New Knoxville, Ohio
New Knoxville is a village in Auglaize County, United States. It was established in 1836; the population was 879 at the 2010 census. It is included in Ohio Micropolitan Statistical Area. New Knoxville was platted in 1836. A post office called New Knoxville has been in operation since 1858. New Knoxville's community historical society maintains a historical museum in the village consisting of five buildings. Three of the buildings in the "Heritage Center Complex" are listed on the National Register of Historic Places because of their place as the home and office of Dr. H. E. Fledderjohann, a leading member of the community at the turn of the twentieth century. New Knoxville is located at 40°29′39″N 84°19′2″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.89 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 879 people, 355 households, 250 families residing in the village; the population density was 987.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 382 housing units at an average density of 429.2 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 98.6% White, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 355 households of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.5% were married couples living together, 7.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 29.6% were non-families. 26.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.98. The median age in the village was 39.4 years. 27.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the village was 49.4% male and 50.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 891 people, 348 households, 249 families residing in the village; the population density was 1,135.4 people per square mile. There were 364 housing units at an average density of 463.9 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 98.54% White, 0.22% African American, 0.34% Asian, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.11% of the population. There were 348 households out of which 37.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.1% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families. 26.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.13. In the village, the population was spread out with 28.1% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 32.4% from 25 to 44, 16.8% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.5 males. The median income for a household in the village was $42,375, the median income for a family was $51,000.
Males had a median income of $33,833 versus $23,750 for females. The per capita income for the village was $18,800. About 4.1% of families and 4.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.4% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. New Knoxville is home to the First Church of New Knoxville and to New Knoxville United Methodist Church. Hoge Lumber is one of the largest employers in New Knoxville. Hoge Lumber is the world's largest producer of wood bowling lanes and has manufactured upward of 100,000 wood lanes. Crown Equipment Corporation has a manufacturing facility in New Knoxville and hangars their corporate jets at New Knoxville's Auglaize County/Neil Armstrong airport; the Way International is a religious organization founded by Dr. Victor Paul Wierwille, it was founded on October 3, 1942, the year Wierwille began his Vesper Chimes radio program, a.k.a. the Chimes Hour Youth Caravan in nearby Van Wert. The Way International's Headquarters in Shelby County south of New Knoxville was the Wierwille family farm.
New Knoxville has a branch of the Auglaize County Public Library. Ladbergen, North Rhine-Westphalia, GermanyA lot of immigrants originating from the German village of Ladbergen settled down in the area around New Knoxville with which a town partnership was established; these immigrants became the ancestors of large numbers of residents of New Knoxville and the surrounding area, including Washington Township/Wapakoneta native Neil Armstrong. Closer relations between the two villages have been fostered by journeys by residents of both communities to the other. For the New Knoxville sesquicentennial in 1986 100 Ladbergen residents traveled to New Knoxville to join in the celebration. New Knoxville's neighboring municipalities and Saint Marys, are sister cities with Ladbergen's neighbors Lengerich and Lienen, respectively. Evan Eschmeyer, professional basketball player Victor Paul Wierwille, Christian minister Village website Southwestern Auglaize Chamber of Commerce
The Holy Bible from Ancient Eastern Manuscripts was published by George M. Lamsa in 1933, it was derived, both Old and New Testaments, from the Syriac Peshitta, the Bible used by the Assyrian Church of the East and other Syriac Christian traditions. Lamsa, following the tradition of his church, claimed that the Aramaic New Testament was written before the Greek version, a view known as Aramaic primacy; this contrasts with the academic consensus. Lamsa thus claimed his translation was superior to versions based on Greek manuscripts. While Lamsa's claims are rejected by the academic community his translation remains the best known of Aramaic to English translations of the New Testament; some places in Lamsa's translation differ from the Greek texts used as the basis of other English-language Bibles. An example is found in Matthew Matthew 27:46, where Lamsa has "My God, my God, for this I was spared!" where the Greek text has "My God, my God why have you forsaken me." And about the ninth hourJesus cried with a loud voice, Eli, lama sabachthani?, to say, My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?
