africa and Rhodesia could compete.
Rous was forced to back down after CAF members made it clear that they would all withdraw from FIFA at the 1966 FIFA congress in London. A complex arrangement made during the 1966 World Cup by which referees of nations which passed to the knock-out phase were permitted to field referees was outlawed by FIFA under pressure from South American nations. Rous stood for re-election as president in 1974, but was defeated by the vigorous canvassing of João Havelange, in the context of discontent of other nations at European domination of FIFA as well as opposition by African and Asian countries due to the pro-South African stance of Rous. Upon his retirement as president, on 11 June 1974, he was nominated Honorary President of FIFA; the short-lived Rous Cup was named after him, as was the Rous Stand at Watford F. C.'s Vicarage Road ground, until being renamed the Graham Taylor Stand in 2014. He wrote A History of the Laws of Association Football, published in 1974. Rous appears as a character in the Half Man Half Biscuit song "Albert Hammond Bootleg".
Stanley Rous was married to Adrienne Gacon in 1924. The couple had no children, he was appointed CBE in 1943 and knighted in 1949. He was a lifelong friend of one of the founding members of FIFA, Dr. Ivo Schricker. Rous was an active freemason attending Exonian Lodge No. 3415 in London. Rous died in Paddington, London, of leukaemia in 1986, at the age of 91. A service in his memory was held at Westminster Abbey in the September of the same year, he is buried with his wife Lady Rous in the Holy Trinity Church in the Lickey Hills, close to both Bromsgrove and Birmingham
Watford High Street railway station
Watford High Street is a railway station in Watford, United Kingdom. It is served by the Watford DC Line on the London Overground network, it is the only station on the line's sole deviation from the West Coast Main Line. The station was opened by the Watford and Rickmansworth Railway on 1 October 1862, with services running from Watford Junction to Rickmansworth. In 1912 a branch was opened to Croxley Green; the line came under the ownership of London and North Western Railway, absorbed into the London and Scottish Railway in 1923, following the grouping of Britain's railway companies. Additional rail services were introduced to Watford High Street. After nationalisation in 1948, the Watford DC Line was run by British Rail. At the height of operation around the 1950s, Watford High Street was served by the Bakerloo line, by British Rail trains on both the Croxley Green and Rickmansworth branches, a local all-stations service to Euston and another local service to Broad Street via Primrose Hill.
Over the years, most of these services were withdrawn. The Rickmansworth branch was a poorly used service and passenger services were terminated by BR in 1952. Croxley Green services continued as Parliamentary trains until the line closed in 1996. In 1982 London Regional Transport cut back the Bakerloo line to run only as far north as Stonebridge Park. London Broad Street station was closed in 1986 and trains on the Primrose Hill route were diverted to Liverpool Street until 1992, when passenger services on the Primrose Hill line were withdrawn completely. After the withdrawal of the Croxley and Broad Street routes, the only remaining service running from Watford High Street was British Rail's Watford DC Line to Euston. Following the privatisation of British Rail the franchise for the Watford DC Line was taken over by National Express who ran the line under its Silverlink Metro name. In 2007 the line was brought under the control of Transport for London, who today operate it as part of the London Overground network.
In 2011, a project to extend the London Underground's Metropolitan line to Watford Junction was announced. The planned Croxley Rail Link would have diverted the Metropolitan line branch across the town along a reinstated stretch of disused track of the former Watford and Rickmansworth Railway; the scheme was cancelled in 2018 due to funding difficulties. Watford High Street station is located in the Lower High Street in Watford town centre. In the immediate vicinity around the station are a number of retail and civic amenities including the Watford Museum, containing a gallery of fine art and displays of local heritage, the 1.4-million-square-foot intu Watford Shopping Centre, the largest shopping centre in Hertfordshire, which attracts more than 17 million customers each year. Various other shopping parks are close to the station, including a large Tesco Extra, Waterfields Shopping Park, as well as many stores situated on the High Street. Watford town centre has many popular bars and clubs, such as PRYZM.
