FC Bayern Munich
Fußball-Club Bayern München e. V. known as FC Bayern München, FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, is the most successful club in German football history, having won a record 28 national titles and 18 national cups. FC Bayern was founded in 1900 by 11 football players, led by Franz John. Although Bayern won its first national championship in 1932, the club was not selected for the Bundesliga at its inception in 1963; the club had its period of greatest success in the middle of the 1970s when, under the captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer, it won the European Cup three times in a row. Overall, Bayern has reached ten European Cup/UEFA Champions League finals, most winning their fifth title in 2013 as part of a continental treble. Bayern has won one UEFA Cup, one European Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one FIFA Club World Cup and two Intercontinental Cups, making it one of the most successful European clubs internationally and the only German club to have won both international titles.
Since the formation of the Bundesliga, Bayern has been the dominant club in German football, winning 27 titles, including six consecutively since 2013. They have traditional local rivalries with 1860 Munich and 1. FC Nürnberg, as well as with Borussia Dortmund since the mid-1990s. Since the beginning of the 2005–06 season, Bayern has played its home games at the Allianz Arena; the team had played at Munich's Olympiastadion for 33 years. The team colours are red and white, the team crest shows the white and blue flag of Bavaria. In terms of revenue, Bayern Munich is the biggest sports club in Germany and the fourth highest-earning football club in the world, generating €587.8 million in 2017. For the 2017–18 season, Bayern reported a revenue of €657.4 million and an operating profit of €136.5 million. This was Bayern's 26th year in a row with a profit. In November 2018, Bayern had 291,000 official members and there are 4,433 registered fan clubs with over 390,000 members; the club has other departments for chess, basketball, bowling, table tennis and senior football with more than 1,100 active members.
As of January 2019, FC Bayern is ranked joint second in the current UEFA club coefficient rankings. FC Bayern Munich was founded by members of a Munich gymnastics club; when a congregation of members of MTV 1879 decided on 27 February 1900 that the footballers of the club would not be allowed to join the German Football Association, 11 members of the football division left the congregation and on the same evening founded Fußball-Club Bayern München. Within a few months, Bayern achieved high-scoring victories against all local rivals, including a 15–0 win against FC Nordstern, reached the semi-finals of the 1900–01 South German championship. In the following years, the club won some local trophies and in 1910–11 Bayern joined the newly founded "Kreisliga", the first regional Bavarian league; the club won this league in its first year, but did not win it again until the beginning of World War I in 1914, which halted all football activities in Germany. By the end of its first decade of founding, FC Bayern had attracted its first German national team player, Max Gaberl Gablonsky.
By 1920, it had over 700 members, making it the largest football club in Munich. In the years after the war, Bayern won several regional competitions before winning its first South German championship in 1926, an achievement repeated two years later, its first national title was gained in 1932, when coach Richard "Little Dombi" Kohn led the team to the German championship by defeating Eintracht Frankfurt 2–0 in the final. The advent of Nazism put an abrupt end to Bayern's development. Club president Kurt Landauer and the coach, both of whom were Jewish, left the country. Many others in the club were purged. Bayern was taunted as the "Jew's club", while local rival 1860 Munich gained much support. Josef Sauter, inaugurated 1943, was the only NSDAP member as president; as some Bayern players greeted Landauer, watching a friendly in Switzerland lead to continued discrimination. Bayern was affected by the ruling that football players had to be full amateurs again. In the following years, Bayern could not sustain its role of contender for the national title, achieving mid-table results in its regional league instead.
After the war, Bayern became a member of the Oberliga Süd, the southern conference of the German first division, split five ways at that time. Bayern struggled and firing 13 coaches between 1945 and 1963. Landauer returned from exile in 1947 and was once again appointed club president, the tenure lasted until 1951, he remains as the club's president with the longest accumulated tenure. Landauer has been deemed as inventor of Bayern as a professional club and his memory is being upheld by the Bayern ultras Schickeria. In 1955, the club was relegated but returned to the Oberliga in the following season and won the DFB-Pokal for the first time, beating Fortuna Düsseldorf 1–0 in the final; the club struggled financially though, verging on bankruptcy at the end of the 1950s. Manufacturer Roland Endler provided the necessary funds and was rewarded with four years at the helm of the club. In 1963, the Oberligas in Germany were consolidated into one national league, the Bundesliga. Five teams from the Oberliga South were admitted.