This is rendered in Lamsa's translation: And about the ninth hour, Jesus cried out with a loud voice and said, Eli lemana shabakthan! My God, my God, for this I was spared! Though in fact the Peshitta does not have four lines in this verse; the 1905 United Bible Societies edition by George Gwilliam of the Peshitta in Syriac contains only three lines, the Aramaic "Eli, Eli.. " etc. not being given twice: ܘܠܐܦ̈ܝ ܬܫܥ ܫܥ̈ܝܢ ܩܥܐ ܝܫܘܥ ܒܩܠܐ ܪܡܐ ܘܐܡܪ ܐܝܠ ܐܝܠ ܠܡܢܐ ܫܒܩܬܢܝ This verse in Greek manuscripts states that from the Cross, Jesus cried out,'My God, My God, why hast Thou forsaken Me?' Proponents of the priority of the Aramaic New Testament such as the Nestorian Church claim this verse is a mistranslation into Greek. Some scholars of the Peshitta and the Greek New Testament claim that in Matthew 19:24 as the Aramaic word for'camel' is written identically to the word for'rope.' an error occurred due to the translator's limitations when the original scrolls were being transferred into Greek. This would mean Matthew 19:24 translated as,'It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God.'
Would read'rope' instead of'camel'. To support this they claim that rope, is much more in keeping with the imagery of a needle, that it is what Jesus said, what was recorded. Saint Cyril in his commentary on the Holy Gospel according to Luke says that camel is the term used by those versed in navigation for a thick rope, thereby both stating that the term camel is the right one and that its meaning is that of a rope and not the animal; this suggests the Lamsa'rope' translation is the more accurate "meaning" translation and'camel' is the more accurate 1st century "slang" translation. The Assyrian tradition has been refuted by scholars of both the New Testament and the Peshitta. Another concern is that the 1905 United Bible Societies Aramaic New Testament, based on the editions of Philip E. Pusey, George Gwilliam and John Gwyn, with which Lamsa's sources are common, are a late form of the Aramaic text which reveals nothing of the early stages of the Peshitta's development; this translation is better known as the Lamsa Bible.
He wrote several other books on the Peshitta and Aramaic Primacy such as Gospel Light, New Testament Origin, Idioms of the Bible, along with a New Testament commentary. Lamsa, George; the Holy Bible from Ancient Eastern Manuscripts. ISBN 0-06-064923-2. George M. Lamsa: Christian Scholar or Cultic Torchbearer?, by John P. Juedes
In Abrahamic religions, a messiah or messias is a saviour or liberator of a group of people. The concepts of moshiach, of a Messianic Age originated in Judaism, in the Hebrew Bible. Messiahs were not Jewish: the Book of Isaiah refers to Cyrus the Great, king of the Achaemenid Empire, as a messiah for his decree to rebuild the Jerusalem Temple. Ha mashiach referred to as melekh mashiach, is to be a human leader, physically descended from the paternal Davidic line through King David and King Solomon, he is thought to accomplish predetermined things in only one future arrival, including the unification of the tribes of Israel, the gathering of all Jews to Eretz Israel, the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem, the ushering in of a Messianic Age of global universal peace, the annunciation of the world to come. In Christianity, the Messiah is called the Christ, from Greek: translit. Khristós, translating the Hebrew word of the same meaning; the concept of the Messiah in Christianity originated from the Messiah in Judaism.
However, unlike the concept of the Messiah in Judaism, the Messiah in Christianity is the Son of God. Christ became the accepted Christian designation and title of Jesus of Nazareth, because Christians believe that the messianic prophecies in the Old Testament were fulfilled in his mission and resurrection; these include the prophecies of him being descended from the Davidic line, being declared King of the Jews which happened on the day of his crucifixion. They believe that Christ will fulfill the rest of the messianic prophecies that he will usher in a Messianic Age and the world to come at his Second Coming. In Islam, Jesus was a prophet and the Masîḥ, the Messiah sent to the Israelites, he will return to Earth at the end of times, along with the Mahdi, defeat al-Masih ad-Dajjal, the false Messiah. In Ahmadiyya theology, these prophecies concerning the Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus have been fulfilled in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, the founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, the terms'Messiah' and'Mahdi' are synonyms for one and the same person.
In Chabad messianism, Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, sixth Rebbe of Chabad Lubavitch, Menachem Mendel Schneerson, seventh Rebbe of Chabad, are Messiah claimants. Resembling early Christianity, the deceased Schneerson is believed to be the Messiah among some adherents of the Chabad movement. Messiah means "anointed one". In Hebrew, the Messiah is referred to as מלך המשיח The Greek Septuagint version of the Old Testament renders all thirty-nine instances of the Hebrew word for "anointed" as Χριστός; the New Testament records the Greek transliteration Μεσσίας, Messias twice in John.al-Masīḥ is the Arabic word for messiah. In modern Arabic, it is used as one of the many titles of Jesus. Masīḥ is used by Arab Christians as well as Muslims, is written as Yasūʿ al-Masih by Arab Christians or ʿĪsā al-Masīḥ by Muslims; the word al-Masīḥ means "the anointed", "the traveller", or the "one who cures by caressing". The literal translation of the Hebrew word mashiach is "anointed", which refers to a ritual of consecrating someone or something by putting holy oil upon it.
