Tufts University is a private research university in Medford and Somerville, Massachusetts. A charter member of the New England Small College Athletic Conference, Tufts College was founded in 1852 by Christian universalists who worked for years to open a nonsectarian institution of higher learning, it was a small New England liberal arts college until its transformation into a larger research university in the 1970s. The university emphasizes active citizenship and public service in all its disciplines, is known for its internationalism and study abroad programs. Tufts is organized into ten schools, including two undergraduate degree programs and eight graduate divisions, on four campuses in the Boston metropolitan area and the French Alps. Among its schools is the United States' oldest graduate school of international relations, the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. Tufts' largest school is the School of Arts and Sciences, which offers undergraduate and graduate degrees and includes both the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the School of the Museum of Fine Arts at Tufts University, affiliated with the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
The School of Engineering has an entrepreneurial focus with the Gordon Institute and maintains close connections with the original college. The university has a campus in Downtown Boston that houses the medical and nutrition schools, affiliated with several medical centers in the area; the university offers joint undergraduate degree programs with the New England Conservatory, the Sciences Po Paris with additional programs with the University of Paris, University of Oxford and constituents of the University of London. Several of its programs have affiliations with the nearby institutions of Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Alumni and affiliates include Nobel laureates, heads of state, senators, representatives and Academy Award winners, National Academy members. Tufts has graduated several Rhodes, Fulbright, Goldwater scholars. Other notable alumni include numerous CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, high ranking U. S. diplomats, Pulitzer Prize winners.
In the 1840s, the Universalist Church wanted to open a college in New England, Charles Tufts donated 20 acres to the church in 1852 to help them achieve this goal. Charles Tufts had inherited the land, a barren hill, one of the highest points in the Boston area, called Walnut Hill, when asked by a family member what he intended to do with the land, he said "I will put a light on it", his 20-acre donation is still at the heart of Tufts' now-150 acre campus, straddling Somerville and Medford. It was in 1852 that the Commonwealth of Massachusetts chartered Tufts College, noting the college should promote "virtue and piety and learning in such of the languages and liberal and useful arts as shall be recommended". During his tenure, Ballou spent a year studying in the United Kingdom; the methods of instruction which he initiated were based on the tutorials that were conducted in the University of Oxford and the University of Edinburgh. Now more than 160 years old, Tufts is the third-oldest college in the Boston area.
Having been one of the biggest influences in the establishment of the College, Hosea Ballou II became the first president in 1853, College Hall, the first building on campus, was completed the following year. That building now bears Ballou's name; the campus opened in August 1854. President Ballou was succeeded by Alonzo Ames Miner. Though not a college graduate, his presidency was marked by several advances; these include the establishment of preparatory schools for Tufts which include Goddard Seminary, Westbrook Seminary, Dean Academy. During the Civil War the college supported the Union cause; the mansion of Major George L. Stearns which stood on part of the campus was a station on the Underground Railroad. In addition to having the largest classes spring up, 63 graduates served in the Union army; the first course of a three-year program leading to a degree in civil engineering was established in 1865, the same year MIT was founded. By 1869, the Crane Theological School was organized. Miner's successor, Elmer Capen was the first president to be a Tufts alumnus.
During his time, one of the earliest innovators was Amos Dolbear. In 1875, as chair of the physics department, he installed a working telephone which connected his lab in Ballou Hall to his home on Professors Row. Two years Alexander Graham Bell would receive the patent. Dolbear's work in Tufts was continued by Marconi and Tesla. Other famous scholars include William Leslie Hooper who in addition to serving as acting president, designed the first slotted armature for dynamos, his student at the college, Frederick Stark Pearson, would become one of America's pioneers of the electrical power industry. He became responsible for the development of the electric power and electric street car systems which many cities in South America and Europe used. Another notable figure is Stephen M. Babcock who developed the first practical test to determine the amount of butterfat in milk. Since its development in the college, the Babcock Test has hardly been modified. Expansion of the chemistry and biology departments were led by scholars Arthur Michael, one of the first organic chemists in the U.
