Victoria (ship)

Victoria was a carrack and the first ship to circumnavigate the world. Victoria was part of a Spanish expedition commanded by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, after his death during the voyage, by Juan Sebastián Elcano; the expedition began on 10 August 1519 with five ships. However, Victoria was the only ship to complete the voyage, returning on 6 September 1522. Magellan was killed in the Philippines; the ship was built at a shipyard in Ondarroa, with the Basques being reputed shipbuilders at the time, along with the four other ships, she was given to Magellan by King Charles I of Spain. Victoria was named after the church of Santa Maria de la Victoria de Triana, where Magellan took an oath of allegiance to Charles V. Victoria was an 85-ton ship with a crew of 42; the four other ships were Trinidad, San Antonio and Santiago. Trinidad, Magellan's flagship and Santiago were wrecked or scuttled. Victoria was a carrack or nao, as were all the others except Santiago, a caravel. While agreeing on its Basque origin, for a long period the vessel was thought to have been constructed in Zarautz, next to Elcano's home town Getaria.

However, research conducted by local historians has revealed that the nao Victoria was built at the shipyards of Ondarroa in Biscay. It was called Santa Maria, owned by Domingo Apallua, a ship pilot, his son, Pedro Arismendi. According to a notarial document dating from 1518, the ship had been used in previous years for trade between Castile and England. Royal Castilian officials bought the ship at a set price of 800 gold ducats, a figure at odds with the estimation on the ship's real value provided by the accountant of Magellan's expedition, accepted by the owners only against their will; the ship was named Victoria by Magellan after the chapel he frequented on his prayers in Seville, the Santa María de la Victoria. The voyage started with a crew of about 265 men aboard five ships, however only 18 men returned alive on Victoria, while many others had deserted. Many of the men died of malnutrition. At the beginning of the voyage, Luis de Mendoza was her captain. On 2 April 1520, after establishing a settlement in Puerto San Julian in Patagonia, a fierce mutiny involving three captains broke out but was quelled.

Antonio Pigafetta's and other reports state that Luis de Mendoza and Gaspar Quesada, captain of Concepcion, were executed and their remains hung on gallows on the shore. Juan de Cartagena, captain of San Antonio, was marooned on the coast. According to Pigafetta, after Magellan's death on 27 April 1521, at the Battle of Mactan, remnants of the fleet tried to retrieve his body without success. Thereafter, Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese who had sided with Magellan in facing the mutiny, João Serrão were elected leaders of the expedition. On 1 May 1521, they were invited by rajah Humabon of Cebu to a banquet ashore to receive a gift for the king of Spain. At the banquet, most of the crew were killed or poisoned, including Duarte Barbosa and João Serrão, who the natives wanted to exchange for Western weapons, but was left behind by the remaining crew. Pilot João Carvalho, who had survived the trap became the captain of Victoria. In August, near Borneo he was deposed and Juan Sebastián Elcano became captain for the remainder of the expedition.

Out of an entire expedition of 260 people, only 18 returned to Seville with the expedition, which by the end was only made up of the crew of Victoria. They were: Out of all these survivors, Antonio Pigafetta was the most significant because his journals supply most of the information known about the first expedition around the world; the long circumnavigation began in Seville in 1519 and returned to Sanlúcar de Barrameda on 6 September 1522, after sailing 68,000 kilometres, 35,000 kilometres of, unknown to the crew. On 21 December 1521, Victoria sailed on from Tidore in Indonesia alone because the other ships left the convoy due to lack of rations; the ship was in terrible shape, with her sails torn and only kept afloat by continuous pumping of water. Victoria managed to return to Spain with a shipload of spices, the value of, greater than the cost of the entire original fleet. Victoria was repaired, bought by a merchant shipper and sailed for another fifty years before being lost with all hands on a trip from the Antilles to Seville in about 1570.

A vignette of the Victoria forms the logo of the Hakluyt Society, a London-based text publication society founded in 1846, which publishes scholarly editions of primary records of historic voyages and other geographical material. The logo appears on the cover of all the Society's published volumes. A replica of the ship is operated by the Fundación Nao Victoria, Seville. In 2006, to celebrate the Bicentennial of Chile, an entrepreneur from Punta Arenas founded a project to build another replica of the ship; the search for the original plans of Nao Victoria took longer than expected and the project was delayed by three years, from 2006 to 2009. The replica was completed by 2011. Although it was not possible to complete the project in time for the celebration of the bicentennial in 2010, the project’s creator received a Presidential Medal from the President of Chile. "Ferdinand Magellan and the First Circumnavigation of the World". Age of Exploration; the Mariners' Museum. Retrieved 28 April 2008

Swedish Grand Prix

The Swedish Grand Prix was a round of the Formula One World Championship from 1973 to 1978. It took place at the Scandinavian Raceway in Anderstorp, about 30 kilometres from Jönköping, in Småland, Sweden; the 1930s saw two races carry the title, the Swedish Summer Grand Prix and an ice race, the Swedish Winter Grand Prix, similar to races held in Estonia and Norway. In 1948 a Formula Two race was held called Stockholm Grand Prix and in the 1960s there were Formula Two races held under the name Swedish Grand Prix. While racing in Sweden had a long history it was not until 1931 that a race was first titled Grand Prix; the first Swedish Winter Grand Prix was held on a mammoth 46 kilometre circuit near Lake Rämen about 2 hours northwest of Stockholm in the snow and freezing cold with a lap time of 35 minutes. In 1933 the first Swedish Summer Grand Prix was held on another huge 30 kilometre circuit made of public roads at Norra Vram, not far north from Malmö, a race which can be better compared to modern Grands Prix.