It is used throughout the Hebrew Bible in reference to a wide variety of objects. In Jewish eschatology, the term came to refer to a future Jewish king from the Davidic line, who will be "anointed" with holy anointing oil, to be king of God's kingdom, rule the Jewish people during the Messianic Age. In Judaism, the Messiah is not considered to be a pre-existent divine Son of God, he is considered to be a great political leader. That is why he is referred to as Messiah ben David, which means "Messiah, son of David"; the messiah, in Judaism, is considered to be a great, charismatic leader, well oriented with the laws that are followed in Judaism. He will be the one who will not "judge by what his eyes see" or "decide by what his ears hear". Belief in the eventual coming of a future messiah is a fundamental part of Judaism, is one of Maimonides' 13 Principles of Faith. Maimonides describes the identity of the Messiah in the following terms: And if a king shall arise from among the House of David, studying Torah and occupied with commandments like his father David, according to the written and oral Torah, he will impel all of Israel to follow it and to strengthen breaches in its observance, will fight God's wars, this one is to be treated as if he were the anointed one.
If he succeeded and built the Holy Temple in its proper place and gathered the dispersed ones of Israel together, this is indeed the anointed one for certain, he will mend the entire world to worship the Lord together, as it is stated: "For I shall turn for the nations a clear tongue, so that they will all proclaim the Name of the Lord, to worship Him w
Acts of the Apostles
Acts of the Apostles referred to as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament. Acts and the Gospel of Luke make up a two-part work, Luke–Acts, by the same anonymous author dated to around 80–90 AD; the first part, the Gospel of Luke, tells how God fulfilled his plan for the world's salvation through the life and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth, the promised Messiah. Acts continues the story of Christianity in the 1st century, beginning with Jesus's ascension to Heaven; the early chapters, set in Jerusalem, describe the Day of Pentecost and the growth of the church in Jerusalem. The Jews are receptive to the Christian message, but soon they turn against the followers of Jesus. Rejected by the Jews, under the guidance of the Apostle Peter the message is taken to the Gentiles; the chapters tell of Paul's conversion, his mission in Asia Minor and the Aegean, his imprisonment in Rome, where, as the book ends, he awaits trial. Luke–Acts is an attempt to answer a theological problem, namely how the Messiah of the Jews came to have an overwhelmingly non-Jewish church.
Luke–Acts can be seen as a defense of the Jesus movement addressed to the Jews: the bulk of the speeches and sermons in Acts are addressed to Jewish audiences, with the Romans serving as external arbiters on disputes concerning Jewish customs and law. On the one hand, Luke portrays the Christians as a sect of the Jews, therefore entitled to legal protection as a recognised religion; the title "Acts of the Apostles" was first used by Irenaeus in the late 2nd century. It is not known whether this was one invented by Irenaeus; the Gospel of Luke and Acts make up a two-volume work. Together they account for 27.5% of the New Testament, the largest contribution attributed to a single author, providing the framework for both the Church's liturgical calendar and the historical outline into which generations have fitted their idea of the story of Jesus and the early church. The author is not named in either volume. According to Church tradition dating from the 2nd century, he was the "Luke" named as a companion of the apostle Paul in three of the letters attributed to Paul himself.
The author "does not share Paul's own view of himself as an apostle. He was educated, a man of means urban, someone who respected manual work, although not a worker himself. While no proposed date for the composition of Acts is universally accepted, the most common scholarly position is to date Luke–Acts to 80-90 AD, on the grounds that it uses Mark as a source, looks back on the destruction of Jerusalem, does not show any awareness of the letters of Paul; the earliest possible date for the composition of Acts is set by the events with which it ends, Paul's imprisonment in Rome c. 63 AD, but such an early dating is a minority position. The last possible date would be set by its first definite citation by another author, but there is no unanimity on this. A minority of scholars in the latter camp, conclude that Acts dates to the 2nd century, believing that it shows awareness of the letters of Paul, the works of Josephus, or the writings of Marcion. There are two major textual variants of the Western text-type and the Alexandrian.
