Deputy Premier of South Australia
The Deputy Premier of South Australia is the second-most senior officer in the Government of South Australia. The Deputy Premiership is a ministerial portfolio in the Cabinet of South Australia, the Deputy Premier is appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Premier of South Australia; the current Deputy Premier since 2018 is Vickie Chapman of the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia. The office of Deputy Premier was created in March 1968; the first to serve in the position was Labor deputy leader Des Corcoran. Prior to that time the term was sometimes used unofficially for the second-highest ranking minister in the government the Treasurer. In both Labor and Liberal governments, the Deputy Premier is the party's deputy leader. Two Deputy Premiers have subsequently become Premier in their own right: Rob Kerin; this last happened in 2001. Dean Brown did the reverse, becoming Deputy Premier to Rob Kerin, 5 years after his own premiership ended at the hands of John Olsen.
South Australia's longest-serving Deputy Premier is Kevin Foley, who served in the position from March 2002 to February 2011. The duties of the Deputy Premier are to act on behalf of the Premier in his or her absence overseas or on leave; the Deputy Premier has additionally always held at least one substantive portfolio. It is possible for a minister to hold only the portfolio of Deputy Premier, but this has never happened. If the Premier were to die, become incapacitated or resign, the Governor would appoint the Deputy Premier as Premier. If the governing or majority party had not yet elected a new leader, that appointment would be on an interim basis. Should a different leader emerge, that person would be appointed Premier. Statistical Record of the Legislature 1836 - 2007
Parliament of South Australia
The Parliament of South Australia at Parliament House, Adelaide is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of South Australia. It consists of the 47-seat House of the 22-seat Legislative Council. All of the lower house and half of the upper house is filled at each election, it follows a Westminster system of parliamentary government. The Queen is represented in the State by the Governor of South Australia. According to the South Australian Constitution, unlike the Federal Parliament, the parliaments of the other states and territories of Australia, neither the Sovereign or the Governor is considered to be a part of the South Australian Parliament. However, the same role and powers are granted to them; the Parliament of South Australia began in 1857. Women gained the right to stand for election in 1895, taking effect at the 1896 election. South Australia became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901 following a vote to Federate with the other British colonies of Australia. Elections were held every 3 years until 1985, when the parliament switched to 4 year terms, meaning 8 year terms for the upper house.
Beginning in 2006, election dates have been fixed at the third Saturday in March of every fourth year. The House of Assembly is made up of 47 members who are each elected by the full-preference instant-runoff voting system in single-member electorates; each of the 47 electoral districts contains the same number of voters. Since 1975, the distribution of electoral boundaries has been set by the South Australian Electoral Districts Boundaries Commission. Since 1991, boundaries have been redistributed after each election by the Electoral Commission of South Australia, an independent body, they were redistributed after every third election. Government is formed in the House of Assembly by the leader of the party or coalition who can demonstrate they have the support of the majority of the House, is called upon by the Governor to form government; the leader of the government becomes the Premier. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, Adelaide's population is 1.3 million − uniquely, over 75 percent of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area and has 72 percent of seats alongside a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, therefore the metropolitan area tends to decide election outcomes.
At the 2014 election for example, although the statewide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. The Legislative Council is made up of 22 councillors who are elected for the entire state by the Proportional Representation single transferable voting system to serve for a term of 8 years. Elections for the Legislative Council are staggered so that 11 seats are up for re-election every 4 years, at the same time as House of Assembly elections; the primary function of the Legislative Council is to review legislation, passed by the House of Assembly. This can cause tensions between the government and the Legislative Council, which may be viewed by the former as obstructionist if it rejects key legislation, as can happen at times when the electoral makeup of the two houses are different; the seat of the Parliament of South Australia is Parliament House in the state capital of Adelaide. Parliament House sits on the North-Western corner of the intersection of King William Street and North Terrace.
