A vice president is an officer in government or business, below a president in rank. It can refer to executive vice presidents, signifying that the vice president is on the executive branch of the government, university or company; the name comes from the Latin vice meaning "in place of". In some countries, the vice president is called the deputy president. In everyday speech, the abbreviation VP can be used. In government, a vice president is a person whose primary responsibility is to act in place of the president on the event of the president's death, resignation or incapacity. Vice presidents are either elected jointly with the president as their running mate, or more appointed independently after the president's election. Most governments with vice presidents have one person in this role at any time, although in some countries there are two or more vice presidents–an extreme case being Iran's 12 vice presidents. If the president is not present, resigns, or is otherwise unable to fulfill their duties, the vice president will serve as president.
In many presidential systems, the vice president does not wield much day-to-day political power, but is still considered an important member of the cabinet. Some vice presidents in the Americas hold the position of President of the Senate; the vice president sometimes assumes some of the ceremonial duties of the president, such as attending functions and events that the actual president may be too busy to attend. In parliamentary or semi-presidential systems, a vice president may coexist with a Prime Minister, as is the case in India and Namibia, but the presence of both offices concurrently is rare. In business, "vice president" refers to hierarchical position that ranges from senior positions directly reporting to C-level executives, to junior non-management positions with four to 10 years of experience. In non-financial businesses, vice presidents report directly to the president or CEO of the company and is a member of the executive management team; some corporations that use this term may have individuals with the title of vice president responsible for specific business divisions.
When there are several vice presidents in a company, these individuals are sometimes differentiated with titles denoting higher positions such as executive vice president and/or senior vice president, with the remaining management team holding the title vice president. The title of assistant vice president or associate vice president is used in large organizations below vice president and there can be a convoluted list of other types of VPs as seen in the next section; as many of these VPs have minimal employees reporting to them, their necessity has been questioned, with for example Inc. magazine arguing to flatten the corporate hierarchy. As universities have adopted a corporate structure there is concern over administrative bloat and over paying VPs. Benjamin Ginsberg, a political scientist and professor, has claimed the proliferation of VPs and other administrators is destroying universities. "Corporate vice president" is an older term that denotes a vice president, named as a corporate officer by the board of directors.
Not all vice presidents in a company in the modern business environment are named as an official corporate officer. Depending on the specific organization, the following may be an example of the hierarchy of the vice presidents: Senior Executive Vice President Executive Vice President Senior Vice President Vice President Additional Vice President Assistant Vice President Joint Vice President Associate Vice President This comparison is not correct, as "director" is a legal term, meaning someone registered with the relevant country's company registrar as having managerial control of the company, having legal responsibility for its operation, whilst a vice president does not. In either case the responsibilities may be overall to the company, a region, business unit or function such as Sales, Marketing, IT etc. In brokerage firms, investment banks and other financial companies, "vice president" is a seniority rank rather than denoting an actual managerial position within the company, it is a junior position does not denote managerial responsibilities and companies have multiple vice presidents as an inexpensive way for a company to recognize employees, or because of delayering when an employee can't be moved higher in the organization but still deserves recognition.
In most cases, the title implies that someone is in a medium-seniority individual contributor role. In other organizations one or multiple vice presidents are elected by the members of the organization; when multiple vice presidents are elected, the positions are numbered to prevent confusion as to who may preside or succeed to the office of president upon vacancy of that office. In some cases vice presidents are given titles due to their specific responsibilities, for example: Vice President of Operations, etc. In some associations the first vice president can be in
Whiplash is the seventh studio album by English alternative rock band James. It contains the UK top ten hit "She's a Star". Two further singles were released from the album—"Tomorrow" and "Waltzing Along"—both of which reached the top 30; the sessions for the album were long and stretched over a period of more than two years with many unreleased songs being recorded—Brian Eno produced many of the early sessions and details some of these songs and the recording process in his book A Year with Swollen Appendices. The album was reissued in remastered form in 2001 with four bonus tracks. Whiplash was chosen as one of the 50 best albums of 1997 by Q magazine. All tracks written except where noted. "Tomorrow" – 3:45 "Lost a Friend" – 3:40 "Waltzing Along" – 3:54 "She's a Star" – 3:39 "Greenpeace" – 4:49 "Go to the Bank" – 4:22 "Play Dead" – 4:45 "Avalanche" – 3:46 "Homeboy" – 2:38 "Watering Hole" – 3:45 "Blue Pastures" – 4:19 Tim Booth – vocals Larry Gott – guitar Mark Hunter – keys Jim Glennie – bass Saul Davies – violin, guitar David Baynton-Power – drums Whiplash at YouTube
49 Cassiopeiae is a binary star system in the northern circumpolar constellation of Cassiopeia. It is visible to the naked eye as a faint, yellow-hued point of light with an apparent visual magnitude of 5.22. The system is located about 412 light years away based on parallax; the pair had an angular separation of 5.40″ along a position angle of 244°, as of 2008, with the brighter component being of magnitude 5.32 and its faint companion having magnitude 12.30. The primary, designated component A, is an aging giant star with a stellar classification of G8III, it is 302 million years old with 3.3 times the mass of the Sun. With the supply of hydrogen at its core exhausted, the star has now expanded to 16 times the Sun's radius, it is a red clump giant on the horizontal branch, which indicates it is generating energy through the fusion of helium at its core. The star is radiating 142 times the luminosity of the Sun from its swollen photosphere at an effective temperature of 4,957 K, its faint secondary companion, component B, is of an unknown spectral type