The opening lap saw a multi-car pile-up which saw several drivers injured, two and a riding mechanic was killed. One of the crashed cars started a fire; the race continued while emergency services attended the scene and the race was won by Antonio Brivio in an Alfa Romeo. Major racing came to a halt after that; the first postwar Grand Prix was held only a few months after the Le Mans tragedy. 75,000 spectators surrounded the 4.04 mi -long Råbelöv circuit, located near Kristianstad. It was the debut of the Mercedes 300SLR. Other entrants included Peter Collins and Roy Salvadori, Eugenio Castellotti, the works Maserati 300S of Jean Behra. Unusually, the race used, it proved to be "a dull procession", with Moss leading lap one, while Fangio took command on lap two and held the lead for the next 31 laps to the checkered flag. Only Fangio, Moss and Behara finished. After the track was resurfaced and widened, following it being named an event on the World Sportscar Championship calendar, in 1956, another event was held.

It drew a larger field, including works Ferrari and Maserati teams and Ecurie Ecosse's Le Mans-winning D-types, ran 153 laps. Collins took an early lead in the Ferrari 290 MM, pursued by Moss' 300S and Mike Hawthorne's Ferrari 860 Monza. At the first pit stop, Moss came out first. Behra suffered Olivier Gendebien had an oil leak; the oil led to a wreck involving Gendebien's teammates Phil Hill. This put the Ferrari shared between Fangio well ahead. Moss took over the Maserati of Luigi Villoresi and Harry Schell, only for it to have trouble with its brakes, as well; the car Moss started caught fire in a pit stop debacle. Castellotti's engine blew in the lead, giving the Trintignant/Hill 250MM the win, followed home by von Trips/Collins in the second 250MM, Hawthorne/Alfonso de Portago/Duncan Hamilton in an 860 Monza; the last sports car Grand Prix at Råbelöv was in 1957, a six-hour World Sportscar Championship race, rather than 1,000 km. It was dominated by the Maserati 450S shared by Moss and Behra, which "romped home" in front of the Ferrari 335 S of Hill and Collins.

In addition, Moss co-drove the 300S of Jo Bonnier/Giorgio Scarlatti/Harry Schell. Hawthorne and Luigi Musso placed fourth in a 335 S. In 1967, the name Swedish Grand Prix was, as a one-off name, given to that year's Kanonloppet in Karlskoga, it was run to Formula Two rules and Jochen Rindt won. Ronnie Peterson's success with Team Lotus was the catalyst for a Swedish Grand Prix and the race was held for the first time in 1973 at the grandly-named Scandinavian Raceway, about two hours east of Gothenburg in the middle of southern Sweden- this circuit, much like Watkins Glen in the eastern United States was isolated and people either camped out or stayed in local people's homes, which were few and far between in the nearmost town of Anderstorp, a town with a population of less than 5,000. Peterson did not disappoint his fans in taking pole in his Lotus. For 70 laps it looked like this was going to be a one-two for Team Lotus with Peterson first and world champion Emerson Fittipaldi second; however disaster struck.

Meanwhile, Denny Hulme was closing the gap on the lead, Peterson having major trouble with tire wear and fighting to stay on the track. On the 79th, lap Hulme was able to pass the local hero to snatch victory, the New Zealander's decision to run harder tires on his McLaren-Cosworth having paid off. Peterson was second; that was as close. During the 1973 season, the Cosworth DFV powered the winner in every single race in the 15-race season, a performance never repeated. In 1974, the Swedish Grand Prix was dominated by the two Tyrrell 007-Cosworths of Jody Scheckter and Patrick Depailler, it was the Frenchman who took pole, however Scheckter beat him by 0.380 sec in the race. This was the South African's first Grand Prix win. In 1975, Austrian Niki Lauda's second year with Ferrari, the team provided him with the 312T – a car, technically far superior to any of the competition, he won his first world title that year with 5 wins and a huge margin over second place in the championship. At Anderstorp he took his


Biohabitats, Inc. is an American company that provides conservation planning, ecological restoration and regenerative design services. Biohabitats employs about 75 people with expertise in biological sciences, earth sciences, water engineering, land planning, design; the company's headquarters is in Maryland. Biohabitats was founded in 1982 by landscape architect and restorationist Keith Bowers, who remains its president in 2016. Biohabitats’ planning work has included the preparation of climate adaptation strategies for the Galveston Island State Park master plan, its wetland restorations have included Nine Mile Run in Pittsburgh's Frick Park and the restoration of natural water flow to Barataria Preserve in Louisiana's Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve. In the early 2000s, Biohabitats expanded its services to include more stormwater design and work in urban areas; the company worked with the New York City Department of Environmental Protection to prioritize vacant lands and modernize practices for stormwater management.

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Van der Voo, Lee. "Biohabitats opens Portland office, could add dozens of workers". Portland Business Journal. Retrieved July 6, 2016. Official website