click links in text for more info

Victor of Aveyron

Victor of Aveyron was a French feral child, found at the age of around twelve. Upon his discovery, he was given to many people to stay with, running away from civilization eight times, his case was taken up by a young physician, Jean Marc Gaspard Itard, who worked with the boy for five years and gave him his name, Victor. Itard was interested in determining, he recorded his progress. Based on his work with Victor, Itard broke new ground in the education of the developmentally delayed. Victor is estimated to have been born around 1788. According to Jean-Marc Gaspard Itard, Victor was a normal child at birth but was neglected by his alcoholic parents from an early age. Victor advanced to puberty within a year or two, it is not known when or how he came to live in the woods near Saint-Sernin-sur-Rance, though he was seen there around 1794. In 1797 he was spotted by three hunters, they brought him to a nearby town. However, he soon returned to the woods. On January 8, 1800, he emerged from the forests on his own.

His age was unknown. His lack of speech, as well as his food preferences and the numerous scars on his body, suggested to some that he had been in the wild for most of his life. Shortly after Victor was found, a local abbot and biology professor, Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre, examined him, he removed the boy's clothing and led him outside into the snow, far from being upset, Victor began to frolic about in the nude, showing Bonnaterre that he was accustomed to exposure and cold. The local government commissioner, Constans-Saint-Esteve observed the boy and wrote there was "something extraordinary in his behavior, which makes him seem close to the state of wild animals"; the boy was taken to Rodez, where two men traveled each seeking to discover whether or not he was their missing son. Both men had lost their sons during the French Revolution. There were other rumors regarding the boy's origins. For example, one rumor insisted the boy was the illegitimate son of a notaire abandoned at a young age because he was mute.

Itard believed Victor had "lived in an absolute solitude from his fourth or fifth to his twelfth year, the age he may have been when he was taken in the Caune woods." That means he lived for seven years in the wilderness. It was clear that Victor could hear, but he was taken to for National Institute of the Deaf in Paris for the purpose of being studied by the renowned Roch-Ambroise Cucurron Sicard. Sicard and other members of the Society of Observers of Man believed that by studying, as well as educating the boy, they would gain the proof they needed for the popularized empiricist theory of knowledge. In the context of the Enlightenment, when many were debating what distinguished human from animal, one of the most significant factors was the ability to learn language. By studying the boy, they would be able to explain the relationship between humans and society; the Enlightenment caused many thinkers, including naturalists and philosophers, to believe human nature was a subject that needed to be redefined and looked at from a different angle.

Because of the French Revolution and new developments in science and philosophy, humans were looked at as not special but as characteristic of their place in nature. It was hoped; as such, Victor became a case study in the Enlightenment debate about the differences between humans and other animals. At that time, the scientific category Juvenis averionensis was used, as a special case of the Homo ferus, described by Carl Linnaeus in Systema Naturae. Linnaeus and his discoveries forced people to ask the question, "What makes us?" Another developing idea prevalent during the Enlightenment was that of the noble savage. Some believed a person existing in the pure state of nature would be "gentle, innocent, a lover of solitude, ignorant of evil and incapable of causing intentional harm."Philosophies proposed by Rousseau and Descartes were evolving around the time the boy was discovered in France in 1800. These philosophies invariably influenced the way the boy was perceived by others, how Itard would structure his education.

