Viceroyalty of New Granada

The Viceroyalty of New Granada was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia and Venezuela. The territory corresponding to Panama was incorporated in 1739, the provinces of Venezuela were separated from the Viceroyalty and assigned to the Captaincy General of Venezuela in 1777. In addition to these core areas, the territory of the Viceroyalty of New Granada included Guyana, southwestern Suriname, parts of northwestern Brazil, northern Peru. Two centuries after the establishment of the New Kingdom of Granada in the 16th century, whose governor was dependent upon the Viceroy of Peru at Lima, an audiencia at Santa Fé de Bogotá, the slowness of communications between the two capitals led to the creation of an independent Viceroyalty of New Granada in 1717. Other provinces corresponding to modern Ecuador, the eastern and southern parts of today's Venezuela, Panama came together in a political unit under the jurisdiction of Bogotá, confirming that city as one of the principal administrative centers of the Spanish possessions in the New World, along with Lima and Mexico City.

Sporadic attempts at reform were directed at increasing efficiency and centralizing authority, but control from Spain was never effective. The rough and diverse geography of northern South America and the limited range of proper roads made travel and communications within the viceroyalty difficult; the establishment of an autonomous Captaincy General in Caracas in 1777 and the preservation of the older Audiencia of Quito, nominally subject to the Viceroy but for most purposes independent, was a response to the necessities of governing the peripheral regions. Some analysts consider that these measures reflected a degree of local traditions that contributed to the differing political and national differences among these territories once they became independent in the nineteenth century and which the unifying efforts of Simón Bolívar could not overcome; the Wayuu had never been subjugated by the Spanish. The two groups were in a less permanent state of war. There had been rebellions in 1701, 1727, 1741, 1757, 1761 and 1768.

In 1718, Governor Soto de Herrera called them "barbarians, horse thieves, worthy of death, without God, without law and without a king". Of all the Indians in the territory of Colombia, the Wayuu were unique in having learned the use of firearms and horses. In 1769 the Spanish took 22 Wayuus captive, in order to put them to work building the fortifications of Cartagena; the reaction of the Wayuus was unexpected. On 2 May 1769, at El Rincón, near Riohacha, they set their village afire, burning the church and two Spaniards who had taken refuge in it, they captured the priest. The Spanish dispatched an expedition from El Rincón to capture the Wayuus. At the head of this force was José Antonio de Sierra, a mestizo who had headed the party that had taken the 22 Guajiro captives; the Guajiros recognized him and forced his party to take refuge in the house of the curate, which they set afire. Sierra and eight of his men were killed; this success was soon known in other Guajiro areas, more men joined the revolt.

According to Messía, at the peak there were 20,000 Wayuus under arms. Many had firearms acquired from English and Dutch smugglers, sometimes from the Spanish; this enabled the rebels to take nearly all the settlements of the region. According to the authorities, more than 100 Spaniards were killed and many others taken prisoner. Many cattle were taken by the rebels; the Spaniards took refuge in Riohacha and sent urgent messages to Maracaibo, Santa Marta and Cartagena, the latter responding by sending 100 troops. The rebels themselves were not unified. Sierra's relatives among the Indians took up arms against the rebels to avenge his death. A battle between the two groups of Wayuus was fought at La Soledad; that and the arrival of the Spanish reinforcements caused the rebellion to fade away, but not before the Guajiro had regained much territory. The retribution stoked renewed rebellion, combined with a weakened Spain, made possible a successful independence struggle led by Simón Bolívar and Francisco de Paula Santander in neighboring Venezuela.

Bolívar returned to New Granada only in 1819 after establishing himself as leader of the pro-independence forces in the Venezuelan llanos. From there Bolivar led an army over the Andes and captured New Granada after a quick campaign that ended at the Battle of Boyacá, on 7 August 1819. Finally proclaimed independence in 1819; the pro-Spanish resistance was defeated in 1822 in the present territory of Colombia and in 1823 in Venezuela. The territories of the viceroyalty gained full de facto independence from Spain between 1819 and 1822 after a series of military and political struggles, uniting in a republic now known as Gran Colombia. With the dissolution of Gran Colombia, the states of Ecuador and the Republic of New Granada were created; the Republic of New Granada, with its capital at Bogotá, lasted from 1831 to 1856. The name "Colombia" reappeared in the "United States of Colombia"; the use of the term "New Granada" survived such as among ecclesiastics. New Granada was estimated to have 4,345,000 inhabitants in 1819.

