President of Argentina
The President of Argentina known as the President of the Argentine Republic, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces. Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015; the Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election. The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata; the Head of State continued to be the King. These Viceroys were natives of the country. By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires.
It was known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State, the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person; this power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet a presidential system. In 1816, Congress composed a Constitution; this established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces. A new constitution was drafted in 1826; this constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution.
This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, the office was dissolved shortly after. A civil war between unitarios and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, the closest to, the Chairman of Foreign Relations the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires; the last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country. In 1852, Rosas was deposed, a constitutional convention was summoned; this constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed with no possibility of reelection; the first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires.
Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits. In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President, it is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents.
They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, remains more uncertain; the President of the Nation has the following powers: Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country. Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions. Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, has them published; the Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, not try to rules governing criminal matters, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers.
The head of and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose compos
Argentine National Anthem
The "Argentine National Anthem" is the national anthem of Argentina. Its lyrics were written by the Buenos Aires-born politician Vicente López y Planes and the music was composed by the Spanish musician Blas Parera; the work was adopted as the sole official song on May 11, 1813, three years after the May Revolution. Some first, quite different, anthems were composed from 1810; the present, much shorter, anthem comprises only the first and last verses and the chorus of the 1813 Patriotic March, omitting much emotional text about the struggle for independence from Spain. The third Argentine national anthem was named "Marcha Patriótica" renamed "Canción Patriótica Nacional", "Canción Patriótica", it has been called "Himno Nacional Argentino" since it was published with that name in 1847. The first Argentine national anthem was the "Patriotic March", published on 15 November 1810 in the Gazeta de Buenos Ayres, it had lyrics by music by Blas Parera. This original composition made no reference to the name of Argentina or an independentist will, talked instead about Spain being conquered by France in the Peninsular War, the absolutist restoration begun by the Council of Regency, the need to keep the republican freedoms achieved so far in the Americas: "Spain was victim / of the plotting Gaul / because to the tyrants / she bent her neck / If there treachery / has doomed a thousands cities / let sacred freedom and union reign here / Let the father to the sons / be able to say / enjoy rights / that I did not enjoy".
In mid-1812, the ruling triumvirate ordered the Buenos Aires Cabildo to commission a national anthem. Cayetano Rodríguez, a Franciscan friar, wrote a text, approved on 4 August; the Catalan musician Blas Parera, music director of the local theater, set it to music and performed it for the first time with the orchestra he conducted on 1 November. Less than a year the Assembly of Year XIII estimated that the song was not effective enough to serve as a national anthem. On 6 March 1813 several poets were asked to submit lyrics; the poem by the lawyer Vicente López y Planes was unanimously considered the best. It was approved as the "sole national march" on May 11, 1813. Parera was asked to compose a new musical setting around the same date, he must have finished the piece in a few days. Oral tradition has it that the premiere took place on May 14, 1813 at the home of the aristocrat Mariquita Sánchez de Thompson, but there is no documentary evidence of that. If this episode is true Parera, contrary to certain misconceptions and under no visible coercion.
The published song sheet is dated 14 May 1813. He again conducted the official premiere in the theater on May 28, was paid 200 pesos; the composition was known as Canción Patriótica Nacional, simply as Canción Patriótica, but in Juan Pedro Esnaola's early arrangement, dated around 1848, it appeared under the title Himno Nacional Argentino, the name has been retained until today. In the complete version of the Anthem of May it is noted that the political vision portrayed is not only Argentine, but Latin American; the lyrics are ardently pro-independence and anti-Spanish, as the country was at that time fighting for its independence from Spain. The song became popular immediately. Within ten years documented performances took place throughout Argentina, in Chile and Colombia until they had their own national anthems. Different versions emerged. In 1860 Esnaola was commissioned to create an official version, he took the task to heart, making many changes to the music, including a slower tempo, a fuller texture, alterations to the melody, enrichment of the harmony.