S. and John Sterling Kingsley, one of the first scholars of comparative anatomy. P. T. Barnum was one of the earliest benefactors of Tufts College, the Barnum Museum of Natural History was constructed in 1884 with funds donated by him to house his collection of animal specimens and the stuffed hide of Jumbo the elephant, who would become the university'
Johns Hopkins Hospital
The Johns Hopkins Hospital is the teaching hospital and biomedical research facility of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, located in Baltimore, Maryland, U. S, it was founded in 1889 using money from a bequest of over $7 million by city merchant, banker/financier, civic leader and philanthropist Johns Hopkins. Johns Hopkins Hospital and its school of medicine are considered to be the founding institutions of modern American medicine and the birthplace of numerous famous medical traditions including rounds and house staff. Many medical specialties were formed by Dr. Harvey Cushing. Johns Hopkins Hospital is regarded as one of the world's greatest hospitals and medical institutions, it was ranked by U. S. News & World Report news magazine as the best overall hospital in America for 21 consecutive years. In 2017-2018, the hospital ranked in 15 adult and 10 children's specialties, coming in 1st in Maryland and 3rd nationally behind the Mayo Clinic in Rochester and the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio.
Johns Hopkins, a Baltimore merchant and banker, left an estate of $7 million when he died on Christmas Eve, December 24, 1873, in his city mansion on West Saratoga Street, just west of North Charles Street, at the age of 78. In his will, he asked that his fortune be used to found two institutions that would bear his name: "Johns Hopkins University" and "The Johns Hopkins Hospital." At the time that it was made, Hopkins's gift was the largest philanthropic bequest in the history of the United States. Toward the end of his life, Hopkins selected 12 prominent Baltimoreans to be the trustees for the project and a year before his death, sent a letter telling them that he was giving "thirteen acres of land, situated in the city of Baltimore, bounded by Broadway, Wolfe and Jefferson streets upon which I desire you to erect a hospital." He wished for a hospital "which shall, in construction and arrangement, compare favorably with any other institution of like character in this country or in Europe" and directed his trustees to "secure for the service of the Hospital and surgeons of the highest character and greatest skill."Most Hopkins told the trustees to "bear in mind that it is my wish and purpose that the hospital shall form a part of the Medical School of that university for which I have made ample provision in my will."
By calling for this integral relationship between patient care, as embodied in the hospital, teaching and research, as embodied in the university, Hopkins laid the groundwork for a revolution in American medicine. Johns Hopkins' vision, of two institutions in which the practice of medicine would be wedded to medical research and medical education was nothing short of revolutionary. Initial plans for the hospital were drafted by surgeon John Shaw Billings, the architecture designed by John Rudolph Niernsee and completed by Edward Clarke Cabot of the Boston firm of Cabot and Chandler in a Queen Anne style; when completed in 1889 at a cost of $2,050,000, the hospital included what was state-of-the art concepts in heating and ventilation to check the spread of disease. The trustees obtained the services of four outstanding physicians, known as the "Big Four," to serve as the founding staff of the hospital when it opened on May 7, 1889, they were pathologist William Henry Welch, surgeon William Stewart Halsted, internist William Osler, gynecologist Howard Atwood Kelly.
In 1893, Johns Hopkins University was one of the first medical schools to admit women. The decision to begin coeducation was a result of a shortage of funds, as the B&O Railroad stock, supposed to cover cost was used up in building the hospital in 1889 and the medical school had not yet been built. Four of the original trustees’ daughters offered to raise the money needed to open the school, but only if the school agreed to admit qualified women to the university. After several discussions the trustees agreed to their terms and accepted the financial help of these four women, with only one of the doctors, William Henry Welch resisting. Welch changed his views on coeducation, "The necessity for coeducation in some form," he wrote "becomes more evident the higher the character of the education. In no form of education is this more evident than in that of medicine... we regard coeducation a success. He introduced the idea of bringing medical students into actual patient care early in their training.