To the east of the railway line is the site of Benskins Brewery, the office building for, now Watford Museum. The brewery was rail-served by sidings until 1956; the station is situated in a deep cutting covered by a single platform canopy. The roof of the canopy is connected to the concrete sided cutting by ornamental metal trusses. All services to this station are operated by London Overground, it is on the Watford DC Line of the network and receives trains every 20 minutes Monday to Saturday daytimes. In evenings and on Sundays there is a half-hourly service in each direction; the station is served by local Routes 8, 142, 258, 306, 306B, 306C, 398, 602, W19 and W20. Other services to alternate destinations operate from Watford town centre bus stops, which are a short distance from the station. In 2011, a project to extend the London Underground's Metropolitan line to Watford Junction was announced; the planned Croxley Rail Link would have diverted the Metropolitan line branch across the town along a reinstated stretch of disused track of the former Watford and Rickmansworth Railway.
The scheme was cancelled in 2018 due to funding difficulties. "Historical photographs of Watford High Street LNWR station". Photo archive. London Transport Museum. Archived from the original on 2013-08-11. Train times and station information for Watford High Street railway station from National Rail
The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster Inquiry report is the report of an inquiry, overseen by Lord Justice Taylor, into the causes of the Hillsborough disaster on 15 April 1989, as a result of which, at the time of the report, 95 Liverpool F. C. fans had died. An interim report was published in August 1989, the final report was published in January 1990, it sought to establish the causes of the tragedy, make recommendations regarding the provision of safety at sporting events in future. The Taylor Report found, it recommended that all major stadiums convert to an all-seater model, that all ticketed spectators should have seats, as opposed to some or all being obliged to stand. The Football League in England and the Scottish Football League introduced regulations that required clubs in the highest divisions to comply with this recommendation by August 1994; the report stated that standing accommodation is not intrinsically unsafe, but the government decided that no standing accommodation was to be allowed at all.
Other recommendations of the Taylor Report included points on items such as the sale of alcohol within stadiums, crush barriers, turnstiles, ticket prices and other stadium items. After the Hillsborough disaster, Lord Justice Taylor was appointed to conduct an inquiry into the events; the Taylor Inquiry sat for a total of 31 days and published two reports: an interim report which laid out the events of the day and immediate conclusions, the final report which outlined general recommendations on football ground safety. This became known as the Taylor Report. Taylor concluded that "policing on 15 April broke down" and "although there were other causes, the main reason for the disaster was the failure of police control." Attention was focused on the decision to open the secondary gates. Sheffield Wednesday were criticised for the inadequate number of turnstiles at the Leppings Lane end and the poor quality of the crush barriers on the terraces, "respects in which failure by the Club contributed to this disaster."
Taylor found there was "no provision" for controlling the entry of spectators into the turnstile area. Questioned why more action had not been taken to screen individuals and improve the flow of supporters approaching the stadium from the west "where the turnstile area was so small and awkwardly laid out", senior police officers responded that policy and practice had been no different from in the past, they had no reason to anticipate problems as earlier events had proceeded without major incident. In fact, Taylor noted only two occasions when the entry at Leppings Lane had been the sole access to the north and west sides of the ground, at the 1987 and 1988 semi-finals, with evidence of congestion at both, but owing to good fortune and circumstance police policy "was not put to the same test and strain as a year later"; the senior police officers said. In fact, the only two previous occasions when the Leppings Lane terraces had been used to fill the whole of the north and west sides of the ground were at the two semi-finals, in 1987 and 1988.
In 1987, the match was on a Sunday scheduled for 12 noon, kick-off was postponed for a quarter of an hour because of late arrivals. The need to open gate C was due to dangerous congestion at the turnstiles; that occurred because, as both Club and police should have realised, the turnstile area could not cope with the large numbers demanded of it unless they arrived over a lengthy period. The Operational Order and police tactics on the day failed to provide for controlling a concentrated arrival of large numbers should that occur in a short period; that it might so occur was foreseeable and it did. As a result of the inadequate number of turnstiles, it has been calculated that it would have taken until 3:40 pm to get all ticket holders into the Leppings Lane end had an exit gate not been opened. Gate C was opened to let fans in, but the number of fans entering the terrace was not thought to have been more than the capacity of the entire standing area. Once inside the stadium, most fans entering the terraces headed for the central pens 3 and 4, as directed by a large sign above the access tunnel.