Simpson points out there was a "direct link between the discourse of colonialism abroad and internal regulation of deviants back home." The same way in which Europeans viewed the "Other" in colonies and other exotic locations was how the French people saw the Wild Boy of Aveyron. To lack reason and understanding during the Enlightenment was to be uncivilized; the attitudes that Europeans extended toward the Other were paralleled by Victor, as he too was considered "uncivilized" because of his lack of language and, reason. These characteristics defined humans for Victor's contemporaries, it was said that though he had been exposed to society and education, he had made little progress at the Institution under Sicard. Many people questioned his ability to learn because of his initial state, as Yousef explains, "it is one thing to say that the of nature is not yet human. After Sicard became fru

Hakea newbeyana

Hakea newbeyana is a shrub in the family Proteaceae and is endemic to an area in the southern Wheatbelt and Goldfields-Esperance regions of Western Australia. It is a prickly shrub with smooth grey bark and sweetly scented cream-yellow flowers in profusion in spring. Hakea newbeyana is a rigid, rounded shrub growing to a height of 1 to 4 metres with ascending smooth grey branches and does not form a lignotuber; the branchlets are densely covered in flattened soft hairs. The rigid dark green leaves are needle-shaped, 2.5–7.5 cm long, 1–2.2 mm wide, straight to curved and ending in a sharp point 1–3 mm long. The 6-8 small, sweetly scented creamy-white and yellow flowers appear in clusters in leaf axils on a coarse rough stalk 1–4 mm long; the over-lapping flower bracts are 4–4.5 mm long. The pedicel 2.5–3.5 mm long and smooth. The smooth, yellow perianth is 2–3 mm long and the pistil 3.8–4.5 mm long. Flowering occurs from September to October; the large, egg-shaped fruit are smooth with darker blister-like pitting on the surface and taper to a small blunt beak.

Hakea newbeyana was first formally described by Robyn Mary Barker in 1990 and the description was published in the Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens. The species was named in honour of Western Australian botanist Kenneth Newbey. Grows in the central and eastern wheatbelt region of Western Australia in sandy loam and lateritic gravelly soils. In woodlands of the Hyden-Newdgate district. Hakea newbeyana is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government

Guido Nardini

Maresciallo Guido Nardini was a World War I flying ace credited with six aerial victories. Guido Nardini was born in Kingdom of Italy, his reported birth date differs according to authority consulted. He earned a pilot's license, No. 590, at Betheny, France before World War I, on 22 August 1911. As World War I heated up, Nardini volunteered for military service despite his age; as a soldato, Nardini opened his victory skein flying a Nieuport 10 on 27 June 1916, when he, Alessandro Buzio, a couple of other pilots shot down an enemy airplane after a 20 kilometer chase over Verona. The feat earned Nardini a Bronze Medal for Military Valor. By February 1917, he was serving with 78a Squadriglia as a Caporal, flying as the wingman to Italy's leading ace, Francesco Baracca. Nardini used a Nieuport 17 to score his second victory on 14 June 1917; this victory earned him a Silver Medal for Military Valor. A month he shot down his third victim, on 18 July. Nardini transferred to 91a Squadriglia, but on 10 February 1918, shortly after his arrival, he had an accident while test piloting a Nieuport 17.

Baracca had transferred into squadron. I south of Grave di Papadopoli. Two weeks Nardini, Gastone Novelli, Cesare Magistrini teamed up on the Albatros D. III of Franz Gräser over Pero, Nardini was a live ace and Gräser a dead one. Nardini was subsequently awarded a second Bronze Medal for Military Valor. A month on 15 June 1918, after two years of combat, Nardini rounded out his list with a solo victory over another Albatros D. III. On 23 August 1918, he was hospitalized for injuries suffered in a fall from a motorcycle. Nardini continued to serve beyond. In 1923, he transferred to the newly established Regia Aeronautica, he was promoted out of the enlisted ranks. While flying over Ciampino airfield, Guido Nardini bailed out of an airplane in trouble, was killed by a malfunctioning parachute on 26 January 1928. Franks, Norman. Above the War Fronts: The British Two-seater Bomber Pilot and Observer Aces, the British Two-seater Fighter Observer Aces, the Belgian, Austro-Hungarian and Russian Fighter Aces, 1914–1918: Volume 4 of Fighting Airmen of WWI Series: Volume 4 of Air Aces of WWI.