The oldest complete Alexandrian manuscripts date from the 4th century and the oldest Western ones from the 6th, with fragments and citations going back to the 3rd. Western texts of Acts are 6.2–8.4% longer than Alexandrian texts, the additions tending to enhance the Jewish rejection of the Messiah and the role of the Holy Spirit, in ways that are stylistically different from the rest of Acts. The majority of scholars prefer the Alexandrian text-type over the Western as the more authentic, but this same argument would favour the Western over the Alexandrian for the Gospel of Luke, as in that case the Western version is the shorter; the title "Acts of the Apostles" would seem to identify it with the genre telling of the deeds and achievements of great men, but it was not the title given by the author. The anonymous author aligned Luke–Acts to the "narratives" (διήγησ
Nontrinitarianism is a form of Christianity that rejects the mainstream Christian doctrine of the Trinity—the teaching that God is three distinct hypostases or persons who are coeternal and indivisibly united in one being, or essence. Certain religious groups that emerged during the Protestant Reformation have been known as antitrinitarian, but are not considered Protestant in popular discourse due to their nontrinitarian nature. According to churches that consider the decisions of ecumenical councils final, Trinitarianism was definitively declared to be Christian doctrine at the 4th-century ecumenical councils, that of the First Council of Nicaea, which declared the full divinity of the Son, the First Council of Constantinople, which declared the divinity of the Holy Spirit. In terms of number of adherents, nontrinitarian denominations comprise a minority of modern Christianity; the largest nontrinitarian Christian denominations are The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Oneness Pentecostals, Jehovah's Witnesses, La Luz del Mundo and the Iglesia ni Cristo, though there are a number of other smaller groups, including Christadelphians, Christian Scientists, Dawn Bible Students, Living Church of God, Assemblies of Yahweh, Israelite Church of God in Jesus Christ, Members Church of God International, Unitarian Universalist Christians, The Way International, The Church of God International, the United Church of God.
Nontrinitarian views differ on the nature of God and the Holy Spirit. Various nontrinitarian philosophies, such as adoptionism and subordinationism existed prior to the establishment of the Trinity doctrine in AD 325, 381, 431, at the Councils of Nicaea and Ephesus. Nontrinitarianism was renewed by Cathars in the 11th through 13th centuries, in the Unitarian movement during the Protestant Reformation, in the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, in some groups arising during the Second Great Awakening of the 19th century; the doctrine of the Trinity, as held in mainstream Christianity, is not present in the other major Abrahamic religions. Christian apologists and other Church Fathers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries, having adopted and formulated the Logos Christology, considered the Son of God as the instrument used by the supreme God, the Father, to bring the creation into existence. Justin Martyr, Theophilus of Antioch, Hippolytus of Rome and Tertullian in particular state that the internal Logos of God —his impersonal divine reason—was begotten as Logos uttered, becoming a person to be used for the purpose of creation.
The Encyclopædia Britannica states: "to some Christians the doctrine of the Trinity appeared inconsistent with the unity of God.... They therefore denied it, accepted Jesus Christ, not as incarnate God, but as God's highest creature by whom all else was created.... View in the early Church long contended with the orthodox doctrine." Although the nontrinitarian view disappeared in the early Church and the Trinitarian view became an orthodox doctrine of modern Christianity, variations of the nontrinitarian view are still held by a small number of Christian groups and denominations. Various views exist regarding the relationships between the Father and Holy Spirit; those who believe that Jesus is not God, nor equal to God, but was either God's subordinate Son, a messenger from God, or prophet, or the perfect created human: Adoptionism holds that Jesus became divine at his baptism or at his resurrection. Arius' position was that the Son was brought forth as the first of God's creations, that the Father created all things through the Son.
Arius taught that in the creation of the universe, the Father was the ultimate creator, supplying all the materials and directing the design, while the Son worked the materials, making all things at the bidding and in the service of the Father, by which "through all things came into existence". Arianism became the dominant view in some regions in the time of the Roman Empire, notably the Visigoths until 589; the third Council of Sirmium in 357 was the high point of Arianism. The Seventh Arian Confession held that both homoousios and homoiousios were unbiblical and that the Father is greater than the Son: "But since many persons are disturbed by questions concerning what is called in Latin substantia, but in Greek ousia, that is, to make it understood more as to'coessential,' or what is called,'like-in-essence,' there ought to be no mention of any of these at all, nor exposition of them in the Church, for this reason and for this consideration, that in divine Scripture nothing is written about them, that they are above men's knowledge and above men's understanding".