Since pens 3 and 4 were full by 2.50 pm, the tunnel should have been closed off whether gate C was to be opened or not.... T should have been clear in the control room where there was a view of the pens and of the crowd at the turnstiles that the tunnel had to be closed. If orders had been given to that effect when gate C was opened, the fans could have been directed to the empty areas of the wings and this disaster could still have been avoided. Failure to give that order was a blunder of the first magnitude. Standard procedure for league fixtures was to estimate the size of the visiting fan base, determine how many enclosures need to be opened fill each standing area one at a time. For all-ticket games that had sold out, such as semi-final matches, a different approach was adopted whereby supporters were allowed to enter any enclosure they wished upon arrival. There was no mechanical or electronic means for calculating when individual enclosures had reached capacity. A police officer made a visual assessment before guiding fans to other pens.
Whilst in theory the police would intervene if a pen became "full", in practice they permitted the test of fullness to be what the fans would tolerate. By 2.52 pm when gate C was opened, pens 3 and 4 were over-full by this test. Many were uncomforta
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Rugby union known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand. In its most common form, a game is between two teams of 15 players using an oval-shaped ball on a rectangular field with H-shaped goalposts at each end. Rugby union is a popular sport around the world, played by male and female players of all ages. In 2014, there were more than 6 million people playing worldwide, of whom 2.36 million were registered players. World Rugby called the International Rugby Football Board and the International Rugby Board, has been the governing body for rugby union since 1886, has 101 countries as full members and 18 associate members. In 1845, the first football laws were written by Rugby School pupils. An amateur sport, in 1995 restrictions on payments to players were removed, making the game professional at the highest level for the first time.
Rugby union spread from the Home Nations of Great Britain and Ireland and was absorbed by many of the countries associated with the British Empire. Early exponents of the sport included New Zealand, South Africa and France. Countries that have adopted rugby union as their de facto national sport include Fiji, Madagascar, New Zealand and Tonga. International matches have taken place since 1871 when the first game took place between Scotland and England at Raeburn Place in Edinburgh; the Rugby World Cup, first held in 1987, takes place every four years. The Six Nations Championship in Europe and The Rugby Championship in the Southern Hemisphere are other major international competitions, held annually. National club or provincial competitions include the Premiership in England, the Top 14 in France, the Mitre 10 Cup in New Zealand, the National Rugby Championship in Australia, the Currie Cup in South Africa. Other transnational club competitions include the Pro14 in Europe and South Africa, the European Rugby Champions Cup in Europe, Super Rugby, in the Southern Hemisphere and Japan.
The origin of rugby football is reputed to be an incident during a game of English school football at Rugby School in 1823, when William Webb Ellis is said to have picked up the ball and run with it. Although the evidence for the story is doubtful, it was immortalised at the school with a plaque unveiled in 1895. Despite the doubtful evidence, the Rugby World Cup trophy is named after Webb Ellis. Rugby football stems from the form of game played at Rugby School, which former pupils introduced to their university. Old Rugbeian Albert Pell, a student at Cambridge, is credited with having formed the first "football" team. During this early period different schools used different rules, with former pupils from Rugby and Eton attempting to carry their preferred rules through to their universities. A significant event in the early development of rugby football was the production of the first written laws of the game at Rugby School in 1845, followed by the Cambridge Rules drawn up in 1848. Other important events include the Blackheath Club's decision to leave the Football Association in 1863 and the formation of the Rugby Football Union in 1871.