Bayern finished third in that year's southern division, but another Munich team, 1860 Munich, had won the championship. As the DFB preferred not to include two teams from one city, Bayern was not chosen for the Bundesliga, they ga
The euro is the official currency of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union. This group of states is known as the eurozone or euro area, counts about 343 million citizens as of 2019; the euro is the second largest and second most traded currency in the foreign exchange market after the United States dollar. The euro is subdivided into 100 cents; the currency is used by the institutions of the European Union, by four European microstates that are not EU members, as well as unilaterally by Montenegro and Kosovo. Outside Europe, a number of special territories of EU members use the euro as their currency. Additionally, 240 million people worldwide as of 2018 use currencies pegged to the euro; the euro is the second largest reserve currency as well as the second most traded currency in the world after the United States dollar. As of August 2018, with more than €1.2 trillion in circulation, the euro has one of the highest combined values of banknotes and coins in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.
S. dollar. The name euro was adopted on 16 December 1995 in Madrid; the euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency on 1 January 1999, replacing the former European Currency Unit at a ratio of 1:1. Physical euro coins and banknotes entered into circulation on 1 January 2002, making it the day-to-day operating currency of its original members, by March 2002 it had replaced the former currencies. While the euro dropped subsequently to US$0.83 within two years, it has traded above the U. S. dollar since the end of 2002, peaking at US$1.60 on 18 July 2008. In late 2009, the euro became immersed in the European sovereign-debt crisis, which led to the creation of the European Financial Stability Facility as well as other reforms aimed at stabilising and strengthening the currency; the euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank and the Eurosystem. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy; the Eurosystem participates in the printing and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, the operation of the eurozone payment systems.
The 1992 Maastricht Treaty obliges most EU member states to adopt the euro upon meeting certain monetary and budgetary convergence criteria, although not all states have done so. The United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions, while Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, has circumvented the obligation to adopt the euro by not meeting the monetary and budgetary requirements. All nations that have joined the EU since 1993 have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Since 1 January 2002, the national central banks and the ECB have issued euro banknotes on a joint basis. Euro banknotes do not show. Eurosystem NCBs are required to accept euro banknotes put into circulation by other Eurosystem members and these banknotes are not repatriated; the ECB issues 8% of the total value of banknotes issued by the Eurosystem. In practice, the ECB's banknotes are put into circulation by the NCBs, thereby incurring matching liabilities vis-à-vis the ECB; these liabilities carry interest at the main refinancing rate of the ECB.
The other 92% of euro banknotes are issued by the NCBs in proportion to their respective shares of the ECB capital key, calculated using national share of European Union population and national share of EU GDP weighted. The euro is divided into 100 cents. In Community legislative acts the plural forms of euro and cent are spelled without the s, notwithstanding normal English usage. Otherwise, normal English plurals are sometimes used, with many local variations such as centime in France. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, a map in the background. Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used and Arabic numerals. For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states which were members when the euro was introduced. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 the old map is being replaced by a map of Europe showing countries outside the Union like Norway, Belarus, Russia or Turkey.
The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the 15 member states of 2002 raised somewhat above the rest of the map. All common sides were designed by Luc Luycx; the coins have a national side showing an image chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be used in any nation that has adopted the euro; the coins are issued in denominations of €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c, 1c. To avoid the use of the two smallest coins, some cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents in the Netherlands and Ireland and in Finland; this practice is discouraged by the Commission, as is the practice of certain shops of refusing to accept high-value euro notes. Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin; these include both issued coins, such as the €2 commemorative coin for the fiftieth anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Rome, nationally i
2000–01 UEFA Champions League
The 2000–01 UEFA Champions League was the 46th season of the UEFA Champions League, UEFA's premier European club football tournament, the ninth since it was rebranded from the "European Champion Clubs' Cup" or "European Cup". The competition was won by Bayern Munich, who beat Valencia 5–4 on penalties after a 1–1 draw after extra time, it was their first UEFA Champions League title, their fourth European Cup title overall, it was Valencia's second consecutive final defeat, losing to Real Madrid in the previous season. The knockout phase saw Bayern eliminate the preceding two Champions League winners, Manchester United and Real Madrid, winning all four games in the process. Valencia, defeated English sides Arsenal and Leeds United in the knockout phase en route to the final; the 2001 final saw the two previous seasons' losing finalists clash, Bayern Munich lost to Manchester United in the 1999 final and Valencia lost to Real Madrid in the 2000 final. Real Madrid were the defending champions, but were eliminated by eventual winners Bayern Munich in the semi-finals.
