The London Overground is a suburban rail network in the United Kingdom. Established in 2007, it serves a large part of Greater London and parts of Hertfordshire, the network forms part of the National Rail network, but under the franchise control and branding of Transport for London. Operation has been franchised to Arriva Rail London since 13 November 2016, the Overground has been assigned the colour orange as a mode specific colour by Transport for London. This colour is used in the Overground version of the TfL roundel, for the representation of Overground routes on the map, in train interiors. Rail services in Great Britain are mostly run under franchises operated by train operating companies. The concept of developing a network of services around London goes back to the independently produced Ringrail proposals in the early 1970s. The proposal from Barren was for several overlapping services mainly using the North London Line and this was given the marketing name Cross Town Link-Line, and operated with basic 2-car diesel units.
The next initiative came from the GLC in 1984, when the government supported the Broadgate development that would entail the demolition of Broad Street Station. The closure process was convoluted because of problems in making arrangements for the North London Line. These would eventually run to and from Liverpool Street via a new section of track and this used a name once associated with a semicircular service that operated from Broad Street to Mansion House, but ceased during World War 1. The pamphlets and briefings, first issued in 1997, initially suggested a route from Clapham Junction to the Greenwich Peninsula, intended to improve access from south London to the Millennium Dome. However, this was thwarted by architect Richard Rogers who considered a railway route on an elevated viaduct could cause community severance, nothing further happened to develop this network until after the new GLA was set up in 2000. But the lobbying discreetly continued with a series of short briefings published by one RDS member based in North London, mayoral and GLA candidates were approached to discuss the viability of the Outer Circle concept.
The principle was widely supported and was adopted into the first Mayors Transport Plan, meanwhile, a pilot scheme was launched in 2003 to bring several National Rail local services, mainly in South London and operated by multiple companies, under the ON – Overground Network brand. TfL introduced consistent information displays, station signage and maps on the routes in South London. The pilot scheme was dropped, in January 2004 the Department for Transport announced a review of the rail industry in Great Britain. As part of review, proposals were put forward by TfL for a London Regional Rail Authority to give TfL regulatory powers over rail services in. A result of consultation was agreement by the Secretary of State for Transport, Alistair Darling
London Buses is the subsidiary of Transport for London that manages bus services within Greater London. Contracts are normally for five years, with two-year extensions available if performance criteria is met, operators provide staff to drive the buses, provide the buses to operate and adhere to set TfL guidelines. Operators are in return paid per mile that each bus runs, London Buses publishes a variety of bus maps. Some are traditional street maps of London marked with bus numbers, in 2002, TfL introduced the first spider maps. The arachnoid form of bus routes radiating from a centre earned them the nickname spider maps, the maps are displayed at most major bus stops, and can be downloaded in PDF format via the Internet from the TfL website. The legal identity of London Buses is London Bus Services Limited, East Thames Buses was the trading name of another wholly owned subsidiary of TfL called, rather confusingly, London Buses Limited. The operating units were sold off in 1994/95, and their purchasers make up the majority of companies awarded bus operating tenders from the current London Buses, after 1994/95, the LBL company lay dormant, passing from LRT to TfL.
It was resurrected when East Thames Buses was formed, separated by a wall from LBSL. The local bus network in London is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, over 8000 scheduled buses operate on over 700 different routes. Over the year this network carries over 1.8 billion passenger journeys, Buses in the London Buses network accept Travelcards, Oyster card products and contactless debit and credit cards. Cash fares have not been available since 6 July 2014, single journey fares used to be charged in relation to length of journey, but are now charged as single flat fares for any length of journey. Alternatively and monthly passes may be purchased and loaded onto an Oyster card, passengers using contactless payment cards are charged the same fares as on Oyster pay as you go. Unlike Oyster cards, contactless cards have a 7-day fare cap though it only operates on a Monday-Sunday basis. Under 11s can travel free on London buses and trams at any time unaccompanied by an adult, children aged 11 to 15 travel free on buses with an 11–15 Oyster photocard, without an Oyster card or Travelcard, they have to pay the full adult fare.