By population 1 - Santa Fe de Bogotá 2 - Caracas 3 - Cartagena de Indias 4 - Quito 5 - Panama 6 - Cuenca 7 -

Comoros forests

The four Comoros Islands that lie in the Mozambique Channel between Madagascar and East Africa are a unique ecoregion, the Comoros forests. These volcanic islands are rich in wildlife with endemic species including four endangered bird species living on Mount Karthala, the large active volcano on Grand Comoro Island; the islands have a wet tropical climate with a rainy season between April. Both the flora and the fauna are similar to Madagascar, although there are more than 500 species of plants endemic to the Comoros; the two larger islands Grand Comoro and Anjouan have higher peaks and a variety of lowland and mountain forest, with mangroves along the coasts. There are more birds and reptiles than one would expect to find on an Indian Ocean island, including lemurs, as in nearby Madagascar. Endemic species include 21 species of birds, 9 species of reptiles, two species of fruit bats. Other mammals include a sub-species of the Seychelles fruit bat; the population of the Comoros is over 700,000 and as it increases more and more forest is being cleared for farming, with volcanic eruptions and cyclones damaging the forest further, threatening the fruit bat populations in particular.

The largest unspoilt forest remaining is located on the higher mountain slopes including Mount Karthala, unprotected as is the forest on Ntingui on Anjouan. Protected areas include Mount Combani and the Saziley National Park on Mayotte, while the only protected area in Comoros proper is the marine park on Moheli. Grand Comoro, dominated by Mount Karthala, which can be climbed in one or two days, is the largest and most developed island and location of the international airport. Anjouan is reached by boat from Grand Comoro, the two features here are Mount Ntingui and Lake Dzialandzé, both Ramsar List sites. Saziley Point is visited from the village of Dapani on Mayotte, there is a birding trail through the forest. Moheli is the smallest and quietest island and the marine park, home to sea turtles and whales, is located on five offshore islets. Category:Biota of Comoros "Comoros forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Annotated Ramsar List entry for Comoros

BCX (Business Connexion Group)

Business Connexion Ltd. is a South African-based information and communications technology company. BCX is listed on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange The ICT group has a wide footprint with operations in Africa and the Middle East. In Africa, Bcx expands to Kenya, Namibia, Nigeria and Tanzania; the group has offices in the United Kingdom as well as the Middle East. BCX has the largest data centre capacity in Southern Africa. BCX's history dates back to 1979 through the formation of Persetel Limited; this company merged with Q Data Limited to form the Persetel Q Data Holdings group of companies in 1997. It was that Persetel Q Data Holdings made a number of European networking acquisitions and subsequently changed its name to Comparex Holdings in November 1998. In December 2003, Comparex announced its intention to merge with Business Connection and in 2004, the largest Information Technology black economic empowerment deal occurred when Comparex merged with Business Connection; the new combined entity's annual revenue were in excess of R3 billion at the time.

Founded in 1996 by the CEO Benjamin Mophatlane and his twin brother Isaac, BCX merged with Seattle Solutions in 2001. This merged entity was renamed Business Connexion Limited, the holdings company was renamed Business Connexion Group Limited and the company has traded since under the current share code of "BCX". Business Connexion was separately listed on 28 May 2004. UCS Solutions BCX acquired the UCS Group. UCS, now a division of Business Connexion, provides services in the retail value chain as well as traditional break-fix end-user device support to other market sectors; the acquisition has made Business Connexion a dominant player in the South African retail vertical, holding 28% of the Retail IT Services market share. UCS Technology Services UCS Technology Services is a service provider to retailers across the South African region; the company provides solutions for both large, multi-store, multi-country retail environments, as well as for small- and medium-sized retail operations. CEB Maintenance Initially founded in 1987, CEB Maintenance Africa Limited offers information technology services.

In May 2011 the company started operating as a subsidiary of Business Connexion Group Limited. Accsys The Accsys business forms part of Business Connexion's Innovation division and is an award-winning South African Software Company specialising in People Management solutions. With more than 2000 companies on its solutions, over 14 million payslips per year are initiated by Accsys systems; the solutions are developed in South Africa with particular emphasis on South African workplace conditions. This has been broadened to encompass countries throughout Africa. Canoa Group The Canoa Group has exclusive distribution rights for Canon copy and imaging solutions in Southern Africa. Intergr8 IT BCX through its subsidiary UCS Solutions acquired Integr8 IT; the acquisition was made formal on 5 November 2012. The company provides annuity-based infrastructure management and managed services to the mid-market corporate in South Africa and Africa. Intergr8 IT owns the only African based Nerve Centre, a digital hub of people and process, that regulates and maintains the technology infrastructure for corporations.

BCX headed by Jonas Bogoshi has the following business partners: Citrix Cisco EMC Frost & Sullivan HP IBM Mendix Microsoft Oracle Project Portfolio Office VMWare and virtualisation SAP Symantec Parallels Fortinet