In 1927 a committee produced a historicist version that undid several of Esnaola's changes, but introduced new problems in the sung line. After a heated public debate fueled by the newspaper La Prensa, this version was rejected and, following the recommendations of a second committee, Esnaola's arrangement was reinstated. In 1944 it was confirmed as the official state anthem. Throughout the 19th century the anthem was sung in its entirety. However, once harsh feelings against Spain had dissipated, the country had become home to many Spanish immigrants, a modification was introduced by a decree of President Julio Argentino Roca on March 30, 1900: "Without producing alterations in the lyrics of the National Anthem, there are in it verses that describe the concept that nations universally have regarding their anthems in peaceful times, that harmonize with the serenity and dignity of thousands of Spanish that share our living, those that can and must be preferred to be sung in official parties, for they respect the traditions and the law in no offense to anyone, the President of the Republic decrees that: In official or public parties, as well as in public schools, shall be sung only the first and last verses and the chorus of the National Song sanctioned by the General Assembly on May 11, 1813."
The song includes a line that has given rise to controversy: Buenos--Ayres se pone á la frente De los pueblos de la ínclita union. In the manuscript and an early printed song-sheet the word opone is used.
Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires
Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires is a public high school in Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the tradition of the European gymnasium it provides a free education that includes classical languages such as Latin and Greek; the school is one of the most prestigious in Argentina. Its alumni include many personalities, including two Nobel laureates and four Presidents of Argentina, its origins date to 1661, when it was known as Colegio Grande de San Carlos, when the colonial government entrusted the Jesuit Order with the education of the youth. After the Papal suppression of the Jesuits from Spanish Empire-controlled South America in 1767, the institution languished until 1772, when governor Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo reopened the school as the Real Colegio de San Carlos. Vértiz appointed Viceroy of the Río de la Plata, renamed the school Real Convictorio Carolino in 1783, a name that endured until 1806. Thereafter, the school changed its program several times. President Bartolomé Mitre redesignated the institution as the Colegio Nacional in 1863, since 1911 the school has been administered by the University of Buenos Aires.
Only for men, the school has admitted female students since 1957. Nowadays, students from the Colegio Nacional de Buenos Aires rank among the best in most science Olympiads, such as the IPhO, IChO and IBO. Alumni include many of Argentina's founding fathers, members of political parties of all ideologies, internationally recognized scientists and two Nobel laureates. A partial list includes: In the present Macri's Administration: Hernán Lombardi, Martín Losteau During the previous Fernandez de Kirchner Administration, government officials: Axel Kicillof. Alberto Manguel - writer, essayist, journalist Herman Aguinis - business school professor, author Luis Agote - devised the first effective method of blood transfusion Roberto Aizenberg - Surrealist painter Marcelo Torcuato de Alvear - President of Argentina, 1922–1928 Mariano Moreno - Independence figure, member of the first independent government of Argentina. Manuel Belgrano - leader in the Argentine War of Independence, creator of the national flag Miguel Cané - writer and lawmaker Gregorio de Laferrère - playwright and lawmaker Martiniano Molina - chef and elected mayor of Quilmes Partido Juan Bautista Egusquiza - President of Paraguay, 1894–1898 Bernardo Houssay - Nobel laureate in Medicine, 1947 Agustin P. Justo - President of Argentina, 1932–1938 Mario Firmenich - Montoneros guerrilla leader Alejandro Korn - philosopher and lawmaker Ernesto Jaimovich - politician Manuel Mendanha - plastic artist Film directors: Manuel Antin, Fabián Bielinsky, Ana Katz, Nicolas Entel Salvador Mazza - epidemiologist who helped control Chagas disease locally Father Carlos Mugica - activist priest, assassinated in 1974 José Pablo Ventura - student activist, assassinated in 1977 José Luis Murature - Foreign Minister of Argentina, 1914–1916 Carlos Pellegrini - President of Argentina, 1890–1892 Ignacio Pirovano - surgeon, performed first local laparotomy Nicolás Repetto - co-founder of the Socialist Party of Argentina and Cooperative movement leader Carlos Saavedra Lamas - Nobel Peace laureate Roque Sáenz Peña - President of Argentina, 1910–1914 Lalo Schiffrin - composer and pianist, born Boris Claudio Schifrin, Grammy Award winner and Academy Award nominee Bernardo Grinspun - economist, Economy Minister Journalists: Pepe Eliaschev, Martín Caparrós, Rolando Hanglin, Mario Mactas Ana María Shua - writer Ada María Elflein- Poet Alicia Moreau de Justo - political figure, pioneer in women's and human rights.
