United States Atlantic Command
United States Atlantic Command was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Department of Defense. In 1999, U. S. Atlantic Command was given a new mission as United States Joint Forces Command. USLANTCOM was active from the 1947 to 1993 as a U. S. Navy command, focused upon the wartime defense of the Atlantic sea lanes against Soviet attack, with the U. S. Atlantic Fleet and other subunified commands such as the Iceland Defense Force under its authority; the Navy's leading place within the command had been marked by having Commander-in-Chief U. S. Atlantic Fleet, CINCLANTFLT acting as the Commander-in-Chief United States Atlantic Command between 1947 and 1985. CINCLANTFLT, in addition to the LANTCOM post held the position of NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic. There were Army and Air Force components, CINCARLANT and CINCAFLANT; the beginning of the Congo Crisis in mid 1960 shift planners' attention to potential tasks in Central Africa. In November 1960, the Secretary of Defense gave CINCLANT the responsibility for sub-Saharan Africa plans and operations, instructed CINCLANT to establish a small headquarters, Joint Task Force 4, under an Army lieutenant general.
Lieutenant General Louis W. Truman served as Commander JTF-4. Several months in response to a JCS request, Secretary Robert S. McNamara changed the Unified Command Plan's wording so that CINCLANT no longer bore responsibility for "routine" matters in sub-Saharan Africa but was, responsible for contingency planning and for commanding any JCS-directed operations. In July 1961 Secretary McNamara apportioned sub-Saharan responsibilities as follows: Military Assistance Program to USCINCEUR and the Secretary of the Army, Congo air evacuation to USCINCEUR, the Congo sea evacuation to CINCLANT.51 After the end of the Cold War, a 1993 reorganization gave the Command a new acronym, USACOM, brought United States Army Forces Command and Air Combat Command under its authority. In 1999, USACOM was given a new mission as United States Joint Forces Command. USJFCOM was closed in 2011
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
Lynde D. McCormick
Admiral Lynde Dupuy McCormick was a four-star admiral in the United States Navy who served as vice chief of naval operations from 1950 to 1951 and as commander in chief of the United States Atlantic Fleet from 1951 to 1954, was the first supreme allied commander of all NATO forces in the Atlantic. Born in Annapolis, Maryland to the former Edith Lynde Abbot and naval surgeon Albert Montgomery Dupuy McCormick, he attended St. John's Preparatory School and College, a military school in Annapolis. In 1911, he was appointed by President William Howard Taft to the United States Naval Academy, where he played lacrosse and soccer and, as a first classman, was business manager of the Academy yearbook, the Lucky Bag, he graduated second in a class of 183 and was commissioned ensign in the United States Navy in June 1915. His first assignment was aboard the battleship Wyoming, operating in the Caribbean Sea and along the eastern seaboard. In November 1917, following the United States entry into World War I, Wyoming and the rest of Battleship Division 9 joined the British Grand Fleet as its Sixth Battle Squadron and were present at the surrender of the German High Seas Fleet in the North Sea after the armistice.
In April 1919, McCormick was assigned as aide and flag lieutenant on the staff of Commander Battleship Division 4, United States Fleet. He served aboard the battleship South Carolina from June to September became aide and flag lieutenant to Commander Destroyer Squadron 4, Pacific Fleet, aboard the squadron flagship Birmingham, he transferred to the destroyer Buchanan in December 1920. In August 1921, he commanded the destroyer Kennedy, before going ashore in October as an instructor in the Department of Navigation at the Naval Academy, he began a long association with submarine warfare in June 1923 when he became a student at the Submarine School in New London, Connecticut. He served until June 1924 in the submarine S-31, operating with Submarine Division 16 in the Pacific. After short assignments with the submarine S-37 and submarine tender Canopus, he commanded the submarine R-10, based at Honolulu, from August 1924 until June 1926, when he was detailed to the Naval Academy as a member of the executive department.
In August 1928, he began three years as commanding officer of the fleet submarine V-2, operating with Submarine Division 20 in support of the United States Fleet in maneuvers off the West Coast, the Hawaiian Islands, the Caribbean Sea. In May 1931, he began a three-year tour at the Naval Academy as aide to the new superintendent, Rear Admiral Thomas C. Hart; when Hart finished his tour as superintendent in June 1934, McCormick rejoined the fleet as navigator of the light cruiser Marblehead. He took command of the fleet oiler Neches in April 1936. In June 1937, he was enrolled as a student in the senior course at the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island. After completing the course in May 1938, he remained at the Naval War College for an additional year as a member of the staff. In June 1939, he became operations officer on the staff of Vice Admiral Charles P. Snyder, Commander Battleships, Battle Force, aboard Snyder's flagship West Virginia; when Snyder was elevated to command of the entire Battle Force in January 1940, McCormick followed him to the Battle Force flagship California as operations officer on the Battle Force staff.