Osler's contribution to practical education extends to the creation of "grand rounds", the practice of leading physicians discussing the most difficult cases in front of assembled medical students, for the benefit of patients and students. He once said he hoped his tombstone would say only, "He brought medical students into the wards for bedside teaching."Halsted, the first chief of the Department of Surgery, established many other medical and surgical achievements at Johns Hopkins including modern surgical principles of control of bleeding, accurate anatomical dissection, complete sterility, the first radical mastectomy for breast cancer (before
Bar Harbor, Maine
Bar Harbor is a town on Mount Desert Island in Hancock County, United States. As of the 2010 census, its population is 5,235. Bar Harbor is a popular tourist destination in the Down East region of Maine and home to the College of the Atlantic, Jackson Laboratory, MDI Biological Laboratory. Prior to a catastrophic 1947 fire, the town was a noted summer colony for the wealthy. Bar Harbor is home to the largest parts of Acadia National Park, including Cadillac Mountain, the highest point within twenty-five miles of the coastline of the Eastern United States; the town is served by the Hancock County-Bar Harbor Airport, which serves year-round direct flights to Boston, Massachusetts. The town of Bar Harbor was founded on the northeast shore of Mount Desert Island, which the Wabanaki Indians knew as Pemetic, meaning "range of mountains" or "mountains seen at a distance." The Wabanaki seasonally fished and gathered berries and other shellfish in the area seasonally. They spoke of Bar Harbor as Man-es-ayd'ik or Ah-bays'auk, leaving great piles of shells as evidence of this abundance.
In early September 1604, French explorer Samuel de Champlain ran aground on a rock ledge believed to be Egg Rock, just off Otter Cliffs, when he came ashore to repair his boat he met local natives. Champlain named the island Isles des Monts Deserts, meaning "island of barren mountains"—now called Mount Desert Island, the largest in Maine. In 1761, Abraham Somes established the first European village on Mount Desert Island, naming it Somesville. Somes Sound was named after him, the only occurring fjard on the East Coast of the United States. Bar Harbor itself was first settled by Europeans in 1763 by Israel Higgins and John Thomas and incorporated on February 23, 1796 as Eden, after Sir Richard Eden, an English statesman. Early industries included fishing and shipbuilding. With the best soil on Mount Desert Island, it developed agriculture, with a main focus on dairy. In the 1840s, its rugged maritime scenery attracted the Hudson River School and Luminism artists Thomas Cole, Frederic Edwin Church, William Hart and Fitz Henry Lane.
Inspired by their paintings, sportsmen and "rusticators" followed. Agamont House, the first hotel in Eden, was established in 1855 by Tobias Roberts. Birch Point, the first summer estate, was built in 1868 by Alpheus Hardy. By 1880, there were 30 hotels, including the Mira Monte Inn, a historic landmark that would survive a massive fire, in 1947. Tourists were arriving by train and ferry to the Gilded Age resort that would rival Newport, Rhode Island; the rich and famous tried to outdo each other with entertaining and estates hiring landscape gardener and landscape architect Beatrix Farrand, a resident at local Reef Point Estate, to design their gardens. A glimpse of their lifestyles was available from the Shore Path, a walkway skirting waterfront lawns. Yachting, garden parties at the Pot & Kettle Club, carriage rides up Cadillac Mountain were popular diversions. Others enjoyed horse-racing at Robin Hood Park-Morrell Park. President William Howard Taft played golf in 1910 at the Kebo Valley Golf Club.
On March 3, 1918, Eden was renamed Bar Harbor, after the sand and gravel bar, visible at low tide, which leads across to Bar Island and forms the rear of the harbor. The name would become synonymous with elite wealth, it was the birthplace of vice-president Nelson Rockefeller on July 8, 1908. Bar Harbor was used for naval practices during World War II. More Bald Porcupine Island was used to fire live torpedoes. In October 1944, the submarine USS Piper fired 12 live torpedoes at the island. Of the 12 fired, one failed to explode on the first attempt but was detonated by the 12th torpedo. In 1996, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers surveyed all 30 acres of Bald Porcupine Island for unexploded ordnance. Nine were found. Many influential people have called Bar Harbor home for at least part of the year. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. son of John D. Rockefeller of Standard Oil Co. donated about one-third of the land in Acadia National Park and built the carriage roads that are used for hiking and biking. J. P. Morgan owned a house, adjacent to Bar Harbor.