16 winners from the third qualifying round, 10 champions from countries ranked 1–10, six second-placed teams from countries ranked 1–6 were drawn into eight groups of four teams each. The top two teams in each group advanced to the second group stage, the third placed team in each group advanced to round 3 of the 2000–01 UEFA Cup. Deportivo La Coruña, Heerenveen, Leeds United and Shakhtar Donetsk made their debut in the group stage. Eight winners and eight runners-up from the first group stage were drawn into four groups of four teams each, each containing two group winners and two runners-up. Teams from the same country or from the same first-round group could not be drawn together; the top two teams in each group advanced to the quarter-finals. The top scorers from the 2000–01 UEFA Champions League are as follows: Source: 2000–01 UEFA Cup 2001 UEFA Super Cup 2000 UEFA Intertoto Cup 2000–2001 All matches – season at UEFA website 2000–01 season at UEFA website European Cup results at Rec. Sport.
Soccer Statistics Foundation All scorers 2000–01 UEFA Champions League according to protocols UEFA + all scorers qualifying round 2000/01 UEFA Champions League - results and line-ups
Juan Manuel Mata García is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Premier League club Manchester United and the Spain national team. He plays as a central attacking midfielder, but he can play on the wing. A graduate of Real Madrid's youth academy, Mata played for Real Madrid Castilla in 2006–07, before joining Valencia in the summer of 2007, he became an integral part of the club's midfield, making 174 appearances over the course of four seasons. In August 2011, Mata signed for English club Chelsea of the Premier League for a fee believed to be in the region of €28 million, in his debut season was part of the team that won the UEFA Champions League and the FA Cup; the following year, Chelsea won the UEFA Europa League, making Mata and teammate Fernando Torres the first players to hold the Champions League, Europa League, World Cup, the European Championships simultaneously. After falling out of favour at Chelsea under José Mourinho, Mata was sold to Manchester United in January 2014, for a fee of £37.1 million.
Mata is a Spanish international, having represented Spain at under-16, under-17, under-19, under-20, under-21, Olympic and senior levels. He played for the under-20 side in the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup. In June 2009, Mata played at his first senior tournament. On 9 September 2009, Mata scored his first goal for the senior team, against Estonia, securing the nation a place at the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, was part of Spain's World Cup-winning squad. In 2011, he went back to playing in the under-21 side, helping Spain win the 2011 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship in Denmark, he was part of the Team of the Tournament. Mata returned to the senior squad for UEFA Euro 2012 and, after coming on as a substitute, scored Spain's fourth goal in the final as Spain defeated Italy 4–0 to retain their title as champions of Europe. Mata was born in the town of Burgos, he inherited his name from his father, Juan Manuel Mata Rodríguez, a footballer, playing as a forward for nearby Burgos CF in the 1980s and early 1990s.
Mata was raised in his father's home town of Asturias. His father acted as Mata's agent, becoming FIFA-registered in the process. In his spare time, Mata enjoys a sport he played as a child. Upon his move to Chelsea, he said he enjoys sightseeing around London, he gained a nickname at Chelsea – "Johnny Kills" – the literal translation of his name from Spanish into English. Mata started his football career at Real Oviedo, he stayed there for three years before joining Real Madrid's youth academy, La Fábrica, at age 15. After appearing for their Cadete A team, he swiftly progressed through the junior teams, Juvenil C and Juvenil A. In his last campaign, he scored two goals in the league and three more in the Copa de Campeones, including the winner in the final against Real Valladolid, adding another three in the Spanish Juvenil Cup. Switching to Real Madrid Castilla in 2006–07, Mata was given the number 34 shirt in the first team, while wearing number 28 in Castilla. In spite of Castilla's final Segunda División relegation, he finished the season as the side's second best scorer at ten, behind striker Álvaro Negredo, who registered 18.
Mata had a release clause at Real Madrid during his last season at the club, agreed to sign for fellow La Liga side Valencia CF in March 2007, with the contract starting on 30 June 2007. Benefitting from constant injuries to Vicente and the ostracism to which then-manager Ronald Koeman condemned Miguel Ángel Angulo, Mata carved a niche in Valencia's first eleven. On 20 March 2008, he scored twice in the Copa del Rey semi-final match against FC Barcelona to help Valencia reach the final against Getafe CF where, on 16 April, he netted the opener in a 3–1 win. During that first season, he was voted the team's Best Young Player by players alike. In the 2008 Spanish SuperCup, Mata scored against his former club Real Madrid in a 3–2 first leg win, but Valencia lost 5–6 on aggregate after a 2–4 away loss in the second game, he started 2008–09 well, scoring in the opener against RCD Mallorca in a 3–0 win. He netted the only goal of the game against CA Osasuna, latching on to a long ball from David Villa.