Visitors can have a special discount added to an ordinary Oyster card at TfLs Travel Information Centres, there are concessions for London residents aged 16 to 18. The Freedom Pass scheme allows Greater London residents over state pension age, people who have concessionary bus passes issued by English local authorities travel free on TfL bus services at any time. Each company has its own operating code, and every bus garage in London has its own garage code, London Buses in fact maintains a close control over both the age and specification of the vehicles. These have been known to tear and get dirty quickly, however there have been improvements with LED Backlights and the SmartBlind system installed on newer vehicles
Emirates Air Line (cable car)
The Emirates Air Line is a cable car link across the River Thames in London, England built by Doppelmayr with sponsorship from the airline Emirates. The service opened on 28 June 2012 and is operated by Transport for London, in addition to transport across the river, the service advertises a unique view of London. The duration of a single crossing is ten minutes, the cable car is based on monocable detachable gondola technology, a system which uses a single cable for both propulsion and support, used on the metrocable in Medellín, Colombia. The MDG system is cheaper and quicker to install than a more complex three-cable system which would allow larger-capacity cars. On 4 July 2010, Transport for London announced plans to develop a car crossing over the River Thames. It is the first urban cable car in the United Kingdom, designed by Wilkinson Eyre Architects, Expedition Engineering and Buro Happold, it crosses the river at a height up to 90 metres, higher than that of the nearby O2 Arena. The cable car provides a crossing every 15 seconds, with a capacity of 2,500 passengers per hour in each direction.
Passengers can pay for their journeys with pay-as-you-go Oyster cards.1 metres above high water springs. South of the river there is a 60-metre main support tower, when the project was announced, TfLs initial budget was £25 million, they announced this would be entirely funded by private finance. TfL planned to make up the shortfall by paying for the out of the London Rail budget, applying for funding from the European Regional Development Fund. €9. 7m of ERDF support, out of an estimated €65. 56m total budget, was agreed on 9 July 2012 In January 2011, News International was planning to sponsor the project, but withdrew its offer. In October 2011 it was announced that the Dubai-based airline Emirates would provide £36 million in a 10-year sponsorship deal which included branding of the car service with the airlines name. Construction began in August 2011 with Mace as the lead contractor, Mace built the cable car for £45 million and was to operate it for the first three years for a further £5.5 million.
TfL stated that the construction funding and Emirates sponsorship would cover £36 million of the cost. In 2011 the cable car was the most expensive cable system ever built, the public opening took place at noon on 28 June 2012. TfL reported that the total cost of the project was about £60 million and it estimates that the service can carry 2,500 people per hour. There are 36 passenger gondolas, of which 34 are in use at any one time, all passenger gondolas are ready for disabled persons using wheelchairs, including those ones with leg rest extensions. There are two engineers gondolas for use by maintenance staff, the Emirates Air Line route was introduced onto the London Tube map in June 2012
Docklands Light Railway
The Docklands Light Railway is an automated light metro system opened in 1987 to serve the redeveloped Docklands area of London. It reaches north to Stratford, south to Lewisham, west to Tower Gateway and Bank in the City of London financial district, and east to Beckton, London City Airport and Woolwich Arsenal. The system uses minimal staffing on trains and at interchange stations. Similar proposals have made for the Tube. The DLR is operated under a franchise awarded by Transport for London to KeolisAmey Docklands and it was previously run for over 17 years by Serco Docklands, part of the Serco Group. The system is owned by Docklands Light Railway Ltd, part of the London Rail division of Transport for London, in Fiscal Year 2014, the DLR carried 110.2 million passengers. It has been extended several times and further extensions are under consideration, the docks immediately east of Central London began to decline in the early 1960s as cargo became containerised. They had been connected to the railway network via the London and Blackwall Railway.
The opening of the Tilbury container docks, further east in Essex, finally rendered them redundant, as early as 1972, consideration was given to how to redevelop the moribund Docklands. Travis Morgan & Partners were commissioned by the London Docklands Study Team to consider the issue, the Greater London Council formed a Docklands Joint Committee with the Boroughs of Greenwich, Newham and Tower Hamlets in 1974 to undertake the redevelopment of the area. A light railway system was envisaged, terminating either at Tower Hill tube station or at Fenchurch Street, but both options were seen as too expensive. This was intended to be the stage of the Fleet line – which had been renamed the Jubilee line. The government created the London Docklands Development Corporation in July 1981 to coordinate the redevelopment of the Docklands, the need to provide a cheap public transport solution led to it commissioning London Transport to evaluate a number of exclusively light rail options. The core of the route ran alongside the Great Eastern line out of London, three terminus options were proposed at the west end, at Tower Hill and Aldgate East.
