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Montreal

Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Founded in 1642 as Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which got its name from the same origin as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,247 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,247. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.

The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second largest French-speaking city in the developed world, after Paris, it is situated 196 km east of the national capital Ottawa, 258 km south-west of the provincial capital Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings.

Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics. It is the only Canadian city to have held the quadrennial Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi; this name refers to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and relates to the seven fires prophecy. European settlers from La Flèche in the Loire valley first named their new town, founded in 1642, Ville Marie, named for the Virgin Mary, its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,.

One possibility, noted by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, speculates that the name as it is written originated when an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real. Archaeological evidence in the region indicate that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people".

Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley; this is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury.

The colonists left Fra

W80 (nuclear warhead)

The W80 is a low to intermediate yield two-stage thermonuclear warhead deployed by the U. S. enduring stockpile with a variable yield of 5–150 kt of TNT. It was designed for deployment on cruise missiles and is the warhead used in all nuclear-armed ALCM and ACM missiles deployed by the US Air Force, in the US Navy's BGM-109 Tomahawk, it is a modification of the deployed B61 weapon, which forms the basis of most of the current US stockpile of nuclear gravity bombs. The similar W84 warhead was deployed on the retired BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missile; the W80 is physically quite small: the physics package itself is about the size of a conventional Mk.81 250-pound bomb, 11.8 inches in diameter and 31.4 inches long, only heavier at about 290 pounds. Armorers have the ability to select the yield of the resulting explosion in-flight, a capability referred to as variable yield, colloquially referred to as "dial-a-yield"; the minimum yield using just the boosted fission primary, is around 5 kilotons of TNT.

The Los Alamos National Laboratory began development on the W80 in June 1976, with the brief of producing a custom weapon for the cruise missiles under construction. With "the basic design" being derived from the B61; the main design differences are a smaller secondary producing only 150 kt yield and simplification of the design giving the weapon only two yield settings. Production of the W80 Model 1 to arm the ALCM started in January 1979, a number of warheads had been completed by January 1981 when the first low-temperature test was carried out. To everyone's surprise the test delivered a much lower yield than was expected due to problems in the TATB based insensitive high explosives used to fire the primary; this problem turned out to affect several models of the B61-based line, production of all weapons was suspended while a solution was worked on. Production restarted in February 1982. In March 1982, designers began working on a W80 variant intended for the Navy's Tomahawk program; the W80 Model 0 used "supergrade" fission fuel, which has less radioactivity, in the primary in place of the conventional plutonium used in the Air Force's version.

"Supergrade" is industry parlance for plutonium alloy bearing an exceptionally high fraction of Pu-239, leaving a low amount of Pu-240, a gamma emitter in addition to being a high spontaneous fission isotope. Such plutonium is produced from fuel rods that have been irradiated a short time as measured in MW-Day/Ton burnup; such low irradiation times limit the amount of additional neutron capture and therefore buildup of alternate isotope products such as Pu-240 in the rod, by consequence is more expensive to produce, needing far more rods irradiated and processed for a given amount of plutonium. Submarine crew members operate in proximity to stored weapons in torpedo rooms, in contrast to the air force where exposure to warheads is brief; the first models were delivered in December 1983 and the Mod 0 went into full production in March 1984. Production of the W80 was completed by September 1990, although the exact date at which the respective Mod 0 and Mod 1 runs ended is not clear. A total of 1750 Mod 1 and 367 Mod 0 devices were delivered.

Some of the original ALCMs equipped with the Mod 1 had their warheads removed in order to use them with conventional explosives, under START II only 400 ACMs would have retained their warheads and the rest would have been removed with all remaining ALCMs converted to CALCMs and their warheads removed to the inactive stockpile. On August 30, 2007, six cruise missiles armed with W80-1 warheads were mistakenly loaded onto a B-52 and flown from Minot Air Force Base, North Dakota, to Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana, on a mission to transport cruise missiles for decommissioning, it was not discovered that the six missiles had nuclear warheads until the plane landed at Barksdale, leaving the warheads unaccounted for over 36 hours. This was the first time since 1968 that nuclear warheads were publicly revealed to have been transported on a US bomber; the munitions crews involved in mistakenly loading the nuclear warheads at Minot were temporarily decertified from performing their duties involving nuclear munitions.

