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Vichy France

Vichy France is the common name of the French State headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II. Evacuated from Paris to Vichy in the unoccupied "Free Zone" in the southern part of metropolitan France which included French Algeria, it remained responsible for the civil administration of France as well as the French colonial empire. From 1940 to 1942, while the Vichy regime was the nominal government of all of France except for Alsace-Lorraine, the Germans and Italians militarily occupied northern and south-eastern France. While Paris remained the de jure capital of France, the government chose to relocate to the town of Vichy, 360 km to the south in the zone libre, which thus became the de facto capital of the French State. Following the Allied landings in French North Africa in November 1942, southern France was militarily occupied by Germany and Italy to protect the Mediterranean coastline. Petain's government remained in Vichy as the nominal government of France, albeit one that collaborated with Nazi Germany from November 1942 onwards.

The government at Vichy remained there until late 1944, when it lost its de facto authority due to the Allied invasion of France and the government was compelled to relocate to the Sigmaringen enclave in Germany, where it continued to exist on paper until the end of hostilities in Europe. After being appointed Premier by President Albert Lebrun, Marshal Pétain's cabinet agreed to end the war and signed an Armistice with Germany on 22 June 1940. On 10 July, the Third Republic was dissolved as Pétain was granted full powers by the National Assembly. At Vichy, Pétain established an authoritarian government that reversed many liberal policies and began tight supervision of the economy, calling for "National Regeneration", with central planning a key feature. Labour unions came under tight government control. Conservative Catholics became clerical input in schools resumed. Paris lost its avant-garde status in European culture; the media were controlled and promoted anti-Semitism, after June 1941, anti-Bolshevism.

The French State maintained nominal sovereignty over the whole of French territory but had effective full sovereignty only in the unoccupied southern zone libre. It had only civil authority in the northern zones under military occupation; the occupation was to be a provisional state of affairs, pending the conclusion of the war, which at the time appeared imminent. The occupation presented certain advantages, such as keeping the French Navy and French colonial empire under French control, avoiding full occupation of the country by Germany, thus maintaining a degree of French independence and neutrality. Despite heavy pressure, the French government at Vichy never joined the Axis alliance and remained formally at war with Germany. Germany kept two million French soldiers prisoner, carrying out forced labour, they were hostages to ensure that Vichy would reduce its military forces and pay a heavy tribute in gold and supplies to Germany. French police were ordered to round up Jews and other "undesirables" such as communists and political refugees.

Much of the French public supported the government, despite its undemocratic nature and its difficult position with respect to the Germans seeing it as necessary to maintain a degree of French autonomy and territorial integrity. In November 1942, the zone libre was occupied by Axis forces, leading to the disbandment of the remaining army and the sinking of France's remaining fleet and ending any semblance of independence, with Germany now supervising all French officials. Most of the overseas French colonies were under Vichy control, though a few rallied to Charles de Gaulle's Allied-oriented Free France. Following the Allied invasion of North Africa in November 1942, Vichy progressively lost control of the colonies to Free France. Public opinion turned against the French government and the occupying German forces over time, when it became clear that Germany was losing the war, living conditions in France became difficult. A resistance movement, working in concert with de Gaulle's movement outside the country, increased in strength over the course of the occupation.

Following the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944 and the liberation of France that year, the Free French Provisional government of the French Republic was installed as the new national government, led by de Gaulle. Under a "national unanimity" cabinet uniting the many factions of the French Resistance, the GPRF re-established a provisional French Republic, thus restoring continuity with the Third Republic. Most of the legal French government's leaders at Vichy fled or were subject to show trials by the GPRF, a number were executed for "treason" in a series of purges. Thousands of collaborators were summarily executed by local communists and the Resistance in so-called "savage purges"; the last of the French state exiles were captured in the Sigmaringen enclave by de Gaulle's French 1st Armoured Division in April 1945. Pétain, who had voluntarily made his way back to France via Switzerland, was put on trial for treason by the new Provisional government, received a death sentence, but this was commuted to life imprisonment by de Gaulle.

Only four senior Vichy officials were tried for crimes against humanity, although many more had participated in the deportation of Jews for internment in Nazi concentration camps, abuses of prisoners, severe acts against members of the Resistance. In 1940, Marshal Pétain was known as a First World War hero, the victor of the battle of Verdun

Epimedium

Epimedium known as barrenwort, bishop's hat, fairy wings, horny goat weed, or yin yang huo, is a genus of flowering plants in the family Berberidaceae. The majority of the species are endemic to China, with smaller numbers elsewhere in Asia, a few in the Mediterranean region. Epimedium species are evergreen hardy perennials; the majority have four-parted "spider-like" flowers in spring. The species used, it contains icariin, a weak PDE5 inhibitor in vitro. Its clinical effects are unknown. Species of Epimedium are herbaceous perennials, their growth habits are somewhat variable. Some have solitary stems, others have a "tufted" habit, with multiple stems growing close together. There may be several leaves to a stem or the leaves may be solitary, produced from the base of the plant. Individual leaves are compound with three leaflets, but with more. Leaflets have spiny margins; the leaves may be annual, making the plant deciduous, or longer lasting, so that the plant is evergreen. The inflorescence is the number of flowers varying by species.

