A viceroy is an official who runs a country, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roy, meaning "king". A viceroy's territory may be called a viceroyalty; the adjective form is viceregal, less viceroyal. The term vicereine is sometimes used to indicate a female viceroy suo jure, although viceroy can serve as a gender-neutral term. Vicereine is more used to indicate a viceroy's wife; the term has been applied to the governors-general of the Commonwealth realms, who are viceregal representatives of the monarch. Viceroy is a form of royal appointment rather than noble rank. An individual viceroy also held a noble title, such as Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, Viceroy of India; the title was used by the Crown of Aragon, beginning in the 14th century, it referred to the Spanish governors of Sardinia and Corsica. After the unification, at the end of the 15th century kings of Spain came to appoint numerous viceroys to rule over various parts of the vast Spanish Empire in Europe, the Americas, overseas elsewhere.
In Europe, until the 18th century, the Habsburg crown appointed viceroys of Aragon, Catalonia, Portugal, Sardinia and Naples. With the ascension of the House of Bourbon to the Spanish throne, the historic Aragonese viceroyalties were replaced by new captaincies general. At the end of War of the Spanish Succession, the Spanish monarchy was shorn of its Italian possessions; these Italian territories, continued to have viceroys under their new rulers for some time. See also:List of Spanish Viceroys of Aragon List of Spanish Viceroys of Valencia List of Spanish Viceroys of Catalonia List of Spanish Viceroys of Navarre List of Spanish Viceroys of Sardinia List of Spanish Viceroys of Sicily List of Spanish Viceroys of Naples The Americas were incorporated into the Crown of Castile. With the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the institution of viceroys was adapted to govern the populated and wealthy regions of the north overseas: New Spain and the south overseas: Peru and South America; the viceroys of these two areas had oversight over the other provinces, with most of the North American, Central American and East Indian areas supervised by the viceroy in Mexico City and the South American ones by the viceroy in Lima.
These large administrative territories became known as Viceroyalties. There were only two New World viceroyalties until the 18th century, when the new Bourbon Dynasty established two additional viceroyalties to promote economic growth and new settlements on South America. New viceroyalties were created for New Granada in 1717 and the Río de la Plata in 1776; the viceroyalties of the Spanish Americas and the Spanish East Indies were subdivided into smaller, autonomous units, the Audiencias, the Captaincies General, which in most cases became the bases for the independent countries of modern Hispanic America. These units gathered the local provinces which could be governed by either a crown official, a corregidor or by a cabildo or town council. Audiencias functioned as superior judicial tribunals, but unlike their European counterparts, the New World audiencias were granted by law both administrative and legislative powers. Captaincies General were military districts set up in areas with a risk of foreign or Indian attack, but the captains general were given political powers over the provinces under their command.
Because the long distances to the viceregal capital would hamper effective communication, both audiencias and captains general were authorized to communicate directly with the crown through the Council of the Indies. The Bourbon Reforms introduced the new office of the intendant, appointed directly by the crown and had broad fiscal and administrative powers in political and military issues. See also: Viceroyalty of the Indies Viceroyalty of New Spain – List of Viceroys of New Spain Viceroyalty of Peru – List of Viceroys of Peru Viceroyalty of New Granada – List of Viceroys of New Granada Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata – List of Viceroys of the Río de la Plata The title of Viceroy being awarded to members of the nobility, Viceroys and Governing Commissions were many times interleaved until the last Viceroy Afonso, Prince Royal of Portugal, in 1896. From 1505 to 1896 Portuguese India – the name "India" and the official name "Estado da India" including all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to Southeast Asia and Australasia, until 1752- was governed either by a Viceroy or Governor from its headquarters, in Goa since 1510.
The government started six years after the discovery of sea route to India by Vasco da Gama, in 1505, under first Viceroy Francisco de Almeida. King Manuel I of Portugal tried a power distribution with three governors in different areas of jurisdiction: a government covering the area and possessions in East Africa, Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf, overseeing up Cambay.