Cornelius Vanderbilt built cottages in Bar Harbor. The Astor family owned cottages in Bar Harbor and the surrounding areas. William Howard Taft used to enjoy games of golf in Bar Harbor; the co-founder and CEO of Burt's Bees, Roxanne Quimby, has a home near Bar Harbor. Martha Stewart has been known to frequent Mount Desert Island and been seen in Bar Harbor. In mid-October 1947, Maine experienced a severe drought, experiencing only half of its usual rainfall. On October 17, sparks at a cranberry bog near Town Hill ignited a wildfire that would intensify over ten days, thanks to strong winds that began on October 21, it was not declared out until mid-November; this was one of several wildfires in the state that year. Nearly half the eastern side of Mount Desert Island burned, including 67 "cottages" – around a third of the 222 cottages that stood at the time. Five historic grand hotels were destroyed; these were Hamor House, Belmont Hotel, Malvern Hotel and the DeGregoire Hotel. The Building of Arts civic building, on Kebo Street at Cromwell Harbor Road perished.
Over 10,000 acres of Acadia National Park were destroyed. The town's business district was spared, including Mount Desert Street, where several former summer homes within a historic district listed on the National Register of Historic Places operate as i
The Jackson Laboratory is an independent, nonprofit biomedical research institution dedicated to contributing to a future of better health care based on the unique genetic makeup of each individual. With more than 2,100 employees in Bar Harbor, Maine; the institution is a National Cancer Institute-designated Cancer Center and has NIH centers of excellence in aging and systems genetics. The laboratory is the world's source for more than 8,000 strains of genetically defined mice, is home of the Mouse Genome Informatics database and is an international hub for scientific courses, conferences and education. Jackson Laboratory research, represented by the activities of more than 60 laboratories, performs research in six areas: Cancer: The Jackson Laboratory Cancer Center has a National Cancer Institute designated Cancer Center. Cancer areas of focus include: brain, lung, prostate, breast; the National Institute on Aging provides $25 million to develop new treatments, future therapies based on precision modeling.
The National Institutes of Health funds phase 2 of the Knockout Mouse Production and Phenotyping Project. A charitable contribution of $8,410,000 from the Harold Alfond Foundation will support The Jackson Laboratory's efforts to enhance cancer diagnostics and treatment in Maine. Researchers link mutations to butterfly-shaped pigment dystrophy, an inherited macular disease Jackson Laboratory researchers discover mutation involved in neurodegeneration The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine opens in Farmington, CT; the Jackson Laboratory was founded in 1929 in Bar Harbor, Maine, by former University of Maine and University of Michigan president C. C. Little under the name Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory. Established that cancer is a genetic disorder, a novel concept before the Laboratory's founding in 1929. Dr. Leroy Stevens first described cells that can develop into different tissues – today known as stem cells. Dr. Elizabeth Russell performed the first bone marrow transplants in a mammal, leading to new treatments for blood and immunological diseases.
Dr. George Snell won the Nobel Prize in 1980 for providing an in-depth understanding of the immune system's major histocompatibility complex, making organ transplants possible. Dr. Douglas L. Coleman discovered the hormone leptin, central to obesity and diabetes research, earning him the Shaw Prize, the Albert Lasker Award, the Gairdner International Award, Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Biomedicine, the King Faisal International Prize in Medicine. Is pioneering the use of cancer avatars – mice with implanted human tumors – to test targeted therapies for cancer patients. Recent research has provided insight into cancer stem treatments for leukemia; the Jackson Laboratory Cancer Center first received its National Cancer Institute designation in 1983 in recognition of the foundational cancer research conducted there. The JAXCC is one of seven NCI-designated Cancer Centers with a focus on basic research; the Jackson Laboratory Cancer Center has a single program, “Genetic Models for Precision Cancer Medicine,” composed of three biological themes: cancer cell robustness and genetic complexity, progenitor cell biology.
The themes emphasize the systems genetics of cancer and translational cancer genomics, all are supported by the JAX Cancer Center's technological initiatives in mouse modeling, genome analytics and quantitative cell biology. On May 10, 1989, a flash fire destroyed the Morrell Park mouse production facility; the fire raged for five hours, requiring over 100 firefighters from 15 companies and a total of 16 trucks for the fire to be contained. Four workers of the Colwell Construction Company who were installing fiberglass wallboard in the room where the fire broke out were injured, one with burns over 15 percent of his body. While none of the foundation strains were lost, 300,000 production mice died, resulting in a national shortage of laboratory mice and the layoff of 60 employees; this was the second fire to affect the laboratory. Worldwide donations of funds and mice allowed the lab to resume operations in 1948. Hosts the Mouse Genome Informatics database, by far the world's most significant source for information on mouse genetics and biology.
