The Victoria Bridge known as Victoria Jubilee Bridge, is a bridge over the St. Lawrence River, linking Montreal, Quebec, to the south shore city of Saint-Lambert. Opened in 1859 as a tubular bridge designed by Robert Stephenson, the bridge was the first to span the St. Lawrence River, as such is an important historic bridge in Canada, it remains in use to this day, carrying both road and rail traffic, with rails in the middle and roadways on both sides. It is used by the Canadian National Railway on its Halifax to Montreal main line, it is a major contributor to Montreal's role as a continental hub in the North American rail system. Its designation for the Canadian National Railway is Mile 71.40 Subdivision St-Hyacinthe. Named the Great Victoria Bridge in honour of Queen Victoria, it was rededicated as the Victoria Jubilee Bridge following renovations in 1897, it was returned to the name Victoria Bridge in 1978. The bridge is 3 kilometres long, includes 24 ice-breaking piers; the Victoria Bridge was erected between 1854 and 1859.
Prior to the construction of the bridge, it was difficult and at times impossible to cross the St. Lawrence River during the long winter season, as freezing and thawing in the fall and spring made for treacherous conditions. Crossings took place by boat during the summer, by walking or riding a sleigh or cart over the frozen river in winter, along routes cleared of snow to facilitate passage. A site for the bridge was selected by the Canadian engineer Thomas Keefer; the structure was designed by Robert Stephenson, Alexander McKenzie Ross. The chief engineer was James Hodges; the contractors were the English partnership of Peto and Betts, who completed the bridge shortly after Stephenson's death in 1859. The original deck was a long structural metal tube made of prefabricated wrought iron sections made in England and shipped transatlantic. During its peak construction years a total of six steamboats, 72 barges, 3,040 men, 144 horses, four locomotive engines were required to build it at a cost of $6,600,000.
The construction of the bridge was tied directly with that of the Grand Trunk Railway, a system headquartered in Britain, formed in 1852 with the support of the colonial government of the United Province of Canada to connect the Great Lakes with an ice-free port on the Atlantic Ocean. When completed, it was the longest bridge in the world; the Victoria Bridge was inaugurated by Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales on August 25, 1860. The first freight train however had passed over the bridge on December 12, 1859, the first passenger train had crossed the bridge five days on December 17. Queen Victoria had been invited to attend the opening of the bridge, but she declined the invitation and instead sent her eldest son, the Prince of Wales. In 1897–1898, the metal tube from 1860 was replaced by metal trusses, common at the time. To minimize traffic disruptions, the trusses were assembled around the tube, which permitted the tube to continue service to train traffic; the tube was demolished. The stone piers from 1860 altered in 1897, still testify to the excellent original engineering.
Between October 30, 1909 and October 13, 1956, the Montreal and Southern Counties Railway ran interurban streetcars on the Northern shoulder of the bridge. The line connected Granby and Montreal, with a branch serving Longueuil; the St. Lambert Diversion around the St. Lambert Locks was added in 1958 as part of the St. Lawrence Seaway project; this secondary bridge over the canal, south of the main bridge carries both road and rail, is used when a ship is passing under the original alignment. When the bridge was being built, workmen discovered the human remains of Irish immigrants to Canada, who had fled the famine in Ireland, only to die during the typhus epidemic of 1847 in fever sheds at nearby Windmill Point. At the bridge approach, a large rock was erected called the Irish Commemorative Stone but locally known as The Black Rock, its inscription reads: To preserve from desecration the remains of 6000 immigrants who died of ship fever A. D.1847-8 this stone is erected by the workmen of Messrs.
Peto and Betts employed in the construction of the Victoria Bridge A. D.1859. During the morning rush hour, from 5:00 am to 9:00 am, both lanes of the Victoria Bridge are used to travel north, from the residential suburb of Saint-Lambert to the business districts of Montreal. In the evening, from 3:00 pm to 7:15 pm, both lanes are used in the opposite direction. At all other times, there is one lane available in each direction; the only bus route allowed on the bridge is a special bus from the Réseau de transport de Longueuil, bus number 55. The line is served by Classic Buses due to weight restrictions on the bridge. All other heavy vehicles are forbidden from accessing the bridge and must detour either via the neighbouring Champlain or Jacques-Cartier bridges; the low clearance on both approaches and the narrow lanes on the bridge itself make the bridge inaccessible to light trucks. Colin Churcher's Railway Pages, Significant dates in Canadian railway history. Retrieved August 25, 2005. Rapley, John.
The Britannia & Other Tubular Bridges, Tempus Publishing Ltd, Charles. Thomas Brassey, Railway Builder. London: Frederick Muller. Pp. 90–92. ISBN 0-584-10305-0; the Victoria Bridge - Virtual Exhibit (re
Margery Eagan is a talk radio host and a frequent guest on CNN, ABC, Fox News, the Imus in the Morning radio show. For many years she was a columnist for the Boston Herald. Subjects of her commentaries include gender/women's issues and politics. Eagan, a third-generation Irish-American, was born to Daniel Eagan and Margaret Manning of Fall River and has an older sister, Elizabeth. Eagan attended public school, she began writing stories as a child and was encouraged by her English teacher at Durfee High School in Fall River. Eagan attended Smith College her freshman year transferred to Stanford University in Palo Alto, majoring in American Studies. After graduation from Stanford, Eagan took a job at the Fall River Herald News at a compensation rate of $15 per story, she was soon freelancing for the New Bedford Standard-Times and The Boston Globe. At 24, she was hired as a full-time feature writer at the Burlington Free Press in Vermont, she returned to New Bedford a year to become a columnist at the Standard-Times.