They interpret verses such as John 1:1 to refer to God's "plan" existing in God's mind before Christ's birth.
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
United Church of Christ
The United Church of Christ is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination based in the United States, with historical confessional roots in the Congregational and Lutheran traditions, with 4,956 churches and 853,778 members. The United Church of Christ is a historical continuation of the General Council of Congregational Christian churches founded under the influence of New England Pilgrims and Puritans. Moreover, it subsumed the third largest Reformed group in the country, the German Reformed; the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the General Council of the Congregational Christian Churches united in 1957 to form the UCC. These two denominations, which were themselves the result of earlier unions, had their roots in Congregational, Lutheran and Reformed denominations. At the end of 2014, the UCC's 5,116 congregations claimed 979,239 members in the U. S. In 2015, Pew Research estimated that 0.4 percent, or 1 million adult adherents, of the U. S. population self-identify with the United Church of Christ.
The UCC maintains full communion with other mainline Protestant denominations. Many of its congregations choose to practice open communion; the denomination places high emphasis on participation in worldwide interfaith and ecumenical efforts. The national settings of the UCC have favored liberal views on social issues, such as civil rights, LGBT rights, women's rights, abortion. However, United Church of Christ congregations are independent in matters of doctrine and ministry and may not support the national body's theological or moral stances, it is self-described as "an pluralistic and diverse denomination". The United Church of Christ was formed when two Protestant churches, the Evangelical and Reformed Church and the General Council of the Congregational Christian Churches united in 1957; this union adopted an earlier general statement of unity between the two denominations, the 1943 "Basis of Union". At this time, the UCC claimed about two million members. In 1959, in its General Synod, the UCC adopted a broad "Statement of Faith".
The UCC adopted its constitution and by-laws in 1961. There is no UCC hierarchy or body that can impose any doctrine or worship format onto the individual congregations within the UCC. While individual congregations are supposed to hold guidance from the general synod "in the highest regard", the UCC's constitution requires that the "autonomy of the Local Church is inherent and modifiable only by its own action". Within this locally focused structure, there are central beliefs common to the UCC; the UCC uses four words to describe itself: "Christian, Reformed and Evangelical". While the UCC refers to its evangelical characteristics, it springs from mainline Protestantism as opposed to Evangelicalism; the word evangelical in this case more corresponds with the original Lutheran origins meaning "of the gospel" as opposed to the Evangelical use of the word. UCC is theologically liberal, the denomination notes that the "Bible, though written in specific historical times and places, still speaks to us in our present condition".
The motto of the United Church of Christ comes from John 17:21: "That they may all be one". The denomination's official literature uses broad doctrinal parameters, emphasizing freedom of individual conscience and local church autonomy. In the United Church of Christ, creeds and affirmations of faith function as "testimonies of faith" around which the church gathers rather than as "tests of faith" rigidly prescribing required doctrinal consent; as expressed in the United Church of Christ constitution: The United Church of Christ acknowledges as its sole Head, Jesus Christ, Son of God and Savior. It acknowledges as kindred in Christ all, it looks to the Word of God in the Scriptures, to the presence and power of the Holy Spirit, to prosper its creative and redemptive work in the world. It claims as its own the faith of the historic Church expressed in the ancient creeds and reclaimed in the basic insights of the Protestant Reformers, it affirms the responsibility of the Church in each generation to make this faith its own in reality of worship, in honesty of thought and expression, in purity of heart before God.
In accordance with the teaching of our Lord and the practice prevailing among evangelical Christians, it recognizes two sacraments: Baptism and the Lord's Supper or Holy Communion. The denomination, looks to a number of historic confessions as expressing the common faith around which the church gathers, including: The Apostles' Creed, The Nicene Creed, The Heidelberg Catechism, Luther's Small Catechism, The Kansas City Statement of Faith, The Evangelical Catechism, The Statement of Faith of the United Church of Christ. In 2001, Hartford Institute for Religion Research did a "Faith Communities Today" study that included a survey of United Church of Christ beliefs. Among the results of this were findings that in the UCC, 5.6% of the churches responding to the survey described their members as "very liberal or progressive", 3.4% as "very conservative", 22.4% as "somewhat liberal or progressive", 23.6% as "somewhat conservative". Those results suggested a nearly equal balance between conservative congregations.
The self-described "moderate" group, was the largest at 45%. Other statistics found by the Hartford Institute show that 53.2% of members say "the Bible" is the highest sourc