Snyder requested early relief in January 1941 after his superior, Admiral James O. Richardson, was summarily replaced by Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, the new Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet. Upon assuming command in February 1941, Kimmel recruited McCormick to be assistant war plans officer on the Pacific Fleet staff, in which post McCormick was serving during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. After the Pearl Harbor disaster, Kimmel was relieved by Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, who retained Kimmel's entire staff. McCormick became Nimitz' war plans officer in April 1942, serving in that capacity during the battles of the Coral Sea and Guadalcanal. On June 30, 1942, McCormick was injured in a seaplane accident while accompanying Nimitz to Alameda Naval Air Station. Despite suffering a fractured vertebra, McCormick never went on the sick list, choosing to continue on active duty while wearing a plaster cast for three months, he was promoted to rear admiral on July 15, 1942, upon completing his tour on Nimitz' staff, was awarded the Legion of Merit for "exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States as War Plans Officer on the Staff of the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas, from February 1, 1941, to January 14, 1943.
He was detached in February 1943 to take command of the battleship South Dakota, operating off the Atlantic coast and with the British Home Fleet. From October 1943 to March 1945, he was assigned to the staff of Chief of Naval Operations Ernest J. King as assistant chief of naval operations for logistics plans, with additional duty as chairman of the Joint Logistics Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in which capacity he accompanied King to the second Quebec and Yalta conferences, his logistics work earned him a Gold Star in lieu of a second Legion of Merit. The accompanying citation stated: "His mastery of the relationship between strategy and logistics and his understanding of the process of procuring and distributing critical items have been important factors in meeting the needs of area and Fleet Commanders. In a field in which the magnitude and complexity of the problems were without precedent in the history of the Navy, he has displayed conspicuous ability and brilliant leadership."
He would be quoted as saying, "I am tempted to make a exaggerated statement: that logistics is all of warmaking
United States Indo-Pacific Command
United States Indo-Pacific Command is a unified combatant command of the United States Armed Forces responsible for the Indo-Pacific region. It is the largest of the unified combatant commands, its commander, the senior U. S. military officer in the Pacific, is responsible for military operations in an area which encompasses more than 100 million square miles, or 52 percent of the Earth’s surface, stretching from the waters off the west coast of the United States to the west coast of India, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. The commander reports to the President of the United States through the Secretary of Defense and is supported by service component and subordinate unified commands, including U. S. Army Pacific, Marine Forces Pacific, U. S. Pacific Fleet, Pacific Air Forces, U. S. Forces Japan, U. S. Forces Korea, Special Operations Command Korea, Special Operations Command Pacific. USINDOPACOM has two direct reporting units - U. S. Pacific Command Joint Intelligence Operations Center and the Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance as well as a Standing Joint Task Force, Joint Interagency Task Force West.
The USINDOPACOM headquarters building, the Nimitz-MacArthur Pacific Command Center, is located on Camp H. M. Smith, Hawaii. Known as United States Pacific Command since its inception, the command was renamed to U. S. Indo-Pacific Command on 30 May 2018, in recognition of the United State's alliance with India. United States Indo-Pacific Command protects and defends, in concert with other U. S. Government agencies, the territory of the United States, its people, its interests. With allies and partners, we will enhance stability in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region by promoting security cooperation, encouraging peaceful development, responding to contingencies, deterring aggression and, when necessary, fighting to win; this approach is based on partnership and military readiness. We recognize the global significance of the Indo-Asia-Pacific region and understand that challenges are best met together. We will remain an engaged and trusted partner committed to preserving the security and freedom upon which enduring prosperity in the Indo-Asia-Pacific region depends.
We will collaborate with the Services and other Combatant Commands to defend America's interests. USINDOPACOM's Area of Responsibility encompasses the Pacific Ocean from Antarctica at 92°W, north to 8°N, west to 112°W, northwest to 50°N/142°W, west to 170°E, north to 53°N, northeast to 62°30’N/175°W, north to 64°45’N/175°W, south along the Russian territorial waters to the People's Republic of China, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Republic of Korea, Japan. 36 nations More than half the world's population 3,200 different languages 5 of 7 U. S. collective defense treaties In the Pacific Region, instead of NORAD, the United States Indo-Pacific Command must make the decision that an incoming ballistic missile is a threat to the United States. Hawaii is the only state in the United States with a pre-programmed Wireless Emergency Alert that can be sent to wireless devices if a ballistic missile is heading toward Hawaii. If the missile is fired from North Korea, the missile would take 20 minutes to reach Hawaii.