In 1981, Eagan was hired as a general assignment reporter at the Boston Herald, was given a column in 1984. She served a "refining stint" as a senior writer at Boston Magazine, returned to her column at the Herald, where she wrote until July 2014, she has received two nominations for GLAAD Media Awards in the category of Outstanding Newspaper Columnist. From 2014 to 2016, Eagan wrote a column at the Boston Globe's website about the Catholic Church, Crux, on spirituality and devotion to God. After the Globe shuttered the site, Crux began operating independently under editor John Allen with financial support from the Knights of Columbus, but parted ways with Eagan. Eagan co-hosted the Jim & Margery Show with Jim Braude on Boston's FM 96.9 WTKK. The show ended when that station flipped to an urban contemporary format on January 2, 2013; the team is now broadcasting on weekdays as Boston Public Radio on a Boston NPR station. Eagan's columns and radio commentary draw the attention of national media.
In 2002, she made a series of appearances on CNN's NewsNight with Aaron Brown to discuss the Roman Catholic sex abuse cases, appeared a year to comment on how the Iraq War was affecting newspaper circulation. That same month, she appeared on The O'Reilly Factor to discuss aspects of the Elizabeth Smart case. In 2007, Eagan appeared on CNN's Reliable Sources with Howard Kurtz to discuss her columns regarding the physical appearance of Hillary Clinton and the fashion sense of the wives of Republican Presidential candidates. Eagan is a frequent presence on local Boston area television, notably WGBH's Greater Boston, on which she appears as a panelist on that program's Friday evening "Beat the Press" edition and critiquing media coverage of the prior week's news events Eagan was married to longtime Boston Globe reporter and editor Peter Mancusi, having two daughters and one son, they are divorced
In Buddhism, the Four Noble Truths are "the truths of the Noble Ones", the truths or realities for the "spiritually worthy ones". The truths are: dukkha is an innate characteristic of existence with each rebirth, they are traditionally identified as the first teaching given by the Buddha, considered one of the most important teachings in Buddhism. The four truths appear in many grammatical forms in the ancient Buddhist texts, they have both a symbolic and a propositional function. Symbolically, they represent the awakening and liberation of the Buddha, of the potential for his followers to reach the same religious experience as him; as propositions, the Four Truths are a conceptual framework that appear in the Pali canon and early Hybrid Sanskrit Buddhist scriptures. They are a part of the broader "network of teachings", they provide a conceptual framework for introducing and explaining Buddhist thought, which has to be understood or "experienced". As a proposition, the four truths defy an exact definition, but refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism: unguarded sensory contact gives rise to craving and clinging to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
This craving keeps us caught in samsara, the endless cycle of repeated rebirth, the continued dukkha that comes with it. There is a way to end this cycle, namely by attaining nirvana, cessation of craving, whereafter rebirth and the accompanying dukkha will no longer arise again; this can be accomplished by following the eightfold path, confining our automatic responses to sensory contact by restraining oneself, cultivating discipline and wholesome states, practicing mindfulness and dhyana. The function of the four truths, their importance, developed over time and the Buddhist tradition recognized them as the Buddha's first teaching; this tradition was established when prajna, or "liberating insight", came to be regarded as liberating in itself, instead of or in addition to the practice of dhyana. This "liberating insight" gained a prominent place in the sutras, the four truths came to represent this liberating insight, as a part of the enlightenment story of the Buddha; the four truths grew to be of central importance in the Theravada tradition of Buddhism by about the 5th-century CE, which holds that the insight into the four truths is liberating in itself.
They are less prominent in the Mahayana tradition, which sees the higher aims of insight into sunyata and following the Bodhisattva path as central elements in their teachings and practice. The Mahayana tradition reinterpreted the four truths to explain how a liberated being can still be "pervasively operative in this world". Beginning with the exploration of Buddhism by western colonialists in the 19th century and the development of Buddhist modernism, they came to be presented in the west as the central teaching of Buddhism, sometimes with novel modernistic reinterpretations different from the historic Buddhist traditions in Asia; the four truths are best known from their presentation in the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta text, which contains two sets of the four truths, while various other sets can be found in the Pāli Canon, a collection of scriptures in the Theravadan Buddhist tradition. The full set, most used in modern expositions, contains grammatical errors, pointing to multiple sources for this set and translation problems within the ancient Buddhist community.
They were considered correct by the Pali tradition, which did not correct them. According to the Buddhist tradition, the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, "Setting the Wheel of Dhamma in Motion", contains the first teachings that the Buddha gave after attaining full awakening, liberation from rebirth. According to L. S. Cousins, many scholars are of the view that "this discourse was identified as the first sermon of the Buddha only at a date," and according to professor of religion Carol S. Anderson the four truths may not have been part of this sutta, but were added in some versions. Within this discourse, the four noble truths are given as follows: Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering. Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to re-becoming, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there. Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, non-reliance on it.
Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering: it is this noble eightfold path. According to this sutra, with the complete comprehension of these four truths release from samsara, the cycle of reb