On 25 September 2008, Mata proved to be growing in efficiency, as he set up two of his teammate's goals in a 2–0 away win over Málaga CF. Three days he put in a superb performance against Deportivo de La Coruña, scoring one and creating the other three, in a 4–2 home victory. Towards the end of the campaign, Mata managed to score two important late goals for Valencia: the first, the 3–2 winner at Sporting de Gijón, the second a penalty against Sevilla FC at home, to put Valencia 2–1 up in an eventual 3–1 success, he achieved impressive stats during the season, finishing with 11 successful strikes and 13 assists, behind just Barcelona's Xavi as the league's best. In the following two seasons, Mata was an everpresent offensive figure for Valencia, scoring 17 goals in 68 games combined, with the club achieving back-to-back third-league places. On 10 April 2011, he netted two in a 5–0 home win against Valencian neighbours Villarreal CF. On 9 May, England-based Spanish journalist Guillem Balagué reported interest from several Premier League clubs.
On 21 August 2011, Valencia announced they had agreed a £23.5 million fee for the transfer of Mata to Premier League club Chelsea, subject to a medical. On 24 August 2011, Mata signed a five-year deal with Chelsea, he revealed that compatriot Fernando Torres helped persuade him to move to Stamford Bridge, s
2004 UEFA Cup Final
The 2004 UEFA Cup Final was a football match that took place on 19 May 2004 at Ullevi in Gothenburg, between Valencia of Spain and Marseille of France. Valencia won the match 2 -- 0 with goals from Mista; the game was to be the last in which Rafael Benítez was in charge of Valencia before he took over at Liverpool in England. Valencia had been on a 14-match unbeaten run previous to this match, which had only ended the previous week to Villarreal, the side they beat in the semi-final to reach the final, due to a weakened lineup after securing the La Liga title. Marseille had lost four of their last five matches in Ligue 1; the start of the match was conservative due to the wind. Didier Drogba threatened early on, was sent tumbling by a robust challenge from Roberto Ayala, which led to a free kick, in which the resulting shot was cleared off the line by Carlos Marchena; this sparked Valencia into life and David Albelda produced a save from Fabien Barthez after pouncing on Mista's rebounded shot.
Valencia dominated possession, which led to frustration, Steve Marlet getting booked in the tenth minute. Marseille's first meaningful attempt at goal came in the 16th minute when Steve Marlet headed over from Camel Meriem's cross. Minutes Meriem himself had a chance to give Marseille the lead, but he shot wide from the edge of the area. Marseille had another chance when Habib Beye got on the end of Drogba's free kick, but he headed wide; the definitive moment in the match came on the stroke of half time, when Barthez brought down Mista in the area after a cross by Curro Torres. Barthez was sent off and Valencia were awarded a penalty. Jérémy Gavanon replaced Barthez with Camel Meriem making way for him. Vicente dispatched the penalty to give Valencia a 1–0 lead going into half time; the second half started off with Valencia in total ascendancy, after 13 minutes of near-total possession, Valencia doubled their lead. Vicente had cut the ball in from the left for Mista, who finished the chance with ease to record his fifth goal of the competition.
Marseille's heads dropped. They came forward in flourishes in the last remnants of the game, when Drogba's free kick was stopped by Santiago Cañizares. Drogba nearly played in Steve Marlet with a through-ball, but it was intercepted at the last second. Marseille found a way back into the Valencia goal area in the 80th minute, but Sylvain N'Diaye's shot was saved by Cañizares. After this, the match descended into a stoic affair and Valencia ran out winners to win their first major European trophy in 24 years, victory after two successive UEFA Champions League final defeats, in 2000 and 2001; the victory meant that Amedeo Carboni became the oldest player to win a European final at 39 years and 43 days old. 2003–04 UEFA Cup 2004 UEFA Super Cup Olympique de Marseille in European football Valencia CF in European football 2003–04 season at UEFA.com
Claudio Ranieri Grande Ufficiale OMRI is an Italian football coach and former player, the current head coach of Serie A club Roma. Ranieri began his managerial career in the lower leagues in Italy during the late 1980s, made his name at Cagliari, whom he took from Serie C1 up to Serie A in successive seasons, he went on to manage Napoli, where he led the team to qualify for the UEFA Cup, only to be dismissed the following season. In 1993, he joined Fiorentina, led them to Serie A promotion winning the Coppa Italia and the Supercoppa Italiana in 1996, before moving to Spain in 1997, to manage Valencia and Atlético Madrid. With Valencia, he won a Copa del Rey and an UEFA Intertoto Cup, helped the club to qualify for the UEFA Champions League. In 2000, Ranieri moved to England to become head coach at Chelsea, his four seasons there saw Chelsea improve their points total season on season, with them finishing runners-up in 2004 and reaching the UEFA Champions League semi-final the same season. He was dismissed by Chelsea owner Roman Abramovich that May, but a number of players he signed and brought through during his time at Stamford Bridge formed the core of the side that went on to achieve domestic and international success in subsequent seasons.