Grub Street, 1997. ISBN 1-898697-56-6, ISBN 978-1-898697-56-5. Guttman, Jon. SPAD XII/XIII aces of World War I. Osprey Publishing, 2002. ISBN 1841763160, 9781841763163

Regenstein Mill

The Regenstein Mill was a water-powered corn and oil mill below Regenstein Castle north of the town of Blankenburg in the county of Harz. The mill was built in the first half of the 12th century in order to supply the castle and its outlying estate of Nienrode; the overshot water for the mill wheels was fed by means of a mill channel, just under 2 kilometres long, from the Goldbach stream below the pond of Mönchemühleteich. Between 1988 and 1991, work was carried out to uncover this channel over a length of about 500 metres; the Regenstein Mill was in operation until the end of the Middle Ages and increasingly fell into rack and ruin. In 1758, during the Seven Years' War, the remains of the mill were demolished by the Prussians for strategic reasons as it lay closeto the border between Brunswick and Prussia. Around 1990 the two mill wheels were reconstructed. Regenstein is the only mill in the Harzer Wandernadel hiking network and is checkpoint no. 82. A few metres away from the replica mill wheels is a hiker's refuge hut.

51°48′59″N 10°56′53″E

Purple urine bag syndrome

Purple urine bag syndrome is a medical syndrome where purple discoloration of urine occurs in people with urinary catheters and co-existent urinary tract infection. Bacteria in the urine produce the enzyme indoxyl phosphatase; this converts indoxyl sulfate in the urine into the red and blue colored compounds indirubin and indigo. The most implicated bacteria are Providencia stuartii, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. People with purple urine bag syndrome do not complain of any symptoms. Purple discoloration of urine bag is the only finding noted by caregivers, it is considered a benign condition, although in the setting of recurrent or chronic urinary tract infection, it may be associated with drug-resistant bacteria. Tryptophan in the diet is metabolized by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract to produce indole. Indole passes to the liver. There, indole is converted to indoxyl sulfate, excreted in the urine.

In purple urine bag syndrome, bacteria that colonize the urinary catheter convert indoxyl sulfate to the colored compounds indirubin and indigo. Purple urine bag syndrome is a clinical diagnosis, the cause of which may be investigated using a variety of laboratory tests or imaging. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin should be administered and the catheter should be changed. If constipation is present, this should be treated. Purple urine bag syndrome is more common in female nursing home residents. Other risk factors include alkaline urine and polyvinyl chloride catheter use; the syndrome was first described by Barlow and Dickson in 1978

Ronen Shoval

Ronen Shoval is an Israeli writer and Zionist-activist. He is the founder of the extra-parliamentary movement Im Tirtzu, presided as its first chairman. Ronen is the author of a manifest for the rejuvenating Zionism, he is a columnist in the Israeli newspaper Maariv and wrote in Haaretz and Makor Rishon. He was a lecturer at Bar-Ilan University, at a pre-army mechina, at other colleges in Israel, he was a research associate at the Institute for Zionist Strategies. He was elected a board member of the World Zionist Organization, the Jewish Agency and Keren Hayesod. In 2013, Ronen was named by the Algemeiner Journal as one of the 100 people who had the biggest positive impact on Jewish life in 2012. In January 2015, running as a candidate in Habayit Hayehudi's primary, called for an investigation into editors at Haaretz, accusing them of "defeatist propaganda" prohibited under Statute 103 of Israel's penal code. In response to Shoval's accusations on Facebook, multiple death threats against Haaretz editors were posted, which Shoval promised to remove.

The Haaretz cartoon that sparked the death threats said "10 journalists killed in attack on Charlie Hebdo in Paris, about 13 journalists killed last summer in attack on Gaza" and "JeSuisGaza" below JeSuisCharlie. Ronen holds a B. A in international relations and an M. A in Jewish Philosophy from the Hebrew University, he earned a PhD in Jewish political thought from the Paris West University Nanterre La Défense. Ronen is married, has four children