Roberto Alemann - lawyer and economist, antinazi activist, Several times minister of Economy. Juan Ernesto Alemann - economist, antinazi activist, Minister of Economy Mario Roberto Álvarez, architect, he designed the municipal Teatro General San Martín. Cartoonists: Caloi, Nik Julio Montaner - AIDS research pioneer The school offers an astronomy observatory, a swimming pool, a cinema, a sports campus with football, handball, volleyball and basketball courts. Free classes are available such as astronomy, languages, tango, history of cinema, piano, band production and martial arts; the sailing team has won many of the local competitions. It has a choir, which sings in the most important school events. In accordance with the meritocratic conception of the school, admission is competitive, it involves ten exams after a year-long course, testing in language, mathematics and history. Every year 1,200 candidates apply but only around 400 gain admission. There are about 2,000 students enrolled, who pay no fees since the school is public and therefore free.
Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini Instituto Libre de Segunda Enseñanza
Juan Galo Lavalle was an Argentine military and political figure. Lavalle was born in Buenos Aires to María Mercedes González Bordallo and Manuel José Lavalle, general accountant of rents and tobacco for the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. In 1799, the family moved to Santiago de Chile, but returned to Buenos Aires in 1807. In 1812 Lavalle joined the Regiment of mounted grenadiers as a cadet. By 1813 he reached the grade of lieutenant and moved to the army, which under orders of Carlos María de Alvear besieged Montevideo. Lavalle fought against José Gervasio Artigas in 1815 and in the Battle of Guayabos under the command of Manuel Dorrego. In 1816 Lavalle moved to Mendoza to join the Army of the Andes of the "liberator" José de San Martín and fought in Chacabuco and the Maipú in Chile, he continued along with San Martín on his way to Peru and Ecuador and took part in the battles of Pichincha and the Riobamba, after which he became known as the Hero of Riobamba. Because of disagreements with Simón Bolívar, Lavalle returned to Buenos Aires by the end of 1823.
He would govern Mendoza Province for a short time. He fought in the war against Brazil in command of 1,200 cavalry, with great episodes of valour in the battles of Bacacay and Ituzaingó in February 1827, beating the forces of General Abreu and being himself proclaimed General on the field of battle itself. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, Lavalle was a freemason. By the time he returned to Buenos Aires, the President of the United Provinces, Unitarian Bernardino Rivadavia, had resigned, Manuel Dorrego was elected the federal governor of Buenos Aires Province. Lavalle, a Unitarian himself, led a coup to take the government and executed governor Dorrego without a trial, his government started a reign of terror, aiming to destroy the Federal Party, but the resistance in the countryside didn't recede. In 1829, the demographic growth was negative. During that time, José de San Martín had returned from Europe. While he was in Montevideo, Lavalle offered him the government of Argentina as he was the only man capable of putting an end to the chaotic situation, because of his authority over leaders on both sides.
But when he learned about the spiraling factionalist violence, San Martín realised that he would have to choose sides as the only actual way to govern, so he refused and returned instead to self-exile in Europe. The other provinces did not recognize Lavalle as the legitimate governor, supported the rosista resistance instead. Lavalle would be defeated a short time at the Battle of Márquez Bridge by the forces of Juan Manuel de Rosas and Santa Fe governor Estanislao López. López returned to his province, menaced by Unitarian José María Paz. Meanwhile, Rosas forced him to resign with the Cañuelas pact. Juan José Viamonte was designated as interim governor, the legislature, removed during Lavalle's coup d'état was restored; this legislature would elect Rosas as the governor. Lavalle retired to the Banda Oriental. During the French blockade to the Río de la Plata, Fructuoso Rivera was reluctant to take military actions against Rosas, aware of his strength. Unitarians, who thought that the whole Argentine Confederation would rise against Rosas at the first chance, urged Lavalle to lead the attack, who requested not to share command with Rivera.