The United States Indo-Pacific Command would take less than 5 minutes to make a determination that the missile could impact Hawaii and would notify the Hawaii Emergency Management Agency. HI-EMA would issue the Civil Defense Warning that an inbound missile could impact Hawaii and that people should Shelter-in-Place: Get Inside, Stay Inside, Stay Tuned. People in Hawaii would have 12 to 15 minutes before impact. Federal Emergency Management Agency is not required to be notified for approval to cancel an alert. Signal carriers allow people to block alerts from state and law enforcement agencies, but not those issued by the President. FEMA can send alerts to targeted audiences but has not implemented this as of January 2018. Other states can take as long as 30 minutes to create and distribute a missile alert; as of January 2018, the nationwide system for Wireless Emergency Alerts to mobile devices has never been tested. USINDOPACOM has evolved through the gradual consolidation of various commands in the Pacific and Far East.
Its origins can be traced to the command structure established early in World War II to wage the war in the Pacific. In April 1942, U. S. military forces in the Pacific Theatre were divided into two commands: the Southwest Pacific Area under Army General Douglas MacArthur. Each had command of all U. S. military forces assigned to his area. The authority of the POA Commander-in-Chief was technically separate from that of the Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet, but Admiral Nimitz was assigned to both positions and bore the title CINCPAC/CINCPOA. Efforts to establish a unified command for the entire Pacific AOR proved impossible during the war; the divergent interests of the Army and the Navy precluded the subordination of either of the two principal commanders in the Pacific Theatre. When the war ended in September 1945, the command arrangement carried forward with Fleet Admiral Nimitz as CINCPAC/CINCPOA and General of the Army MacArthur as Commander in Chief, U. S. Army Forces Pacific. Command arrangements after World War II were defined by the "Outline Command Plan" –
United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense is an executive branch department of the federal government charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces. The department is the largest employer in the world, with nearly 1.3 million active duty servicemen and women as of 2016. Adding to its employees are over 826,000 National Guardsmen and Reservists from the four services, over 732,000 civilians bringing the total to over 2.8 million employees. Headquartered at the Pentagon in Arlington, just outside Washington, D. C. the DoD's stated mission is to provide "the military forces needed to deter war and ensure our nation's security". The Department of Defense is headed by the Secretary of Defense, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of the United States. Beneath the Department of Defense are three subordinate military departments: the United States Department of the Army, the United States Department of the Navy, the United States Department of the Air Force.
In addition, four national intelligence services are subordinate to the Department of Defense: the Defense Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, the National Reconnaissance Office. Other Defense Agencies include the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Defense Logistics Agency, the Missile Defense Agency, the Defense Health Agency, Defense Threat Reduction Agency, the Defense Security Service, the Pentagon Force Protection Agency, all of which are under the command of the Secretary of Defense. Additionally, the Defense Contract Management Agency provides acquisition insight that matters, by delivering actionable acquisition intelligence from factory floor to the warfighter. Military operations are managed by ten functional Unified combatant commands; the Department of Defense operates several joint services schools, including the Eisenhower School and the National War College. The history of the defense of the United States started with the Continental Congress in 1775.
The creation of the United States Army was enacted on 14 June 1775. This coincides with the American holiday Flag Day; the Second Continental Congress would charter the United States Navy, on 13 October 1775, create the United States Marine Corps on 10 November 1775. The Preamble of the United States Constitution gave the authority to the federal government to defend its citizens: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Upon the seating of the first Congress on 4 March 1789, legislation to create a military defense force stagnated as they focused on other concerns relevant to setting up the new government. President George Washington went to Congress to remind them of their duty to establish a military twice during this time.