South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories Official openings by the monarch in Australia Parliament of South Australia Homepage
Electoral district of Adelaide
Adelaide is a single-member electoral district for the South Australian House of Assembly. The 22.8 km² state seat of Adelaide consists of the Adelaide city centre including North Adelaide and suburbs to the inner north and inner north east: Collinswood, Gilberton, Medindie Gardens, Thorngate, most of Prospect, part of Nailsworth. The federal division of Adelaide covers the state seat of Adelaide and additional suburbs in each direction; the electorate's name comes from the city which it encompasses, named after Princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, the German born Queen consort of the King of England, King William IV. The six-seat multi-member electoral district of City of Adelaide existed from 1857 to 1862; the four-member electoral district of Adelaide was created by the Constitution Act Amendment Act, 1901 for the 1902 election from the districts of East Adelaide, West Adelaide and North Adelaide. The district had four members through to 1915. Adelaide became a three-member district from the 1915 election, changed from a multi-member to single-member district upon the introduction of the Playmander from the 1938 election.
For most of the next half-century, the electorate was comfortably safe for the Labor Party. A significant redistribution in 1983 saw the Labor two-party vote reduced from 66 percent to 47 percent, transforming it into a notional marginal Liberal electorate. However, Labor retained the seat at the 1985 election, albeit as the most marginal seat in parliament. Liberal Michael Armitage narrowly took the seat at the 1989 election – the first time that they or their predecessors, the Liberal and Country League, had won it in its single-member incarnation; the highest Liberal vote in Adelaide occurred at the landslide 1993 election, with the Liberal two-party vote rising to a safe 64.1 percent. However, it once again became a marginal Liberal seat at the 1997 election. After the redistribution ahead of the 2002 election made the electorate more marginal, Armitage tried to transfer to the safer Liberal electorate of Bragg, but lost a preselection battle to Vickie Chapman. Labor candidate Jane Lomax-Smith regained the seat for Labor at the 2002 election as a marginal seat, one of two gains that assisted Labor in forming government.
It became a safe Labor seat at the landslide 2006 election on a 60.2 percent two-party vote, before the Liberals won Adelaide for the second time at the 2010 election on a two-party swing of over 14 percent, turning it from safe Labor to marginal Liberal. Despite a −1.8 percent two-party swing, the Liberals retained Adelaide at the 2014 election on a 52.4 percent two-party vote. The 2016 electoral redistribution added the rest of Collinswood to the electorate, moved the electorate's northern boundary from Regency Road to several blocks south of Regency Road, removing a significant amount of northern Prospect; this increased the Liberal margin from 2.4 percent to an estimated 3.0 percent. The draft of the 2016 Redistribution Report had proposed moving the Liberal-voting suburbs of Walkerville and Gilberton to a neighbouring electorate, but Liberal incumbent Rachel Sanderson proceeded with a concerted campaign, organising the mass letter-box distribution of a pro forma document in the two suburbs, which aimed for residents to use the pro forma document to submit their objection to the commission.
Of a record 130 total submissions received in response to the overall draft redistribution, over three-quarters were from the two letter-boxed suburbs and Gilberton, which resulted in the proposal not appearing in the final redistribution. Although Sanderson suffered a further 2.0 percent two-party swing, she narrowly retained Adelaide at the 2018 election with a 51.0 percent two-party vote. With the Liberals winning government after 16 years in opposition, Adelaide became the government's second most marginal seat, behind only King; the Greens achieved their highest vote in an electorate at the 2018 election in Adelaide. ECSA profile for Adelaide: 2018 ABC profile for Adelaide: 2018 Poll Bludger profile for Adelaide: 2018
Division of Barker
The Division of Barker is an Australian Electoral Division in the south-east of South Australia. The division was established on 2 October 1903, when South Australia's original single multi-member division was split into seven single-member divisions, it is named for an early explorer of the region at the mouth of the Murray River. The 63,886 km² seat stretches from Morgan in the north to Port MacDonnell in the south, taking in the Murray Mallee, the Riverland, the Murraylands and most of the Barossa Valley, includes the towns of Barmera, Bordertown, Keith, Kingston SE, Lucindale, Millicent, Mount Gambier, Murray Bridge, Penola, Robe, Tailem Bend and parts of Nuriootpa and Tanunda. Barker is the only one of South Australia's remaining original six divisions that has never been held by the Australian Labor Party and is traditionally the safest seat for the Liberal Party of Australia in the state, it has been in the hands of the Liberals and its predecessors for its entire existence, except for a six-year period when Country Party MP Archie Cameron held it.