As a result, they led both their own armies. His imminent attack was backed up by conspiracies in Buenos Aires, which were discovered and aborted by the Mazorca. Manuel Vicente Maza and his son were among the perpetrators, were executed as a result. Pedro Castelli organized an ill-fated uprising against Rosas, was executed as well. Rosas did not wait to be attacked and ordered Pascual Echagüe to cross the Paraná river and take the fight to Uruguay; the Uruguayan armies split: Rivera returned to defend Montevideo, Lavalle moved to Entre Ríos Province. He expected that the local populations would join him against Rosas and increase his forces, but he found severe resistance, so he moved instead to Corrientes Province. Governor Pedro Ferré defeated López, Rivera defeated Pascual Echagüe, clearing for Lavalle the way to Buenos Aires. However, by that point France had given up its trust on the effectiveness of the blockade, as what was thought it would be an easy and short conflict was turning into a long war, without clear security of a final victory.
France cut its financial support to Lavalle. He didn't find help at local towns either, there was widespread desertion among his ranks. Buenos Aires was ready to resist his military attack, but the lack of support forced him to give up and retire from the battlefield, without starting any battle. Persecuted, his troops suffered constant attacks and Lavalle was forced to move further north, being defeated by Manuel Oribe in La Rioja and Tucumán. Escaping with a small group of 200 men, he was accidentally shot by a Montonera detachment which spread-shot a reputed Unitarian's house, not realizing that Juan Lavalle, the chief of the Unitarians, was staying there; this occurred in 1841 in San Salvador de Jujuy. Afraid that his body would be desecrated by the Federales, his followers fled to Bolivia carrying Lavalle's decomposing remains with them. Hurrying over the Humahuaca pass, they decided to strip the skeleton by boiling it and, after burying the flesh in an unmarked grave, carry the bones, which are today buried at the La Recoleta Cemetery in Buenos Aires.
A statue of the general standing on top of a long, slender column, commemorates the figure of Lavalle at Plaza Lavalle in Buenos Aires. The classic source on Lavalle is "History of Arg
Juan Larrea (politician)
Juan Larrea was a Spanish businessman and politician in Buenos Aires during the early nineteenth century. He headed a military unit during the second British invasion of the Río de la Plata, worked at the Buenos Aires Cabildo, he took part in the ill-fated Mutiny of Álzaga. Larrea and Domingo Matheu were the only two Spanish-born members of the Primera Junta, the first national government of Argentina, he supported the secretary Mariano Moreno within the Junta, was moved to the distant city of San Juan when the Morenists were removed from government. He returned as a deputy for Córdoba in the Assembly of Year XIII constituent assembly, promoting many resolutions. Together with Carlos María de Alvear, he organized the strategy for the downfall of the royalist stronghold in Montevideo, a threat to Buenos Aires during the Argentine War of Independence. Despite the victory, he faced political conflicts with admiral William Brown and an economic crisis, was exiled from the country, he moved to Bordeaux, but returned to Buenos Aires when his exile was lifted by the Oblivion law.
He served as consul for a time, but his business declined and he committed suicide on June 20, 1847. He was the last surviving member of the Primera Junta. Juan Larrea was born on June 1782, in the city of Mataró, Catalonia, his father was Martín Ramón de Larrea, in charge of customs operations in Mataró, his mother was Tomasa Espeso. He studied mathematics and navigation, focused his education towards a career in commerce, his father died in 1793, so Larrea became the patriarch of the family. They moved to Buenos Aires, where he established a warehouse for wines and sugar, he traded with Peru, Upper Peru, Paraguay and colonial Brazil. By 1806 he was a well respected businessman, a syndic of the Royal Consulate, he promoted the role of deputies from Buenos Aires at the Madrid court, to better the representation of the Brazilian viceroyalty and reduce the privileges of peninsular merchants. Buenos Aires and other nearby cities faced the British invasions of the Río de la Plata in 1806 and 1807. In the absence of reinforcements from Spain, viceroy Santiago de Liniers arranged that everyone in Buenos Aires capable of bearing arms should join the resistance against the second invasion.