After an unsuccessful second spell back in Spain with Valencia, he returned to management in Italy in 2007, where he encountered mixed success with spells at Parma, Juventus and Inter Milan. In 2012, he was hired to manage Ligue 1 team Monaco, who had just finished in the middle of Ligue 2, earned promotion as champions in his first season finished as Ligue 1 runners-up in his second season; this was followed by a foray into international management with the Greece national team, but he was dismissed less than four months after a 1–0 defeat against the Faroe Islands in the UEFA Euro 2016 qualifying. Ranieri returned to England once more in the summer of 2015 as manager of Leicester City, he went on to win the 2015–16 Premier League, after the club had narrowly avoided relegation the season prior, was named the 2016 Premier League Manager of the Season, LMA Manager of the Year. He was awarded the Grand Officer of the Italian Order of Merit and the Enzo Bearzot Award as best Italian manager of the year, as well as the 2016 Best FIFA Men's Coach Award.
He was dismissed by the club in February 2017 after a run of poor results. In June 2017, he spent a single season at the club, he was appointed Fulham manager in November 2018 before being dismissed in February 2019. Less than a month he returned as the head coach of Roma. Ranieri was born in San Saba, a neighbourhood of Rome near the Circus Maximus, is a lifelong supporter of A. S. Roma, he began playing football at his neighbourhood church. A childhood friend described him as having a stereotypically English demeanour, in being quiet and reserved, he and his family live in Formello, a nearby town where 1982 FIFA World Cup-winning goalkeeper Dino Zoff is among the residents. Ranieri is married to Dr. Rosanna. Ranieri has a daughter, who married Italian actor Alessandro Roja and gave Claudio a grandson, named Orlando. In May 2016, during his time as manager of Leicester City, he attracted media attention when he stated that he would be travelling to Rome to have lunch with his 96-year-old mother instead of watching the Chelsea–Tottenham Hotspur match.
Ranieri first signed as a professional football player with Roma, though in his two seasons with the club he only made six appearances. As a player, Ranieri spent most of his career playing as a defender for Catanzaro and Palermo, he was involved in four successful promotion campaigns. After coaching amateur side Vigor Lamezia, Ranieri's first managerial position was at Campania Puteolana, a small team in Pozzuoli, he took charge there in 1987. However, it was at Cagliari. After joining the club in 1988, he helped the team to gain promotion to Serie A from the third division Serie C1 in successive seasons winning the Coppa Italia Serie C in 1989. At Cagliari, his team were known for their fluid tactical system, which enabled the team to change their shape and switch between different formations throughout the course of a single match. From 1991, Ranieri managed for two seasons at Napoli, who were facing financial difficulties at the time. Despite finishing in fourth place in Serie A, qualifying for the UEFA Cup, he won no silverware during his spell with the club.
During his second season in charge of Napoli, he was dismissed by the club's owner at the time, Corrado Ferlaino, following the team's elimination in the second round of the UEFA Cup, despite the club's notable 5–1 away victory over Valencia in the first round of the tournament. He did, introduce Gianfranco Zola to the first team to replace the suspended star Diego Maradona, who had left the club, as well as Daniel Fonseca, whom he played alongside veteran striker Careca in the team's front line. Ranieri joined Fiorentina in 1993, gaining promotion to Serie A after winning the 1993–94 Serie B title in his first season in charge of the Florence-based side, he subsequently had success in Serie A, winning the Coppa Italia and Supercoppa Italiana in 1996, along with the offensive talents of Gabriel Batistuta, Rui Costa and Francesco Baiano, he helped the club to go on a 15-match unbeaten run during the 1995–96 Serie A season, which saw the team hold second place for several
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia