Vice President of the United States

The vice president of the United States is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U. S. federal government, after the president of the United States, ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The vice president is an officer in the legislative branch, as president of the Senate. In this capacity, the vice president is empowered to preside over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote; the vice president presides over joint sessions of Congress. The vice president is indirectly elected together with the president to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Prior to 1967, in the event a vice president succeeded to the presidency, died, or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.

The vice president is a statutory member of the National Security Council, the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President organises the vice president's official functions; the role of the vice presidency has changed since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, is now seen as an integral part of a president's administration; as the vice president's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted. The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; the modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.

Mike Pence is the current vice president of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017. No mention of an office of vice president was made at the 1787 Constitutional Convention until near the end, when an 11-member committee on "Leftover Business" proposed a method of electing the chief executive. Delegates had considered the selection of the Senate's presiding officer, deciding that "The Senate shall choose its own President," and had agreed that this official would be designated the executive's immediate successor, they had considered the mode of election of the executive but had not reached consensus. This all changed on September 4, when the committee recommended that the nation's chief executive be elected by an Electoral College, with each state having a number of presidential electors equal to the sum of that state's allocation of representatives and senators; the proposed presidential election process called for each state to choose members of the electoral college, who would use their discretion to select the candidates they individually viewed as best qualified.

Recognizing that loyalty to one's individual state outweighed loyalty to the new federation, the Constitution's framers assumed individual electors would be inclined to choose a candidate from their own state over one from another state. So they created the office of vice president and required the electors to vote for two candidates, at least one of whom must be from outside the elector's state, believing that the second vote would be cast for a candidate of national character. Additionally, to guard against the possibility that electors might strategically waste their second votes, it was specified that the first runner-up would become vice president; the resultant method of electing the president and vice president, spelled out in Article II, Section 1, Clause 3, allocated to each state a number of electors equal to the combined total of its Senate and House of Representatives membership. Each elector was allowed to vote for two people for president, but could not differentiate between their first and second choice for the presidency.

The person receiving the greatest number of votes would be president, while the individual who received the next largest number of votes became vice president. If there were a tie for first or for second place, or if no one won a majority of votes, the president and vice president would be selected by means of contingent elections protocols stated in the clause; the emergence of political parties and nationally coordinated election campaigns during the 1790s soon frustrated this original plan. In the election of 1796, Federalist John Adams won the presidency, but his bitter rival, Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson came second and became vice president. Thus, the president and vice president were from opposing parties. Four years in the election of 1800, fellow Democratic-Republican Aaron Burr each received 73 electoral votes. In the contingent election that followed, Jefferson won on the 36th ballot, Burr became vice president. Afterward, the system was overhauled through the Twelfth Amendment in time to be used in the 1804 election.

Although delegates approved es

HM Prison Cookham Wood

HM Prison Cookham Wood is a male juveniles' prison and Young Offenders Institution in the village of Borstal in Kent, England. The prison is operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service; the prison was built in 1978, next to HMP Rochester and was named Cookham Wood Young Offenders Institution. The new prison was for young men, but its use was changed to meet the growing need for secure female accommodation at the time. In 1998 the prison started accepting female juvenile offenders, was refurbished for that purpose; the costs involved with the refurbishment and the new facilities provided at the prison led to the media branding Cookham Wood "Britain's most controversial jail". In a 2003 report the Prison Reform Trust criticised Cookham Wood for being one of the most overcrowded women's prison in the UK; the report highlighted serious drug misuse amongst inmates at the prison. However, a 2005 report by Her Majesty's Chief Inspector of Prisons commended the prison for improving standards. In 2007 the Prison Service announced that Cookham Wood would be converted to accept male young offenders.

This was due to increased demand for places in men's prisons in the UK. Cookham Wood formally started taking male prisoners during 2008. Cookham Wood is a Juvenile Prison and Young Offenders Institution, holding males aged 15 to 18. Accommodation at the prison consists of single occupancy cells. All inmates have access to showers, 45 minutes outside in the open air every day; the prison operates a resettlement programme for inmates coming to the end of their sentences, has links to community groups and employers. Myra Hindley Judy Carne Sandra Gregory Ministry of Justice pages on Cookham Wood HMYOI Cookham Wood - HM Inspectorate of Prisons Reports


Sângeru is a commune in Prahova County, Romania. It is composed of six villages: Mireșu Mare, Mireșu Mic, Piatra Mică, Sângeru and Tisa. Village museum is found in the manor raised during the second half of the 18th century by the boyar Andrei Bozianu and High Steward in the assembly; the well preserved building is representative for the rural residential architecture from the end of the Romanian Middle Ages. The edifice with massive walls was built out of stone masonry alternating with brick. In the first of the four rooms of the edifice there is a presentation of the historical evolution of the village community illustrated by archaeological finds attesting that the area was inhabited from the Bronze Age and during the "classical" Geto-Dacian period and the 1st millennium AD. A series of documents and photographs attempt a reconstruction of the economic and cultural life of the commune from the first mention up to the 20th century; the following two rooms are dedicated to the presentation of the specific ethnography of the area: costumes, etc.

In the last room various religious items: rare church books, ecclesiastical objects and sacerdotal attire, etc. attempt at presenting the spiritual life of the village.