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Vickers Wellington

The Vickers Wellington is a British twin-engined, long-range medium bomber. It was designed during the mid-1930s at Brooklands in Surrey. Led by Vickers-Armstrongs' chief designer Rex Pierson. Development had been started in response to Air Ministry Specification B.9/32, issued in the middle of 1932. This specification called for a twin-engined day bomber capable of delivering higher performance than any previous design. Other aircraft developed to the same specification include the Armstrong Whitworth Whitley and the Handley Page Hampden. During the development process, performance requirements such as for the tare weight changed and the engine used was not the one intended; the Wellington was used as a night bomber in the early years of the Second World War, performing as one of the principal bombers used by Bomber Command. During 1943, it started to be superseded as a bomber by the larger four-engined "heavies" such as the Avro Lancaster; the Wellington continued to serve throughout the war in other duties as an anti-submarine aircraft.

It holds the distinction of having been the only British bomber, produced for the duration of the war, of having been produced in a greater quantity than any other British-built bomber. The Wellington remained as first-line equipment when the war ended, although it had been relegated to secondary roles; the Wellington was one of two bombers named after Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, the other being the Vickers Wellesley. A larger heavy bomber aircraft designed to Specification B.1/35, the Vickers Warwick, was developed in parallel with the Wellington. Many elements of the Wellington were re-used in a civil derivative, the Vickers VC.1 Viking. In October 1932, the British Air Ministry invited Vickers to tender for the issued Specification B.9/32, which sought a twin-engine medium daylight bomber. In response, Vickers conducted a design study, led by Chief Designer Rex Pierson Early on, Vickers' chief structures designer Barnes Wallis proposed the use of a geodesic airframe, inspired by his previous work on airships and the single-engined Wellesley light bomber.

During structural testing performed at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, the proposed structure demonstrated not only the required strength factor of six, but reached 11 without any sign of failure, proving the geodesic airframe to possess a strength far in excess of normal levels. This strength allowed for the structure design to be further developed to reduce the size of individual members and adopt simplified standard sections of lighter construction. Vickers studied and compared the performance of various air and liquid-cooled engines to power the bomber, including the Bristol Pegasus IS2, Pegasus IIS2, the Armstrong Siddeley Tiger, the Rolls-Royce Goshawk I; the Pegasus was selected as the engine for air-cooled versions of the bomber, while the Goshawk engine was chosen for the liquid-cooled engine variant. On 28 February 1933, two versions of the aircraft, one with each of the selected powerplants, were submitted to the tender. In September 1933, the Air Ministry issued a pilot contract for the Goshawk-powered version.

In August 1934, Vickers proposed to use either the Pegasus or Bristol Perseus engines instead of Goshawk, which promised improvements in speed, climb rate and single-engine flight capabilities without any major increase in all-up weight. Other refinements of the design had been implemented and approved, such as the adoption of variable-pitch propellers, the use of Vickers-produced gun turrets in the nose and tail positions. By December 1936, the specification had been revised to include front and midship wind-protected turret mountings. Other specification changes included modified bomb undershields and the inclusion of spring-loaded bomb bay doors; the proposal had been developed further, a mid-wing arrangement was adopted instead of a shoulder-mounted wing for greater pilot visibility during formation flight and improved aerodynamic performance, as well as a increased overall weight of the aircraft. Design studies were conducted on behalf of the Air Ministry into the adoption of the Rolls-Royce Merlin engine.

In spite of a traditional preference of the establishment to adhere to the restrictive tare weight for the aircraft established in the tender, both Pierson and Wallis believed that their design should adopt the most powerful engine available. In response to pressure from Vickers, the Air Ministry overlooked, if not accepted, the removal of the tare weight restriction, as between the submission of the tender in 1933 and the flight of the first prototype in 1936, the tare weight rose from 6,300lb to 11,508lb; the prescribed bomb load and range requirements were revised upwards by the Air Ministry. F. Andrews stated to be "a high figure for a medium bomber of those days". During the development phase of the aircraft, the political and military situations in Europe drastically transformed. With the rise of fascist dictatorships in Germany and Italy, the British government had become keen to re-evaluate the capabilities of the nation's armed forces, including the Royal Air Force. By 1936, the need for a high priority to be placed on the creation of a large bomber force, which would form the spearhead of British offensive power, had been recog