A refurbishment of the W80-1, the W80-4, was begun in 2014 and was selected for the ALCM and a new LRSO cruise missile. It is expected to be delivered around 2025; the program public descriptions have no additional functional features other than replacing old expired components with new equivalent components. List of nuclear weapons W80 information from Cary Sublette's NuclearWeaponArchive.org Gibson, James N.. Nuclear Weapons of the United States: An Illustrated History. Schiffer Publishing. ISBN 0-7643-0063-6. W80 information from globalsecurity.org

Commando Order

The Commando Order was issued by the OKW, the High Command of the German armed forces, on 18 October 1942 stating that in retaliation for their opponents "employing in their conduct of the war, methods which contravene the International Convention of Geneva", including from "captured orders" it emerging "that they are instructed not only to tie up prisoners, but to kill out-of-hand unarmed captives who they think might prove an encumbrance to them, or hinder them in carrying out their aims", that Commandos have been ordered to kill prisoners, all Allied Commandos encountered in Europe and Africa should be killed without trial if in proper uniforms or if they attempted to surrender. Any commando or small group of commandos or a similar unit and saboteurs not in proper uniforms, who fell into the hands of the German forces by some means other than direct combat, were to be handed over to the Sicherheitsdienst; the order, issued in secret, made it clear that failure to carry out its directives by any commander or officer would be considered to be an act of negligence punishable under German military law.

This was in fact the second "Commando Order", the first being issued by Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt on 21 July 1942, stipulating that parachutists should be handed over to the Gestapo. Shortly after World War II, at the Nuremberg Trials, the Commando Order was found to be a direct breach of the laws of war, German officers who carried out illegal executions under the Commando Order were found guilty of war crimes and sentenced to death, or, in two cases, extended incarceration; the Commando Order mentioned violations of the Geneva Conventions by Allied commando troops and cites these violations as justification for its directives. It is believed that occurrences at Dieppe and on a small raid on the Channel Island of Sark by the Small Scale Raiding Force brought Hitler's rage to a head. On 19 August 1942, during a raid on Dieppe, a Canadian brigadier took a copy of the operational order ashore against explicit orders; the order found its way to Hitler. Among the dozens of pages of orders was an instruction to "bind prisoners".

The orders were for the Canadian forces participating in the raid, not the commandos. Bodies of shot German prisoners with their hands tied were found by German forces after the battle. On the night of 3–4 October 1942, ten men of the British Small Scale Raiding Force and No. 12 Commando made an offensive raid on the occupied isle of Sark, called Operation Basalt, to reconnoitre, take some prisoners. During the raid, five prisoners were taken. To minimise the task of the guard left with the captives, the commandos tied the prisoners' hands. According to the British personnel, one prisoner started shouting to alert those in a hotel and was shot dead; the remaining four prisoners were silenced by stuffing their mouths, according to Anders Lassen, with grass. En route to the beach, three prisoners made a break. Whether or not some had freed their hands during the escape has never been established, it is unknown whether all three broke at the same time. Two are believed to have been shot and one stabbed.

The fourth was conveyed safely back to England. Officially-sanctioned German military accounts of the time unequivocally assert that the dead German soldiers were found with their hands bound, German military publications make many references to captured Commando instructions ordering the tying of captives' hands behind them and the use of a painful method of knotting around the thumbs to enable efficient and single-handed control of the captive. A few days after the Sark raid, the Germans issued a communiqué implying that at least one prisoner had escaped and two were shot while they resisted, having had their hands tied, they claimed the "hand-tying" practice was used at Dieppe. On 9 October Berlin announced that 1,376 Allied prisoners would henceforth be shackled; the Canadians responded with a like-shackling of German prisoners in Canada. The tit-for-tat shackling continued until the Swiss achieved agreement with the Canadians to desist on 12 December and with the Germans some time after they received further assurances from the British.

However, before the Canadians ended the policy, an uprising of German POWs occurred at Bowmanville POW camp. On 7 October, Hitler penned a note in the Wehrmacht daily communiqué: In future, all terror and sabotage troops of the British and their accomplices, who do not act like soldiers but rather like bandits, will be treated as such by the German troops and will be ruthlessly eliminated in battle, wherever they appear. On 18 October, after much deliberation by High Command lawyers and staff, Hitler issued his Commando Order or Kommandobefehl in secret, with only 12 copies; the following day Army Chief of Staff Alfred Jodl distributed 22 copies with an appendix stating that the order was "intended for commanders only and must not under any circumstances fall into enemy hands". The order itself stated: For a long time now our opponents have been employing in their conduct of the war, methods which contravene the International Convention of Geneva; the members of the so-called Commandos behave in a brutal and underhanded manner.

From captured orders it emerges that they are instructed not only to tie up prisoners, but to kill out-of-hand