Distributes more than 3 million JAX® mice annually to more than 20,000 investigators in at least 50 countries for research and drug discovery. Offers more than 11,000 genetica
Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet, was a Canadian physician and one of the four founding professors of Johns Hopkins Hospital. Osler created the first residency program for specialty training of physicians, he was the first to bring medical students out of the lecture hall for bedside clinical training, he has been described as the Father of Modern Medicine and one of the "greatest diagnosticians to wield a stethoscope". Osler was a person of many interests, who in addition to being a physician, was a bibliophile, historian and renowned practical joker. One of his achievements was the founding of the History of Medicine Society of the Royal Society of Medicine, London. William's great-grandfather, Edward Osler, was variously described as either a merchant seaman or a pirate. One of William's uncles, a medical officer in the Royal Navy, wrote the Life of Lord Exmouth and the poem The Voyage.. William Osler's father, Featherstone Lake Osler, the son of a shipowner at Falmouth, was a former Lieutenant in the Royal Navy who served on HMS Victory.
In 1831 Featherstone Osler was invited to serve on HMS Beagle as the science officer on Charles Darwin's historic voyage to the Galápagos Islands, but he turned it down because his father was dying. In 1833, Featherstone Osler announced; as a teenager, Featherstone Osler was aboard HMS Sappho when it was nearly destroyed by Atlantic storms and left adrift for weeks. Serving in the Navy, he was shipwrecked off Barbados. In 1837 Featherstone Osler retired from the Navy and emigrated to Canada, becoming a "saddle-bag minister" in rural Upper Canada; when Featherstone Osler and his bride, Ellen Free Picton, arrived in Canada, they were nearly shipwrecked again on Egg Island in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The Oslers had several children, including William, Britton Bath Osler, Sir Edmund Boyd Osler. William Osler was born in Bond Head, Canada West on July 12, 1849, raised after 1857 in Dundas, Ontario, his mother, religious, prayed that Osler would consecrate to God's service and, in 1867, her son announced he would follow his father's footsteps into the ministry.
He was educated at Trinity College School and entered Trinity College, Toronto in the autumn of 1867. At the time, however, he was becoming interested in medical science, under the influence of James Bovell, Rev. William Arthur Johnson, who both became major influences for Osler at this time, encouraging him to switch his career. In 1868, Osler enrolled in the Toronto School of Medicine, a owned institution, not part of the Medical Faculty of the University of Toronto. Osler lived with Bovell for a time, through Johnson, he was introduced to the writings of Sir Thomas Browne. Osler left the Toronto School of Medicine after being accepted to the MDCM program at McGill University Faculty of Medicine in Montreal and he received his medical degree in 1872. Following post-graduate training under Rudolf Virchow in Europe, Osler returned to the McGill University Faculty of Medicine as a professor in 1874. Here he created the first formal journal club. During this time, he showed interest in comparative pathology and is considered the first to teach veterinary pathology in North America as part of a broad understanding of disease pathogenesis.
In 1884, he was appointed Chair of Clinical Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia and in 1885, was one of the seven founding members of the Association of American Physicians, a society dedicated to "the advancement of scientific and practical medicine." When he left Philadelphia in 1889, his farewell address, "Aequanimitas", was on the imperturbability and equanimity necessary for physicians. In 1889, he accepted the position as the first Physician-in-Chief of the new Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. Shortly afterwards, in 1893, Osler was instrumental in the creation of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine and became one of the school's first professors of medicine. Osler increased his reputation as a clinician and teacher, he presided over a expanding domain. In the hospital's first year of operation, when it had 220 beds, 788 patients were seen for a total of over 15,000 days of treatment. Sixteen years when Osler left for Oxford, over 4,200 patients were seen for a total of nearly 110,000 days of treatment.