Sesqui 1990 was a festival, staged in February 1990 in the city of Wellington, New Zealand. A spectacular commercial and administrative failure, the Sesqui event has subsequently become an icon of corporate mismanagement within New Zealand popular culture. Billed by promoters as'New Zealand's biggest event ever', the festival was staged in Wellington to mark the New Zealand sesquicentenary celebrations, the 150th anniversary of the 1840 signing of the Treaty of Waitangi; the event was a joint venture between the Wellington Show Association and the Wellington 1990 Trust, a well-funded regional organisation. The Wellington regional and city councils jointly underwrote this event by NZ$1.4 million. The Sesqui festival was planned to include a wide range of cultural and scientific exhibits as well as entertainment events and funfair amusements, it was scheduled to run for six weeks and anticipated to attract 30,000 visitors per day, despite the fact that the population of the entire Wellington region at that time was fewer than 400,000 people.
Several weeks before the festival was due to begin, the media reported that the Sesqui organisers had decided to stage their opening celebration with the opening celebrations of the 1990 New Zealand International Festival of the Arts. Neither the Sesqui organisers nor the Arts Festival organisers were prepared to alter their plans. NZ$150,000 worth of fireworks launched Day 1 of Sesqui 1990; the festival organisers had made a decision to split the event between two venues, one at the Wellington Waterfront and the other at the Wellington Show and Sports Centre in Newtown. Despite the arrangement of a shuttle bus service between these two venues, this decision had the effect of confusing and frustrating potential visitors to the festival, with the result that neither venue attracted visitor numbers beyond an average of 2,500 per day; the organisers had adopted a policy against advertising the daily schedules for musical and other performances taking place at either venue. This policy was based on the assumption that it would encourage visitors to prolong their stay and to make numerous return visits so as not to miss seeing favourite performers.
As a result, a number of popular musicians and other entertainers played to empty houses because the public did not know when or where they were performing. Within days of the opening of the festival, media reports began to suggest. During a heated radio interview, Wellington City Councillor Ruth Gotlieb maintained that it was "every Wellingtonian's civic duty to attend Sesqui." The highest attendance figure was achieved during the final days of the event, when 32,000 visitors took advantage of a decision to waive all entry fees, which were regarded as being excessive. Although planned to run for six weeks, Sesqui 1990 closed after only two weeks with debts in excess of NZ$6.4 million. The collapse of the Sesqui 1990 festival forced a number of small companies, contracted to supply various goods and services to the event into receivership and/or bankruptcy; the Wellington Show Association was liquidated in 1999. Two iconic billboards promoting Sesqui 1990 remained standing for a number of months after the event's premature closure because the organisers could not afford to have them removed.
One of these, featuring an image of gleeful Sesqui visitors, was defaced with graffiti reading "And I laughed and laughed and laughed". The other billboard, a plywood cut-out representing Sesqui mascot "Pesky Sesky" – a sort of anthropomorphic opossum, or sasquatch – had been erected on a rooftop to welcome visitors to the Show and Sports Centre venue, disappeared during a wind storm. Other sesquicentenary events fared better, including the New Zealand Sports Hall of Fame, which went on to have a life of its own. Defaced banners advertising the failed Sesqui Carnival - Photographs taken by John Nicholson
Norman Stuart Craig is a noted British production designer. He has designed the sets, together with his frequent collaborator set decorator, the late Stephenie McMillan, on all of the Harry Potter films to date. At Potter author J. K. Rowling's request, he worked with Universal Creative team to design the Wizarding World of Harry Potter at Universal's Islands of Adventure theme park. Rowling said in a December 2007 interview on the Potter podcast PotterCast, "The key thing for me was that, if there was to be a theme park, that Stuart Craig … would be involved. … More than involved, that he would pretty much design it. Because I love the look of the films, he has been nominated for eleven Academy Awards, has won three: in 1982 for Gandhi, in 1988 for Dangerous Liaisons, in 1996 for The English Patient. He has been nominated for a BAFTA award fifteen times, including for the first six and last Potter films, has won three times: in 1980 for The Elephant Man, in 2005 for Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire, in 2016 for Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them.
Stuart Craig has been nominated for a BAFTA Award for consecutive six films in a row, viz. for consecutive first six Harry Potter films. For his work on The English Patient, Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Harry Potter and Order of the Phoenix, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 and Part 2, Craig was nominated for an Art Directors Guild award and won the same for The English Patient and Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2; the Guild has honored Craig with a Lifetime Achievement Award at the awards ceremony on 16 February 2008. Stuart Craig on IMDb