On the last day of the session, 29 September 1789, Congress created the War Department, historic forerunner of the Department of Defense. The War Department handled naval affairs until Congress created the Navy Department in 1798; the secretaries of each of these departments reported directly to the president as cabinet-level advisors until 1949, when all military departments became subordinate to the Secretary of Defense. After the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed creation of a unified department of national defense. In a special message to Congress on 19 December 1945, the President cited both wasteful military spending and inter-departmental conflicts. Deliberations in Congress went on for months focusing on the role of the military in society and the threat of granting too much military power to the executive. On 26 July 1947, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, which set up a unified military command known as the "National Military Establishment", as well as creating the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Council, National Security Resources Board, United States Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The act placed the National Military Establishment under the control of a single Secretary of Defense. The National Military Establishment formally began operations on 18 September, the day after the Senate confirmed James V. Forrestal as the first Secretary of Defense; the National Military Establishment was renamed the "Department of Defense" on 10 August 1949 and absorbed the three cabinet-level military departments, in an amendment to the original 1947 law. Under the Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1958, channels of authority within the department were streamlined, while still maintaining the ordinary authority of the Military Departments to organize and equip their associated forces; the Act clarified the overall decision-making authority of the Secretary of Defense with respect to these subordinate Military Departments and more defined the operational chain of command over U. S. military forces as running from the president to the Secretary of Defense and to the unified combatant commanders.
Provided in this legislation was a centralized research authority, the Advanced Research Projects Agency known as DARPA. The act was written and promoted by the Eisenhower administration, was signed into law 6 August 1958; the Secretary of Defense, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate, is by federal law (1
Arthur W. Radford
Arthur William Radford was a United States Navy admiral and naval aviator. In over 40 years of military service, Radford held a variety of positions including Vice Chief of Naval Operations, commander of the United States Pacific Fleet and the second Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. With an interest in ships and aircraft from a young age, Radford saw his first sea duty aboard the battleship USS South Carolina during World War I. In the inter-war period he earned his pilot wings and rose through the ranks in duties aboard ships and in the Bureau of Aeronautics. After the U. S. entered World War II, he was the architect of the development and expansion of the Navy's aviator training programs in the first years of the war. In its final years he commanded carrier task forces through several major campaigns of the Pacific War. Noted as a strong-willed and aggressive leader, Radford was a central figure in the post-war debates on U. S. military policy, was a staunch proponent of naval aviation.
As commander of the Pacific Fleet, he defended the Navy's interests in an era of shrinking defense budgets, was a central figure in the "Revolt of the Admirals," a contentious public fight over policy. As Chairman of the Joint Chiefs, he continued to advocate for aggressive foreign policy and a strong nuclear deterrent in support of the "New Look" policy of President Dwight Eisenhower. Retiring from the military in 1957, Radford continued to be a military adviser to several prominent politicians until his death in 1973. For his extensive service, he was awarded many military honors, was the namesake of the Spruance-class destroyer USS Arthur W. Radford. Arthur William Radford was born on 27 February 1896 in Chicago, Illinois, to John Arthur Radford, a Canadian-born electrical engineer, Agnes Eliza Radford; the eldest of four children, he was described as energetic in his youth. When Arthur was six years old the family moved to Riverside, where his father took a job as a managing engineer with Commonwealth Edison Company.
John Radford managed the first steam turbine engines in the United States, at the Fisk Street Generating Station. Arthur began his school years at Riverside Public School, where he expressed an interest in the United States Navy from a young age, he gained an interest in aviation during a visit to the 1904 World's Fair in Missouri. By fourth grade, he drew detailed cross-section diagrams of the USS Maine, he was shy, but performed well in school. In mid-1910, Radford moved with his family to Grinnell and attended Grinnell High School for a year and a half, before deciding to apply to the United States Naval Academy, he obtained the local congressman's recommendation for an appointment to the academy, was accepted. After several months of tutoring at Annapolis, Maryland, he entered the academy in July 1912, at the age of sixteen. Although Radford's first year at the academy was mediocre he applied himself to his studies in his remaining years there, he participated in summer cruises to Europe in 1913 and 1914 and passed through the Panama Canal to San Francisco in 1916.
Radford, known as "Raddie" to his fellow students, graduated 59th of 177 in the class of 1916, was commissioned as an ensign in the U. S. Navy during the First World War. Radford's first duty was aboard the battleship USS South Carolina, as it escorted a transatlantic convoy to France in 1918. In his second post he was an aide-de-camp to a battleship division commander, in his third, a flag lieutenant for another battleship division commander. In 1920, Radford reported to Pensacola, for flight training, was promoted to lieutenant soon thereafter. During the 1920s and 1930s his sea duty alternated among several aircraft squadrons, fleet staffs, tours in the U. S. with the Bureau of Aeronautics. It was during this time, while he served under Rear Admiral William Moffett, that he interacted with politicians and picked up the political acumen that would become useful in his career. While he did not attend the Naval War College, as other rising officers did, Radford established himself as an effective officer who would speak his mind frankly to superiors.