The conservative parties have had a secure hold on the seat. This tradition has only been threatened three times. Labor came within 1.2 percent of winning the seat at the 1929 election, within 1.7 percent of winning the seat at the 1943 election. In the latter election, Barker was left as the only non-Labor seat in South Australia, indeed the only Coalition seat outside the eastern states, it would be seven decades before the conservatives' hold on Barker would be threatened again. Though it has always covered the state's entire south-east, Barker was a hybrid urban-rural seat that extended for some distance into the Adelaide area; until 1949, only three seats--Adelaide and Hindmarsh—were based on the capital. For most of the first half-century after Federation, Barker included Glenelg and the Holdfast Bay area, at times stretched as far as the western metropolitan suburbs of Keswick and Henley Beach. However, it became an rural seat after parliament was expanded in the redistribution prior to the 1949 election, making this strongly conservative seat more so.
Barker had always included Kangaroo Island and the connecting Fleurieu Peninsula until parliament was expanded in the redistribution prior to the 1984 election. Exchanged between Barker and Mayo since, Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula have been in Mayo since the redistribution prior to the 2004 election, where the massive redistribution of Wakefield, resulting from the abolition of Bonython, saw Barker absorb the Riverland from Wakefield; the seat's most prominent members have been Cameron, a former leader of the Country Party and Speaker of the House in the Menzies Government, Jim Forbes, a minister in the Menzies, Gorton and McMahon governments, Ian McLachlan, Minister for Defence from 1996 to 1998 in the Howard Government. South Australian Senator Nick Xenophon confirmed in December 2014 that by mid-2015 the Nick Xenophon Team would announce candidates in all states and territories at the 2016 election, with Xenophon citing the government's ambiguity on the Collins-class submarine replacement project as motivation.
ABC psephologist Antony Green's 2016 federal election guide for South Australia stated NXT had a "strong chance of winning lower house seats and three or four Senate seats". A ReachTEL seat-level opinion poll in the safe Liberal seat of Barker of 869 voters conducted by robocall on 20 June during the 2016 election campaign found NXT candidate James Stacey leading the Liberals' Tony Pasin 52–48 on the two-candidate preferred vote. Seat-level opinion polls in the other two rural Liberal South Australian seats revealed NXT leading in both Grey and Mayo. Election-night counting showed that Stacey was second to Pasin on first preferences, however the indicative two-candidate preferred count had been done between Pasin and Labor candidate Mat O'Brien, which meant there was no early indication of whether Stacey would receive enough preferences to beat Pasin before postal and provisional votes were counted and preferences distributed in the following two weeks, it was confirmed that Stacey had not only overtaken O'Brien on first preferences, but reduced Pasin's margin in Barker to 4.7 percent—thus making Barker a marginal seat for the first time since Cameron's near-defeat in the 1943 landslide.
However, Barker remains a comfortably safe Liberal seat in a "traditional" two-party matchup with Labor. Australian federal election, 2016 Results of the Australian federal election, 2016 ABC profile for Barker: 2016 Poll Bludger profile for Barker: 2016 AEC profile for Barker: 2016 SA boundary map, 2001: AEC SA boundary map, 1984: Atlas SA
Wayville, South Australia
Wayville is an inner-southern suburb of Adelaide in the City of Unley. It is most notable for hosting of the Royal Adelaide Show at the Adelaide Showgrounds; the suburb is bordered to the north by Adelaide's South Parklands, to the west by Adelaise-Goodwood railway line, to the east by King William Road, to the south by Leader Street, Parsons Street and Simpson Parade. Keswick Creek, a tributary of the Brown Hill Creek and Patawalonga River, flows through the southern side of the suburb. In the 1860s, the place where Wayville now stands was a milk run rented from the South Australian Company. In the 1870s, King William Street was extended south through the Park Lands and Unley. Wayville was first subdivided in 1881. In 1899 the area was named Wayville after Reverend James Way. Wayville Post Office opened around 1909. Wayville Military Post Office was open from 16 July 1940 until 19 October 1946 while the Showgrounds were used as an army camp; the Latvian Hall or Talava, located at 4 Clark Street in Wayville, was established in 1966.