The code was known as "rugby football". Despite the sport's full name of rugby union, it is known as rugby throughout most of the world; the first rugby football international was played on 27 March 1871 between Scotland and England in Edinburgh. Scotland won the game 1-0. By 1881 both Ireland and Wales had representative teams, in 1883 the first international competition, the Home Nations Championship had begun. 1883 is the year of the first rugby sevens tournament, the Melrose Sevens, still held annually. Two important overseas tours took place in 1888: a British Isles team visited Australia and New Zealand—although a private venture, it laid the foundations for future British and Irish Lions tours. During the early history of rugby union, a time before commercial air travel, teams from different continents met; the first two notable tours both took place in 1888—the British Isles team touring New Zealand and Australia, followed by the New Zealand team touring Europe. Traditionally the most prestigious tours were the Southern Hemisphere countries of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa making a tour of a Northern Hemisphere, the return tours made by a joint British and Irish team.
Tours would last for months, due to the number of games undertaken. Touring international sides would play Test matches against international opponents, including national and county sides in the case of Northern Hemisphere rugby, or provincial/state sides in the case of Southern Hemisphere rugby. Between 1905 and 1908, all three major Southern Hemisphere rugby countries sent their first touring teams to the Northern Hemisphere: New Zealand in 1905, followed by South Africa in 1906 and Australia in 1908. All three teams brought new styles of play, fitness levels and tactics, were far more successful than critics had expected; the New Zealand 1905 touri
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is an organization which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, fútsal, beach soccer, eFootball. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991. FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. Member countries must each be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean and South America. Although FIFA does not control the rules of football, that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board, it is responsible for both the organization of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship.
In 2017, FIFA had revenues of over US $734 million, for a net loss of $189 million, had cash reserves of over US$930 million. Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA president Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively; these allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U. S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups; those among these officials who were indicted in the U. S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well. Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Michel Platini. In early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017.
On May 9, 2017, following Infantino's proposal, FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert. Together with the chairmen, 11 of 13 committee members were removed; the need for a single body to oversee association football became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association was founded in the rear of the headquarters of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques at the Rue Saint Honoré 229 in Paris on 21 May 1904; the French name and acronym are used outside French-speaking countries. The founding members were the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland; that same day, the German Football Association declared its intention of affiliating through a telegram. The first president of FIFA was Robert Guérin. Guérin was replaced in 1906 by Daniel Burley Woolfall from England, by a member of the association; the first tournament FIFA staged, the association football competition for the 1908 Olympics in London was more successful than its Olympic predecessors, despite the presence of professional footballers, contrary to the founding principles of FIFA.
Membership of FIFA expanded beyond Europe with the application of South Africa in 1909, Argentina in 1912, Canada and Chile in 1913, the United States in 1914. During World War II, with many players sent off to war and the possibility of travel for international fixtures limited, the organization's survival was in doubt. Post-war, following the death of Woolfall, the organisation was run by Dutchman Carl Hirschmann, it was saved from extinction but at the cost of the withdrawal of the Home Nations, who cited an unwillingness to participate in international competitions with their recent World War enemies. The Home Nations resumed their membership; the FIFA collection is held by the National Football Museum at Urbis in England. The first World Cup was held in 1930 in Uruguay. FIFA is headquartered in Zürich, is an association established under the law of Switzerland. FIFA's supreme body is the FIFA Congress, an assembly made up of representatives from each affiliated member association; each national football association has one vote, regardless of footballing strength.
The Congress assembles in ordinary session once every year, extraordinary sessions have been held once a year since 1998. The congress makes decisions relating to FIFA's governing statutes and their method of implementation and application. Only the Congress can pass changes to FIFA's statutes; the congress approves the annual report, decides on the acceptance of new national associations and holds elections. Congress elects the President of FIFA, its general secretary, the other members of the FIFA Council in the year following the FIFA World Cup. FIFA Council — called the FIFA Executive Committee and chaired by the president — is the main decision-making body of the organisation in the intervals of congress; the council is composed of 37 people: the president. The Executive Committee is the body that decides w