2009 Scottish Cup Final

The 2009 Scottish Cup Final was the final of the 124th season of the main domestic football cup competition in Scotland, the Scottish Cup. The final was played at Hampden Park in Glasgow on 30 May 2009; the match was contested by Rangers, who were defending the trophy having won the 2008 final, Falkirk who last won the Cup in 1957. Falkirk were contesting a Scottish Cup final for only the fourth time in their history, while it was Rangers' 51st appearance, it was Rangers' second cup final of the season, having lost to Celtic in the League Cup Final on 15 March 2009. Rangers first match of the 2008–09 Scottish Cup was away to Scottish First Division leaders St Johnstone; the match at McDiarmid Park was played on a Tuesday night due to BBC Sport Scotland's live coverage. An own goal from Saints defender Stuart McCaffrey gave Rangers the lead just before half-time and a late Nacho Novo strike with ten minutes left made the game safe; the match against Scottish Third Division side Forfar Athletic was to be shown on Sky Sports and was therefore planned as a lunchtime kick-off on Sunday 8 February but was postponed due to a frozen pitch, the game was rescheduled and played on Wednesday 18 February.

Rangers took an early lead in the match thanks to a Saša Papac goal after only eight minutes but the team could not add to their advantage until after half-time. A Kenny Miller double and Aarón Ñíguez's first Rangers goal ensured the team's progress in a 4–0 win; the quarter-final was the first tie played at Ibrox by Rangers in the Scottish cup that season. The game ended in a convincing 5–1 win over Scottish Premier League side Hamilton Academical; the scoring was opened by Steven Whittaker before Hamilton's Rocco Quinn equalised. Rangers again took the lead through Kyle Lafferty before Aarón Ñíguez netted a retaken penalty as half time approached. Hamilton played most of the second half with 10 men due to injuries, goals after the break from Steven Davis and another from Kyle Lafferty completed the win; the semi-final at Hampden Park was played against fellow Scottish Premier League side St Mirren. After just 75 seconds of the match Rangers were ahead through an Andrius Velička goal. Kris Boyd's 100th Rangers goal after 66 minutes made it 2–0 and a Kenny Miller goal twenty minutes from time saw Rangers through to their second successive final.

Falkirk's first Scottish Cup match of the season was against the runners-up from the previous season, Queen of the South. Falkirk took the lead after Craig Barr fouled Graham Barrett, Scott Arfield converted the penalty. Queen's equalised five minutes through a deflected Barry Wilson strike to leave the score level at half-time. Despite a superb free kick by Bob Harris to give Queen of the South a 2–1 lead, Falkirk went on to score a further three goals to win 4–2. A Graham Barrett a second from Arfield; the Bairns faced Scottish Premier League opposition in the next round in the shape of Heart of Midlothian. A Steve Lovell header after 59 minutes sent Hearts out of the Cup in a game which saw two red cards, one for each side. Heart's Marius Žaliūkas was sent-off after wrestling Carl Finnigan to the ground and Falkirk's Arfield was shown red for a second bookable offence. A trip to the Highlands ensued for the quarter-final after Falkirk were drawn away to Inverness Caledonian Thistle. A victory was secured by a Carl Finnigan penalty after 31 minutes when Lionel Djebi-Zadi was sent off for grappling with the striker inside the penalty box.

The semi-final match against Dunfermline Athletic was played at Hampden Park despite the Scottish Football Association offering to change the match to a different venue. Tam Scobbie opened the scoring when he knocked a Neil McCann free kick into the Pars goal with his shoulder early in the second half; the win was assured after Scott Arfield converted a penalty in the 89th minute, McCann had won the spot kick after being brought down by Dunfermline's Greg Ross. Rangers went into the match as 32-time winners of the competition. Falkirk won the cup in 1913 and 1957. Rangers had just won the Scottish Premier League to become Scottish champions and Falkirk had narrowly avoided relegation from the SPL; the two teams had met each other four times that season three league meetings which were all won by Rangers and a Scottish League Cup Semi-final which Rangers won. Falkirk had not beaten Rangers in any competition since an SPL meeting in December 2006, They had last met Rangers in the Scottish Cup in a 1998–99 Quarter-final which Rangers won 2–1, The last time they beat Rangers in a cup competition was in the 1994–95 League Cup, They had never met in a Cup Final.