The hall is rented out to the community, is supported by the Latvian Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Australia Inc.. The Anglican Church of Emmanuel was located on the corner of Young and Clark Streets, formed part of the Anglican Parish of Parkside, along with St. Oswald's Church in Parkside; the cornerstone was laid by His Excellency the Governor Sir Thomas Bridges on 28 April 1923. This church was closed in 2014; the St Michael the Archangel Church is part of the Roman Catholic Society of St. Pius X; the church was first built in 1894, the cornerstone laid on 15 September 1894. The Church and hall were rebuilt in 1948; the new cornerstone was laid by Mrs Playford, the wife of Premier Thomas Playford IV, on 20 November 1948. There is Protection of Mother of God Parish, on Davenport Terrace. On the Church grounds is a memorial: "In memory of soldiers who died for liberation of Ukraine". Next to this is a smaller memorial: "In memory of Michael Sukmanowsky Ukrainian boy scout killed in Vietnam".
The St Peter's Latvian EV-Lutheran Memorial Church was erected in the memory of those who served in the World Wars. The Church is part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia of Adelaide; the church was built in 1971. The Adelaide Showground Farmers Market is open every Sunday, 9am to 1pm; the purpose of the market is to sell food and food related products by farmers and producers of South Australia. Entrance to the market is from the Leader Street side of the Adelaide Showground; the "Amphi Cosma" house in Young Street was built in 1914 by the noted Adelaide master builder Walter C. Torode for his own use; the architecture is of particular interest because of its unique octagonal design and its reinforced concrete structure. A noteworthy feature was a series of radiating beams. Annesley Junior School is located on Greenhill Road on the northern edge of the suburb, it is an independent day school for girls and boys aged from two years old to year 6. The school was established in 1902 as Methodist Ladies' College.
The Alliance Française d’Adelaide at 319 Young Street is an Australian not-for-profit association set up to promotion French language and culture. It offers a range of French language courses, sponsors a number of French culture events for music and sponsors the Alliance Française French Film Festival. Fusion Business College is a provider of training to retail businesses, it is accredited by the Australian Government as a registered training organisation. Fusion Business Solutions was founded by Marc Brien and his wife Karen in July 1999. Central Queensland University Appleton Institute is a multidisciplinary research hub located at 44 Greenhill Road; the institute has a teaching program in Safety Science. The SACE Board of South Australia is located at 60 Greenhill Road, it is an independent statutory authority established under the SACE Board of South Australia Act 1983, with responsibility for the accreditation, assessment and certification of learning in the South Australian Certificate of Education.
There are two Glenelg Tram stops in Wayville: Greenhill Rd - Tram Stop 1 and Wayville - Tram Stop 2. Just west of Wayville in Goodwood there is a third tram stop, Goodwood Rd - Tram Stop 3. There are numerous bus stops: three on Goodwood Road, stops 1, 2, 3. On the northern side of the suburb, Greenhill Road is part of A21 Adelaide; the numerours bike trails serving Wayville may be found at "BikeMap". Part of the Mike Turtur Bikeway runs along the edge of Wayville. Running from the Adelaide city centre to Glenelg, the Mike Turtur Bikeway is the busiest cycling commuter route connected to the city. Rosemary's Place at 7 Rose Terrace is designed to be country friendly accommodation, it consists of two furnished comfortable and inexpensive 1 bedroom maisonettes, provides easy access to medical and education services. Rectory Cottage is a B&B located at 15 Rose Terrace; the cottage was built in 1900 as a pastor's residence. The cottage is self-contained. Rose Terrace Lodge is located at 102 Rose Terrace.
This is a Supported Residential Facility. Vickie Chapman, Australian politician lived in Wayville Sara Douglass, Australian fantasy writer went to school in Wayville Oswald Bertram Lower, Australian chemist and pharmacist known for his contributions to entomology lived in Wayville Sally Newmarch, Australian triple Olympic rower went to school in Wayville Scott McPhee, Australian cyclist lives in Wayville Jo
Dr David Oliver Tonkin AO was the 38th Premier of South Australia, serving from 18 September 1979 to 10 November 1982. He was elected to the House of Assembly seat of Bragg at the 1970 election, serving until 1983, he became the leader of the South Australian Division of the Liberal Party of Australia in 1975, replacing Bruce Eastick. Leading the party to defeat at the 1977 election against the Don Dunstan Labor government, his party won the 1979 election against the Des Corcoran Labor government. Following the 1980 Norwood by-election the Tonkin government was reduced to a one-seat majority, his government's policy approach combined economic conservatism with social progressivism. The Tonkin Liberal government was defeated after one term at the 1982 election by Labor led by John Bannon. David Tonkin was born in Unley, South Australia, on 20 July 1929; when he was only five, his father died, leaving Tonkin's mother to raise his siblings. Tonkin attended local public schools before gaining a scholarship to St Peter's College.