In 1905, he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Medicine at Oxford. He was a Student of Christ Church, Oxford. In 1911, he initiated the Postgraduate Medical Association. In the same year, Osler was named a baronet in the Coronation Honours List for his contributions to the field of medicine; the largest collection of Osler's letters and papers is at the Osler Library of McGill University in Montreal and a collection of his papers is held at the United States National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland. Osler's greatest influence on medicine was to insist that students learn from seeing and talking to patients and the establishment of the medical residency; the latter idea spread across the English-speaking world and remains in place today in most teaching hospitals. Through this sy
Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland. Founded in 1876, the university was named for its first benefactor, the American entrepreneur and philanthropist Johns Hopkins, his $7 million bequest —of which half financed the establishment of Johns Hopkins Hospital—was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States up to that time. Daniel Coit Gilman, inaugurated as the institution's first president on February 22, 1876, led the university to revolutionize higher education in the U. S. by integrating teaching and research. Adopting the concept of a graduate school from Germany's ancient Heidelberg University, Johns Hopkins University is considered the first research university in the United States. Over the course of several decades, the university has led all U. S. universities in annual research and development expenditures. In fiscal year 2016, Johns Hopkins spent nearly $2.5 billion on research. Johns Hopkins is organized into 10 divisions on campuses in Maryland and Washington, D.
C. with international centers in Italy and Singapore. The two undergraduate divisions, the Zanvyl Krieger School of Arts and Sciences and the Whiting School of Engineering, are located on the Homewood campus in Baltimore's Charles Village neighborhood; the medical school, the nursing school, the Bloomberg School of Public Health are located on the Medical Institutions campus in East Baltimore. The university consists of the Peabody Institute, the Applied Physics Laboratory, the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, the School of Education, the Carey Business School, various other facilities. Johns Hopkins was a founding member of the American Association of Universities. Johns Hopkins University is cited as among the world's top universities; the university is ranked 10th among undergraduate programs at National Universities in U. S. News & World Report latest rankings, 10th among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2019 rankings, as well as 12th globally in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.
Over the course of more than 140 years, 37 Nobel laureates and 1 Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Johns Hopkins. Founded in 1883, the Blue Jays men's lacrosse team has captured 44 national titles and joined the Big Ten Conference as an affiliate member in 2014. On his death in 1873, Johns Hopkins, a Quaker entrepreneur and childless bachelor, bequeathed $7 million to fund a hospital and university in Baltimore, Maryland. At that time this fortune, generated from the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, was the largest philanthropic gift in the history of the United States; the first name of philanthropist Johns Hopkins is the surname of his great-grandmother, Margaret Johns, who married Gerard Hopkins. They named their son Johns Hopkins. Samuel named one of his sons for his father and that son would become the university's benefactor. Milton Eisenhower, a former university president, once spoke at a convention in Pittsburgh where the Master of Ceremonies introduced him as "President of John Hopkins."
Eisenhower retorted that he was "glad to be here in Pittburgh." The original board opted for an novel university model dedicated to the discovery of knowledge at an advanced level, extending that of contemporary Germany. Building on the Humboldtian model of higher education, the German education model of Wilhelm von Humboldt, it became dedicated to research. Johns Hopkins thereby became the model of the modern research university in the United States, its success shifted higher education in the United States from a focus on teaching revealed and/or applied knowledge to the scientific discovery of new knowledge. The trustees worked alongside four notable university presidents – Charles W. Eliot of Harvard, Andrew D. White of Cornell, Noah Porter of Yale College and James B. Angell of Michigan, they each vouched for Daniel Coit Gilman to lead the new University and he became the university's first president. Gilman, a Yale-educated scholar, had been serving as president of the University of California prior to this appointment.