Larrea established the Legion of Catalan Volunteers with Jaime Nadal y Guarda, Jaime Lavallol and José Olaguer Reynals. Larrea was appointed captain of this military unit; the defense was successful, the British were driven away from the viceroyalty. Larrea's business prospered, in 1808 the Buenos Aires Cabildo appointed him to oversee a naval patrol to suppress shipments of contraband; this gave him an opportunity to put his nautical skills to use. He participated in the secret meetings of patriots who promoted political change, joined the 1809 Mutiny of Álzaga, which attempted to depose viceroy Liniers and replace him with a Junta; the mutiny failed, but the patriots continued to plot, in 1810 the May Revolution succeeded in deposing the new viceroy. Larrea did not take part in the discussions at the open cabildo, but was appointed as member of the Primera Junta. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason. Larrea's prestige as an influential businessman promoted his appointment as member of the Primera Junta.
However, as with the other members, the precise reasons for his inclusion are unclear. The Junta's membership has been considered a balance between Alzaguists. Larrea resigned his wages from his position as Junta member, organized the resources for the upcoming war of independence. Together with Manuel de Sarratea he drafted a new code regulating business in Argentina, he secured the exile of former viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros by bribing the captain of the ship carrying him, the Dart, to avoid any landfall until reaching the Canary Islands on the far side of the Atlantic, he supported the execution of Liniers after the defeat of his counter-revolution, supported the secretary Mariano Moreno against the president Cornelio Saavedra. Larrea voted for the incorporation of deputies from other cities into the Junta, although he had indicated his opposition to the proposal, it was intended by Saavedra. The proposal prevailed, the Primera Junta became the Junta Grande by incorporating the new deputies.
The resignation and death of Mariano Moreno did not reduce the conflicts between Morenists and Saavedrists. A rebellion on behalf of Saavedrism ensued, on 5 and 6 April 1811, aiming at the resignation of all remaining Morenists, including Larrea. Larrea was accused of joining factions and risking public security, was deposed. Taken prisoner, he was moved to the nearby city of Luján, to the distant San Juan. Larrea resumed business activities in San Juan, avoiding politics until 1812; the Revolution of October 8, 1812 returned the Morenists to power, so Larrea could return to Buenos Aires. He returned as a deputy for Córdoba to the Assembly of Year XIII constituent assembly. In the assembly, Larrea promoted a customs law which taxed most imports, but made exceptions for machines, scientific tools, books and military supplies, he organized a local mint, the supply of the Army of the North. The presidency of the assembly rotated, Larrea presided from April 30 to June 1, 1813. During this time the Assembly outlawed torture and repealed all noble titles, chose the official Argentine National Anthem.
Larrea served in the Second Triumvirate, replacing José Julián Pérez as finance minister, until the Assembly replaced the Triumvirate with the Supreme Director, an office placing the powers of head of state in the hands of one pers
Governor of Buenos Aires Province
The Governor of Buenos Aires province is a citizen of the Buenos Aires Province of Argentina, holding the office of governor for the corresponding period. The governor is elected alongside a vice-governor; the governor of Buenos Aires Province is Maria Eugenia Vidal since December 10, 2015. For being able to be elected as governor, the citizen must have been born in Argentina, or be the child of an Argentine citizen if born at a foreign country; the citizen must be of at least 30 years old, have at least 5 uninterrupted years of residence in the province if not natural from it. The period lasts 4 years, with the chance of a single reelection. Buenos Aires Province
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i