Individual flowers have parts in fours. There are four smaller outer sepals greenish and shed when the flower opens. Moving inwards, these are followed by four larger petal-like inner sepals brightly coloured. Inside the sepals are four true petals; these may be small and flat, but have a complex shape including a nectar-producing "spur" that may be longer than the sepals. There are four stamens. One of the common names for the genus, bishop's hat, arises from the shape of the flowers where the spurs are longer than the sepals; the genus was given its name by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, in describing the European species E. alpinum. The name is a latinized version of a Greek name for an unidentifiable plant, mentioned in Pliny's Natural History; the meaning of the original name is unclear. Accepted species Some artificial hybrids are cultivated in gardens; these include: E. × cantabrigiense Stearn, hybrid between E. alpinum and E. pubigerum E. × perralchicum Stearn, hybrid between E. perralderianum and E. pinnatum subsp.

Colchicum E. × rubrum Morr. Hybrid between E. alpinum and E. grandiflorum E. × versicolor Morr. Hybrid between E. grandiflorum and E. pinnatum subsp. Colchicum E. × warleyense Stearn, hybrid between E. alpinum and E. pinnatum subsp. Colchicum E. × youngianum Fisch & C. A. Mey, hybrid between E. diphyllum and E. grandiflorum Some varieties and hybrids have been in western cultivation for the last 100 to 150 years. There is now a wide array of new Chinese species being cultivated in the west, many of which have only been discovered, some of which have yet to be named. There are many older Japanese hybrids and forms, extending the boundaries of the genus in cultivation. Few genera of plants have seen such a dramatic increase in newly discovered species thanks to the work of Mikinori Ogisu of Japan and Darrell Probst of Massachusetts; the majority of the Chinese species have not been tested for hardiness nor indeed for any other aspect of their culture. The initial assumption that the plants would only thrive where their native conditions could be replicated have proven to be overly cautious, as most varieties are proving extraordinarily amenable to general garden and container cultivation.

While they can be propagated in early spring, epimediums are best divided in late summer, with the aim of promoting rapid re-growth of roots and shoots before the onset of winter. Several breeders have undertaken their own hybridization programmes with the genus. Various new nursery selections are appearing in the horticulture trade, the best of which are extending the colour and shape range of the flowers available to the gardener. Hugely popular as garden plants for centuries in Japan, epimediums are only just beginning to garner attention in the West. While they vary somewhat in their respective hardiness, all are dwellers of the forest floor, and, as such, all require fundamentally similar conditions of moist, free-draining, humus-rich soil and cool shade, with some shelter for the newly emerging leaves; some of the more robust varieties are recommended as plants for dry shade, whilst their tough foliage and stout rhizomes can allow them to grow in such conditions, they will not give their best.

Furthermore and exposure will pretty much guarantee the early death of many of the newer and more delicate species. Given suitable conditions most epimediums will form beautiful groundcover plants with magnificent new leaves tinted in bronze and reds combining with a huge variety of flower colours and forms in spring. Handsome and dense-growing foliage remains present for much of the year, with the leaves turning purple and scarlet in autumn in some forms, remaining evergreen in others. With all varieties, the foliage is best cut off at ground level shortly before new leaves emerge, so as to reveal their beauty of form and colour. Ideally, a mulch should be applied to protect the new growth from frosts. Epimedium wushanense contains a number of flavanoids. 37 compounds were characterized from the aerial parts of the plant. Among them, 28 compounds were prenylflavonoids; the predominant flavonoid, epimedin C, ranged from 1.4 to 5.1% in aerial parts and 1.0 to 2.8% in underground parts. Media related to Epimedium at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Epimedium at Wikispecies

Jack Bartholomew (boxer)

Jack "Barty" Bartholomew, in Brentford, England. Jack was a bare-knuckle boxer in England and reigned as Bare Knuckle Heavyweight Champion of England from 1797-1800. There is significant ambiguity concerning the personal details of Bartholomew's life; some details have been uncovered through public service records and source interpretation by the IBRO's historian Jan Skotnicki What is known is that Jack was a market gardener by trade. Bartholomew defeated Tom Owen, the previous heavyweight champion on 22 August 1797 to become champion; the bout took place in Moulsey Hurst, England. Bartholomew's champion status was snatched by Jem Belcher on 15 May 1800, in Finchley Common, England in their second title-fight; the fight lasted twenty minutes, short in comparison to the forty minutes their previous bout had lasted. Jack stood at 5'9" and weighed in at 168-175 lbs. Jack was backed by captain of the Royal Navy. Bartholomew was described by promoters as a'scientific' fighter who was'fast' and'hit hard'.

Bartholomew died 14 July 1803, in Almonry, England. He was bed-ridden for the last few days of his life. Cyber Boxing Zone - Further research on bare-knuckle boxing history IBRO -