Radford achieved the rank of lieutenant commander by 1927, served with aircraft units aboard USS Colorado, USS Pennsylvania, USS Wright. In 1936, he took charge of fighter squadron VF-1B aboard USS Saratoga. By 1939, he was given command of Naval Air Station Seattle in Washington. On 22 April 1939, he married Miriam J. Spencer at Washington. Spencer was a daughter of George Ham of Portland and the former wife of Albert Cressey Maze, with whom she had a son, Robert Claude Maze Sr. Major, USMC, killed in action in 1945 and Earl Winfield Spencer Jr. In May 1940, Radford was appointed executive officer of the USS Yorktown, a post he served in for one year. In July 1941, Radford was appointed commander of the Naval Air Station in Trinidad, British West Indies, he protested this appointment because he feared he would remain there for years, sidelined as World War II loomed. In the event he only remained in this station for three months, following an organizational shift in the Bureau of Aeronautics.
By mid-1941, thanks to a large expansion in the naval aviator program, squadrons could no longer train newly arrived aviators. Further, at that time, the vast difference in the performance of combat aircraft over training aircraft meant that pilots needed more time in combat aircraft before becoming proficient in them. Radford was subsequently visited by Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Air; the latter was so impressed that he ordered Rear Admiral John H. Towers, chief of
James Sargent Russell
James Sargent Russell was an admiral in the United States Navy. Russell was born in Tacoma, the son of noted architect Ambrose J. Russell and Loella Janet Russell, he attended DeKoven Hall School and graduated from Stadium High School in 1918. He joined the Merchant Marine as an ordinary seaman, before entering the United States Naval Academy in 1922, he graduated, was commissioned as ensign, on 3 June 1926. Russel served aboard the battleship West Virginia, he entered the flight training program at Naval Air Station Pensacola, was designated a Naval Aviator in 1929. In the next decade he was assigned to tours of aviation duty both aboard ship and ashore, obtained a Master of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the California Institute of Technology. In July 1941 Russell joined Patrol Squadron 42, a PBY squadron based in the Aleutians, on August 16 of that same year, assumed command; when the United States entered World War II he led VP-42 into action against Japanese forces in the Aleutian Islands Campaign, receiving the Distinguished Flying Cross and the Air Medal for his actions in leading his squadron against the enemy in "extremely hazardous weather conditions".
That same year he was awarded the Legion of Merit for his "exceptionally meritorious" services in establishing advanced bases in the area and operating his squadron from them. His squadron was itself awarded a Navy Unit Commendation. While in command of VP-42, Russell played a key role in the capture of the Akutan Zero. Russell returned to Washington for duty in the office of the Chief of Naval Operations and the Bureau of Aeronautics, he returned to the Pacific as chief of staff to the commander of Carrier Division 2, part of the Fast Carrier Task Force. For his planning and coordination of the Striking Group in action against the Japanese he was awarded a Gold Star in lieu of a second Legion of Merit. After the war, he commanded the escort carrier Bairoko, he reported to the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission for duty as commander of the commission's task group during the "Operation Sandstone" atomic bomb tests of 1948. For his contribution to the successful completion of these tests, he was awarded a second Gold Star in lieu of a third Legion of Merit.
From 1951 until March 1952 Russell commanded the aircraft carrier Coral Sea as a unit of the Sixth Fleet in the Mediterranean. Following this duty he again served in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, as head of the Military Requirements and New Development Branch, Air Warfare Division, until July 1953, when he assumed duty as director of the Air Warfare Division, he was promoted to the rank of rear admiral in 1953. On 16 May 1954 he became commander of Carrier Division 17, in October of that year transferred to command of Carrier Division 5. On 4 March 1955, he assumed the duties of chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics. In that position he was awarded the 1956 Collier Trophy, along with Mr. C. J. McCarthy of Chance Vought Aircraft, for their work in the development of the Vought F-8 Crusader supersonic fighter - the outstanding contribution to aviation in that year. From June 1957 Russell served as deputy commander in chief of the Atlantic Fleet with the rank of vice admiral before being appointed Vice Chief of Naval Operations on 21 July 1958 with the four-star rank of admiral.
He served in that post until 1962, as Commander-in-Chief of NATO's Allied Forces Southern Europe before retiring in 1965. Apart from his US military medals Russell was awarded French Legion of Honor. Mention of his death in the US Congressional Record "James Sargent Russell". Find a Grave. Retrieved April 14, 2014