In preparation for the university's founding, Gilman visited University of Freiburg and other German universities. Gilman launched what many at the time considered an audacious and unprecedented academic experiment to merge teaching and research, he dismissed the idea that the two were mutually exclusive: "The best teachers are those who are free and willing to make original researches in the library and the laboratory," he stated. To implement his plan, Gilman recruited internationally known luminaries such as the mathematician James Joseph Sylvester. Gilman focused on the expansion of graduate support of faculty research; the new university fused advanced scholarship with such professional schools as medicine and engineering. Hopkins became the national trendsetter in doctoral programs and the host for numerous scholarly journals and associations; the Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation. With the completion of Johns Hopkins Hospital in 1889 and the medical school in 1893, the university's research-focused mode of instruction soon began attracting world-renowned faculty members who would become major figures in the emerging field of acad
The Amish are a group of traditionalist Christian church fellowships with Swiss German Anabaptist origins. They are related to, but distinct from, Mennonite churches; the Amish are known for simple living, plain dress, reluctance to adopt many conveniences of modern technology. The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in 1693 led by Jakob Ammann; those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. In the second half of the 19th century, the Amish divided into Amish Mennonites; the latter drive cars as does the main society during the 20th century, whereas the Old Order Amish retained much of their traditional culture. When it is spoken of Amish today only the Old Order Amish are meant. In the early 18th century many Amish, Mennonites, immigrated to Pennsylvania for a variety of reasons. Today the Old Order Amish, the New Order Amish, the Old Beachy Amish continue to speak Pennsylvania German known as "Pennsylvania Dutch", although two different Alemannic dialects are used by Old Order Amish in Adams and Allen counties in Indiana.
As of 2000, over 165,000 Old Order Amish lived in the United States and about 1,500 lived in Canada. A 2008 study suggested their numbers had increased to 227,000, in 2010, a study suggested their population had grown by 10 percent in the past two years to 249,000, with increasing movement to the West. Most of the Amish continue to have six or seven children, while benefitting from the major decrease in infant and maternal mortality in the 20th century. Between 1992 and 2017, the Amish population increased by 149 percent, while the U. S. population increased by 23 percent. Amish church membership begins with baptism between the ages of 16 and 23, it is a requirement for marriage within the Amish church. Once a person is baptized within the church, he or she may marry only within the faith. Church districts average between 20 and 40 families and worship services are held every other Sunday in a member's home; the district is led by several ministers and deacons. The rules of the church, the Ordnung, must be observed by every member and cover many aspects of day-to-day living, including prohibitions or limitations on the use of power-line electricity and automobiles, as well as regulations on clothing.
Most Amish do not participate in Social Security. As present-day Anabaptists, Amish church members practice nonresistance and will not perform any type of military service; the Amish value rural life, manual labor, humility, all under the auspices of living what they interpret to be God's word. Members who do not conform to these community expectations and who cannot be convinced to repent are excommunicated. In addition to excommunication, members may be shunned, a practice that limits social contacts to shame the wayward member into returning to the church. 90 percent of Amish teenagers choose to be baptized and join the church. During an adolescent period of rumspringa in some communities, nonconforming behavior that would result in the shunning of an adult who had made the permanent commitment of baptism, may be met with a degree of forbearance. Amish church groups seek to maintain a degree of separation from the non-Amish world, i.e. American and Canadian society. Non-Amish people are referred to as'English'.
A heavy emphasis is placed on church and family relationships. They operate their own one-room schools and discontinue formal education after grade eight, at age 13/14; until the children turn 16, they have vocational training under the tutelage of their parents and the school teacher. Higher education is discouraged, as it can lead to social segregation and the unraveling of the community. However, some Amish women have used higher education to obtain a nursing certificate so that they may provide midwifery services to the community; the Anabaptist movement, from which the Amish emerged, started in circles around Huldrych Zwingli who led the early Reformation in Switzerland. In Zurich on January 21, 1525, Conrad Grebel and George Blaurock practiced adult baptism to each other and to others; this Swiss movement, part of the Radical Reformation became known as Swiss Brethren. The term Amish was first used as a Schandename in 1710 by opponents of Jakob Amman; the first informal division between Swiss Brethren was recorded in the 17th century between Oberländers and Emmentaler.
The Oberländers were a more extreme congregation. Swiss Anabaptism developed, from this point, in two parallel streams, most marked by disagreement over the preferred treatment of "fallen" believers; the Emmentalers argued that fallen believers should only be withheld from communion, not regular meals. The Amish argued that those, banned should be avoided in common meals; the Reistian side formed the basis of the Swiss Mennonite Conference. Because of this common heritage and Mennonites from southern Germany and Switzerland retain many similarities; those who leave the Amish fold tend to join various congregations of Conservative Mennonites. Amish began migrating to Pennsylvania known for its religious toleration, in the 18th century as part of a larger migration from the Palatinate and neighboring areas; this migration was a reaction to religious wars and religious persecution in Europe. The firs