Accepted into Medicine at the University of Adelaide, Tonkin worked as a taxi driver while completing his degree and practised as a General Practitioner before undertaking a postgraduate ophthalmology course in London. He established a practice in Adelaide and was soon considered one of the city's leading eye surgeons. Tonkin was of Cornish ancestry. Tonkin's dedication to aiding the wider community was manifest through his honorary service as an eye surgeon to Adelaide public hospitals and through the initiation, through the Lions Club, of Australia's first public screening programme for glaucoma. In 1962 Tonkin became executive director of the Australian Foundation for Prevention of Blindness SA Inc. From a young age, Tonkin was a supporter of the Liberal and Country League, handing out how-to-vote cards at the 1939 election for the party, his prominence in Adelaide society and his community service made him an ideal LCL candidate. In 1967, he unsuccessfully challenged Premier Don Dunstan in Dunstan's seat of Norwood before becoming the first member for the adjacent seat of Bragg at the 1970 election.
Tonkin gained a reputation as a progressive member of the LCL. He was an early supporter of the Liberal Movement faction created by former premier Steele Hall, although Tonkin remained with the LCL when the Liberal Movement split from it. Tonkin gained statewide prominence was in 1974, when he introduced a private member's bill to outlaw sex discrimination, the first such law in Australia. A year this prominence led him to challenge Bruce Eastick for the leadership of what by had become the South Australia branch of the Liberal Party. Tonkin became leader; as leader, Tonkin worked toward healing the internal party wounds by coaxing the Liberal Movement back into the Liberal fold. Although the Liberals lost the 1977 election, they won the 1979 election against Labor led by Des Corcoran. At that election, the Liberals won 55 percent of the two-party vote on a swing of over eight percent. At the time, this was the largest two-party victory for any party since the end of the Playmander, exceeding Labor taking 54.5 percent in 1973.
While this would have been enough for a strong majority government in the rest of Australia, the Liberals won only 13 seats in Adelaide. As a result, they only won 25 of just two more than needed to govern alone. So, it was the first time that the main non-Labor party in South Australia had won a majority of the two-party vote while winning the most seats since its predecessor, the LCL, won 50.3 percent of the two-party vote in 1959. Governing on a knife-edge, Tonkin's majority became slimmer in 1980 after a court decision threw out a Liberal victory in Dunstan's old seat Norwood, Labor regained it in the ensuing by-election; as a result, Tonkin found himself with a bare majority of one seat. Taking the position of Treasurer of South Australia, Tonkin combined fiscal conservatism with implementing progressive reforms. In the former, Tonkin made significant cuts to the public service, earning him the enmity of the unions, while an example of the latter was the passage of the land rights bill and the return to the Pitjantjatjara people of 10 per cent of South Australia's area.
Other significant actions include the development of the copper and uranium mine at Olympic Dam, extending his earlier anti-discrimination provisions to include physical disability, establishing the Ethnic Affairs Commission and introducing random breath testing. Bidding for re-election at the 1982 election, Tonkin had support of the South Australian media. However, the economy was hit by the early 1980s recession; the government suffered a large swing at the 1982 Florey by-election before narrowly losing the state election two months to Labor led by John Bannon. Tonkin resigned from parliament shortly after following a heart complaint. Graham Ingerson retained the seat for the Liberals at the ensuing by-election. Subsequently, Tonkin returned to ophthalmology and served in various capacities in different government and community organisations, including chairman of the board of the State Opera from 1985 to 1986 and vice-president of Sturt Football Club. In 1986 he assumed the London-based position of Secretary-General of the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association.
Returning to Australia in 1992, Tonkin was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in 1993 and served as chairman of the South Australian Film Corporation from 1994 to 1996. A stroke in 1996 permanently affected his speech and
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo