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Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy

Victor Amadeus I was the Duke of Savoy from 1630 to 1637. He was known as the Lion of Susa, he was born in Turin, Piedmont to Charles Emmanuel I, Duke of Savoy and Catherine Micaela of Spain, daughter of King Philip II of Spain. He spent much of his childhood in Madrid at the court of his grandfather Philip II, he stayed there until the king's death in 1598. When his brother, Filippo Emanuele, died in 1605, he became heir-apparent to the Duchy of Savoy and received the homage of the court at Racconigi on 21 January 1607. Victor Amadeus became Duke of Savoy after his father's death in 1630. Charles Emmanuel's policies had brought a great instability in the relationships with both France and Spain, troops were needed to defend the Duchy; as money was lacking to recruit mercenaries or train indigenous soldiers, Victor Amadeus signed a peace treaty with Spain. With the Treaty of Cherasco, Savoy was forced to give Pinerolo to France; this gave France a strategic route on into the rest of Italy. The rulers of Savoy from that point resented this loss, worked for decades with the goal of regaining that loss.

Subsequently, under the direction of Cardinal Richelieu, Victor Amadeus attempted to create an anti-Spanish league in Italy. He achieved two victories against the Spanish: In 1636 in the Battle of Tornavento and on 8 September 1637 in the Battle of Mombaldone. On 25 September 1637, Victor Amadeus fell ill after a dinner offered by the Duke of Créqui, he was carried to Vercelli, where he died on 7 October, aged 50. In 1619, he married Christine Marie of France, a daughter of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici. Following his death, she served as regent of the Duchy from 1637 to 1663, they had children including: Stillborn son Prince Louis Amadeus of Savoy Princess Louise Christine of Savoy, married her uncle Prince Maurice of Savoy Prince Francis Hyacinth of Savoy, Duke of Savoy Prince Charles Emmanuel of Savoy, Duke of Savoy. War and the Rise of Savoy 1690–1720. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521551463. "Victor Amadeus I.". Collier's New Encyclopedia. 1921

Cardigan Priory

Cardigan Priory was a priory located in Cardigan, mid-west Wales. The St. Mary's Church and the priory were two separate buildings. Documents preserved at Gloucester Cathedral state that Chertsey Abbey misappropriated, was compelled to yield up, the Church of the Holy Trinity at Cardigan, granted to Gloucester by Gilbert de Clare previous to the establishment of the priory; the Brut y Tywysogion states that De Clare granted Cardigan Priory to the Gloucester Abbey prior to his death in or before 1117. Around 1164, Rhys ap Gruffydd, Prince of South Wales, conquered Cardigan and brought it again under Welsh rule, by a grant confirmed the gift of the existing priory of Cardigan to the Benedictines of Chertsey Abbey in Surrey. During the Clares' time, it was dedicated to the Trinity; the priory was dissolved in 1538 after which time it was converted into a mansion and granted to Bisham and subsequently to William and Mary Cavendish. In the mid 17th century Cardigan Priory was the favoured home of Katherine Philips, known as "The Matchless Orinda".

In 1922 it was re-opened by Dame Margaret Lloyd George as the Cardigan District and Memorial Hospital. The priory was set on 200 acres; the grounds and buildings extended along the River Teifi. The Bishops of St Davids lived in one of the buildings when they visited Cardigan, which may have coincided with problems noted by the abbot of Chertsey in 1433/4. In a 1599 map, the priory church is represented as cruciform in shape, while in Blaeu's map of 1646, the cruciform includes an adjoined chapel the chantry chapel of Sir John ap Jevan

Penermon, Missouri

Penermon is a village in Stoddard County, United States. The population was 64 at the 2010 census. Penermon is at 36°47′22″N 89°49′37″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.21 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 64 people, 33 households, 16 families living in the village; the population density was 304.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 34 housing units at an average density of 161.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 9.4% White, 87.5% African American, 3.1% from two or more races. There were 33 households of which 24.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 33.3% were married couples living together, 15.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 51.5% were non-families. 48.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 24.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.94 and the average family size was 2.75. The median age in the village was 45 years.

18.7% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 50.0 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 75 people, 31 households, 20 families living in the village; the population density was 358.3 people per square mile. There were 37 housing units at an average density of 176.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 84.00 % African American. There were 31 households out of which 29.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 22.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.3% were non-families. 29.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 3.00. In the village, the population was spread out with 33.3% under the age of 18, 1.3% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 16.0% from 45 to 64, 22.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 66.7 males. The median income for a household in the village was $11,875, the median income for a family was $38,333. Males had a median income of $27,083 versus $15,625 for females; the per capita income for the village was $10,549. There were 15.0% of families and 25.0% of the population living below the poverty line, including 13.0% of under eighteens and 42.9% of those over 64

Emperor Fei of Western Wei

Emperor Fei of Western Wei, personal name Yuan Qin, was an emperor of the Xianbei state Western Wei—a branch successor state of Northern Wei. He more so than his father Emperor Wen, held little actual power in the face of overwhelming control of power by the paramount general Yuwen Tai. In 554, he tried to plot to have Yuwen killed, but his plot was discovered, Yuwen deposed him, soon had him killed, it is not known. What is known is that he was the oldest son of Yuan Baoju the Prince of Nanyang, a grandson of Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei, by his wife Princess Yifu, that he had one younger brother by Princess Yifu, Yuan Wu. Around the new year 535, Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei—a cousin of Yuan Baoju and the final emperor of the undivided Northern Wei state but who by now was only emperor over the western part of the state -- was poisoned by the paramount general Yuwen Tai over a dispute developed when Yuwen disapproved of his incestuous relationship with Yuan Baoju's sister Yuan Mingyue.

Yuwen Tai made Yuan Baoju the new emperor. Emperor Wen created Princess Yifu empress, created Yuan Qin crown prince. In 538, while both Emperor Wen and Yuwen Tai were away on a campaign against Eastern Wei, Yuan Qin was nominally put in charge of the capital Chang'an, although the official Zhou Huida was in charge; when former Eastern Wei captives, upon hearing initial news of Eastern Wei victories, rebelled within Chang'an with Zhao Qingque, Zhou and Li Hu were forced to escort the crown prince out of Chang'an to flee the rebellion. When Yuwen returned, Zhao's rebellion collapsed, Emperor Wen and Yuan Qin were both able to return to Chang'an. Emperor Wen had little actual power, in 538, over Yuwen's desire for an alliance with Rouran, he was forced to depose Empress Yifu and marry the daughter of Rouran's Chiliantoubingdoufa Khan Yujiulü Anagui as his empress. In 540, he was further forced to send Empress Yujiulü away from Chang'an, forced to order her to commit suicide. Sometime during Emperor Wen's reign, Yuan Qin married Yuwen Tai's daughter as his crown princess.

It was said that he favored her and that he had no concubines. In 542, during an assault that Eastern Wei's paramount general Gao Huan launched on the border city Yubi, Yuan Qin was made the defender of the important city Puban, while Yuwen launched an army to try to catch up with Gao as he retreated, it is not known how much responsibility or authority Yuan Qin had during this campaign. In 551, after Emperor Wen died, Yuan Qin took the throne as Emperor Fei. Emperor Fei appeared to have less actual power than his father, to whom Yuwen Tai paid formal deference, he was able to rebury his mother Empress Yifu with his father Emperor Wen. He created Crown Princess Yuwen, empress; because Yuwen wanted to restore many Zhou Dynasty customs and traditions, Emperor Fei did not use an era name. In 553, Yuwen Tai's nephew Yuchi Jiong conquered the western provinces of Liang Dynasty, under the control of the Liang pretender to the throne, Xiao Ji, added them to Western Wei territory. In late 553, the official Yuan Lie plotted killing Yuwen, but his plot was discovered, Yuwen killed him.

After Yuan Lie's death, Emperor Fei became angry at Yuwen and spoke against him. He secretly plotted killing Yuwen, despite advice from Yuan Yu the Prince of Linhuai and Yuan Zan the Prince of Guangping that plotting was dangerous. Emperor Fei's plot, was discovered by Yuwen's other sons-in-law. Yuwen imprisoned Emperor Fei, making his younger brother Yuan Kuo emperor. Soon thereafter, Emperor Fei was put to death. According to the History of Northern Dynasties, his wife Empress Yuwen "also suffered death because she was faithful to Wei's imperial house," although it is unclear how she died or whether she died the same year he did. Father Emperor Wen of Western Wei Mother Empress Yifu Wife Empress Yuwen Son Eldest son History of Northern Dynasties, vol. 5. Zizhi Tongjian, vols. 157, 158, 164, 165

Guildford Castle

Guildford Castle is in Guildford, England. It is thought to have been built shortly after the 1066 invasion of England by William the Conqueror. After the Battle of Hastings in 1066 William led his army to Canterbury and sacked towns along the Pilgrims' Way, including Guildford. William, or one of his barons, built Guildford Castle. There is no record of it in the Domesday Book so construction started after 1086. First to be built at the Castle would have been the motte around, a ditch and a bailey protected by a wooden palisade; the bailey's boundary would have run along Castle Street, South Hill, what is now Racks Close and parallel with Quarry Street. If it followed a typical Norman design the bailey would have been divided with a palisade, into two parts the outer and inner bail; the inner bailey would have encompassed the motte on which a wooden keep would have been built as a look-out post for the soldiers stationed there. Late 11th or early 12th century, a wall made of Bargate stone was built around the top of the motte creating what is known as a shell keep, around the 1130s a keep was added, again made of Bargate stone from nearby Godalming bonded with hard and durable mortar.

The keep may have been built over part of the shell keep and its foundations went down to the chalk bedrock. The general form was its exterior dimensions being 47 feet by 45.5 feet. The walls are about 10 feet thick at the taper towards the top; the keep had a ground and first floor with the entrance located in the first floor to aid in defence. The keep was most used as a private apartment for the King; the ground floor was windowless. On the first floor there was a main chamber, a chapel, wardrobe with latrine. A second floor was added shortly afterwards containing a two-seater latrine; the addition of the second floor made. The roof of the building was made of lead and the inner walls were covered in plaster and whitewashed. In the 12th century the King moved to better apartments located in the bailey; the main bailey buildings would have included a great hall, apartments for the King and Queen and their chapels. The great hall is thought to have been located at the site of the two houses at the bottom of Castle Hill and was made of stone.

Henry III made a number of improvements in the 13th century which resulted in the castle being known as a palace. The Queen's apartment was improved with large new windows and two marble columns were added; the great hall was decorated with paintings. King Henry had his room painted green with gold and silver stars and he built a garden surrounded by marble columns. A fire damaged the hall in 1254 but the changes to the buildings continued. Henry purchased some extra land in 1254 to extend the bailey so allow him to build a set of room for Edward, his son and heir to the throne, which were completed in 1246; the gate at Quarry Street was completed in 1256 which suggests that Henry made changes to the castle but no evidence of the previous gate remains. The castle was used as a royal residence but it was a fortress and did play a part in warfare and although the Castle was never attacked it was strengthened at various points in its history; the keep is thought to have been heightened during the civil war which took place during Stephen's reign and during the rebellion of Henry II's sons the castle was strengthened.

On 9 July 1216 Prince Louis took possession of the castle during the First Barons' War against King John, but the castle was not a scene of conflict. During the rebellion of Simon de Montfort in the 1260s there was no fighting either; however King Henry III's son Prince Edward did capture a rebel named Adam Gurdon in a battle at Alton and brought him to Guildford Castle and it was used as a mustering point during King Edward I's foreign wars. In 1218, William de Coniers was constable of the castle. In 1307 Edward de Say, the keeper of the King's prisoners had orders to repair the prison. In 1322, Oliver de Burdegala was governor. In 1337 Sir John de Brocas was made constable. In 1367, it was given to Andrew Sackville, sheriff of Surrey and Sussex both for a prison and as a dwelling. In 1377 Sir Simon Burleigh, was constable. Guildford, along with some other royal inland castles, was no longer needed for defence and were neglected. From the 1360s a royal moated hunting lodge was improved and enlarged, so royalty chose to stay there when visiting the area rather than the castle.

The royal apartments at the castle were neglected and by 1379 only the King's great chamber remained, the rest of the royal apartments having decayed beyond repair. This castle keep continued to be used as the common gaol for both Surrey and Sussex until 1487, when the inhabitants of Sussex petitioned parliament that the prisoners be moved to Lewes, which had a more secure establishment and location; the petition was granted. In 1544 John Daborne was made keeper of the castle garden, his family were involved with the castle for the rest of the 16th century and is

Adam Benjamin Metro Center

Gary Metro Center is a multimodal commuter hub operated by the Gary Public Transportation Corporation. It was built in 1984 as an elevated replacement of the ground-level Broadway Street Station, it serves as the Downtown Gary station on the South Shore Line. It serves as a stop for Greyhound Lines and other intercity bus systems, it is one of three NICTD electric train stations in Gary, serves the Genesis Convention Center and the U. S. Steel Yard baseball park, home of the Gary SouthShore RailCats baseball team; the RailCats's full name, SouthShore RailCats, honors the South Shore Line. The station is just south of Gary Union Station; the tracks of the former Baltimore and Ohio and New York Central Railroads lie near the station. The station consists of a single elevated low-level island platform with mobile wheelchair lifts to allow passengers with disabilities to board and disembark; the platform can be accessed from the second floor of stairs located adjacent to Broadway as well as via the second floor of the station building.

GPTC Route 1: Tiberon Trails Route 7: 9th & Colfax Route 11: 5th & Colfax Route 12: Tri-City Connection via Casinos Route 13: Oak and County Line Route 15: King Drive Route 16: Colonial Gardens Route 17: South Broadway Express Route 19: West 6th/Hospital Media related to Gary Metro Center train station at Wikimedia Commons South Shore Line - Stations South Shore Railfan.net Station from Google Maps Street View