Rangers were allocated 24,890 tickets for the final, while Falkirk received 11,740 tickets with another 3,200 available if needed. Falkirk had wanted an allocation similar to Rangers. All Falkirk season ticket holders were guaranteed a seat for the final. SFA spokesman Rob Shorthouse told BBC Scotland at the end of April that it would be fair to both clubs and wanted to avoid unsold tickets being returned. Both semi-finals at Hampden were well below the 52,000 stadium capacity, with only 32,341 supporters watching Rangers beat St Mirren 3–0 in the first semi-final at Hampden, while 17,124 watched Falkirk's victory over Dunfermline 24 hours later. On 27 May 2009, it was reported that Falkirk had failed to sell its allocation of tickets, only 12,200 to date, this meant that the club would be limited to 13,000 tickets in total. Meanwhile, Rangers were given an additional 3,000 tickets on top of there allocation which would now

Ion rapid transit

Ion, stylized as ION, is an integrated public transportation network in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. It is operated by Keolis and is part of the Grand River Transit system replacing GRT's Route 200 iXpress bus service; the section of Route 200 serving Cambridge has been renamed "Ion Bus". The first phase commenced operations on June 21, 2019, between the north end of Waterloo and the south end of Kitchener. A future extension of light rail to the downtown Galt area of Cambridge is planned but construction may not begin on that line until 2025. In 2009, an Environmental Assessment began to create a proposal of electrically-powered light rail transit through Kitchener and Waterloo, adapted bus rapid transit from Kitchener to Cambridge. On June 24, 2009, Regional Council voted to approve the project, subject to funding from higher levels of government, in turn approved by council on June 15, 2011; this was followed by a community building strategy to guide development, identify key destinations, strengthen regional connections.

The strategy, led by Urban Strategies Inc. of Toronto, consulted hundreds of individuals and stakeholders from Cambridge and Waterloo. Construction began in August 2014 and service was expected to begin in late 2017; the total cost of the system was estimated at $818 million, but in December 2017, the overruns were estimated to total $50 million. The Province was expected to provide $25 million of that amount. According to the Region of Waterloo, the Ion network is named after the atom, which it describes as being “always in motion”. In 2004, the Regional Municipality began an Individual Environmental Assessment to study the feasibility of constructing a rapid transit line to provide higher-order public transit service to the Region and to encourage more compact urban growth along the corridor; the EA took a broader approach to studying possible routes and stations for the rapid transit line, examining several options such as utilizing existing tracks/roads and constructing new facilities. In keeping with legislation, the Environmental Assessment examined ten possible transport technologies, including monorails and subways.

The EA as planned consisted of three phases: Phase 1: Determine a preferred transportation strategy from options such as road expansion, improved conventional transit, rapid transit. Phase 1 was completed in July 2006. Phase 2: Step 1: Determine a preferred route design and technology; the EA examined ten different technologies including light rail, bus rapid transit and subway. Step 1, completed in February 2007, determined that light rail transit and bus rapid transit were best suited to meet the needs of the Regional Growth Management Strategy. Step 2: Determined a short list of preferred routes and technologies for seven segments of a rapid transit system. Step 3: Proposed an overall preferred rapid transit system Phase 3: Design an implementation plan for the rapid transit system. In June 2008, the Province of Ontario announced a new expedited Transit Project Assessment Process. In August 2008, the Region notified the Ministry of the Environment to advise that the it would transition from the Individual Environmental Assessment to the expedited process.

For that reason, Phase 3 of the Individual EA would not be completed. On June 24, 2009, Regional Council approved the initiative and continued discussions with Provincial and Federal governments to obtain funding for the $790-million project. Light Rail Transit was short-listed as the technology for the new rapid transit system; the Region decided on a staged approach, building light rail from Conestoga Mall to Fairview Park Mall, passing through Uptown Waterloo and Downtown Kitchener on the way. Adapted Bus Rapid Transit would be built from Fairview Park Mall to Ainslie Street terminal in Cambridge utilizing shoulder bypass lanes along Highways 8 and 401 during heavy traffic where speeds are 40 km/h or less; as of June 2019, there is still no specific timeline for replacing the aBRT service to Cambridge with light rail. On June 24, 2009, Regional Council approved LRT as the technology for rapid transit in Waterloo Region. Regional Council approved a recommendation to implement the system in stages because ridership, development potential and capital and operating costs vary along the route.

The light rail system was approved by Regional Council with a vote of 15–1. Cambridge mayor Doug Craig cast the dissenting vote. Other Cambridge-area representatives joined Craig in voting against subsequent motions on the service's staging, feeling that running only buses to that city does them a disservice; the Province of Ontario had promised to fund up to two thirds of the cost of the construction of a light rail or bus rapid transit system in Waterloo Region. However, in the summer of 2010, actual funding commitments from higher levels of government for the combined LRT and aBRT system were announced: $300 million from the province of Ontario, $265 million from the federal government; the provincial figure was disappointing to supporters, as the provincial government had promised to pay 2/3 of the cost. Regional council debated funding the remaining $200–300 million required for the project to go ahead as planned. During public consultation for the project, concerns related to the light rail proposal focused on its relative service infrequency when compared with rapid transit systems in other cities (though it would still outperform