The Tower Hill option would have required a low-level interchange to be constructed alongside the existing Underground station, the Minories option, a high-level station virtually on the site of the old Minories railway station, was selected and became the current Tower Gateway DLR terminus. However, it became apparent that there was no capacity on the existing network for integrating the DLR into the Underground. Two southern terminus options were put forward, at Cubitt Town and Tiller Road, on the west side of Millwall Dock, with two possible routes to reach them. The central option required the West India Docks to be infilled or bridged and would run down the middle of the peninsula, the contract for the initial system was awarded to GEC Mowlem in 1984 and the system was constructed from 1985 to 1987 at a cost of £77 million
Transport for London
Transport for London is a local government body responsible for the transport system in Greater London, England. Its head office is in Windsor House in the City of Westminster, the underlying services are provided by a mixture of wholly owned subsidiary companies, by private sector franchisees and by licensees. In 2015-16, TfL had a budget of £11.5 billion, the rest comes from government funding, other income and Crossrail funding. On 21 January 2016, it was announced that the responsibility for franchising all of Londons inner suburban services would be transferred from the DfT to TfL. This transfer will take place as current franchises fall due for renewal, TfL was created in 2000 as part of the Greater London Authority by the Greater London Authority Act 1999. It gained most of its functions from its predecessor London Regional Transport in 2000, the first Commissioner of TfL was Bob Kiley. The first Chair was then-Mayor of London Ken Livingstone, and the first Deputy Chair was Dave Wetzel and Wetzel remained in office until the election of Boris Johnson as Mayor in 2008.
Johnson took over as Chairman, and in February 2009 fellow-Conservative Daniel Moylan was appointed as his Deputy, TfL did not take over responsibility for the London Underground until 2003, after the controversial Public-private partnership contract for maintenance had been agreed. Management of the Public Carriage Office had previously been a function of the Metropolitan Police, Transport for London Group Archives holds business records for TfL and its predecessor bodies and transport companies. Some early records are held on behalf of TfL Group Archives at the London Metropolitan Archives. After the bombings on the underground and bus systems on 7 July 2005 and they helped survivors out, removed bodies, and got the transport system up and running, to get the millions of commuters back out of London at the end of the work day. Those mentioned include Peter Hendy, who was at the time Head of Surface Transport division, and Tim OToole, head of the Underground division, carrying open containers of alcohol was banned on public transport operated by TfL.
The Mayor of London and TfL announced the ban with the intention of providing a safer, there were Last Round on the Underground parties on the night before the ban came into force. Passengers refusing to observe the ban may be refused travel and asked to leave the premises, the Greater London Authority reported in 2011 that assaults on London Underground staff had fallen by 15% since the introduction of the ban. In an effort to reduce sexual offences and increase reporting, TfL—in conjunction with the British Transport Police, Metropolitan Police Service, TfL is controlled by a board whose members are appointed by the Mayor of London, a position held by Sadiq Khan since May 2016. The Commissioner of Transport for London reports to the Board and leads a management team with individual functional responsibilities, the body is organised in three main directorates and corporate services, each with responsibility for different aspects and modes of transport. This network is sub-divided into three service units, BCV, Central and Waterloo & City lines.
JNP, Jubilee and Piccadilly lines, SSL, District and Hammersmith & City lines
Intercity bus service
Intercity bus services may be operated by government agencies or private industry, for profit and not for profit. Intercity coach travel can serve areas or countries with no train services, Intercity bus services are of prime importance in lightly populated rural areas that often have little or no public transportation. Intercity bus services are one of four common transport methods between cities, not all of which are available in all places, the others are by airliner and private automobile. The first intercity scheduled transport service was called the stagecoach and originated in the 17th century, crude coaches were being built from the 16th century in England, but without suspension, these coaches achieved very low speeds on the poor quality rutted roads of the time. By the mid 17th century, a basic infrastructure was being put in place. The first stagecoach route started in 1610 and ran from Edinburgh to Leith and this was followed by a steady proliferation of other routes around the country.
A string of coaching inns operated as stopping points for travellers on the route between London and Liverpool by the mid 17th century, the coach would depart every Monday and Thursday and took roughly ten days to make the journey during the summer months. They became adopted for travel in and around London by mid-century. Shakespeares first plays were staged at coaching inns such as The George Inn, the speed of travel remained constant until the mid-18th century. Robert Hooke helped in the construction of some of the first spring-suspended coaches in the 1660s and spoked wheels with iron rim brakes were introduced, in 1754, a Manchester-based company began a new service called the Flying Coach. It was advertised with the following announcement - However incredible it may appear, this coach will arrive in London in four days. A similar service was begun from Liverpool three years later, using coaches with steel spring suspension and this coach took an unprecedented three days to reach London with an average speed of eight miles per hour.
Even more dramatic improvements to coach speed were made by John Palmer at the British Post Office and his experimental coach left Bristol at 4 pm on 2 August 1784 and arrived in London just 16 hours later. The golden age of the stagecoach was during the Regency period, the era saw great improvements in the design of the coaches, notably by John Besant in 1792 and 1795. His coach had a greatly improved turning capacity and braking system, obadiah Elliott registered the first patent for a spring-suspension vehicle. Each wheel had two steel leaf springs on each side and the body of the carriage was fixed directly to the springs attached to the axles. Steady improvements in construction were made at this time, most importantly the widespread implementation of Macadam roads up. Coaches in this period travelled at around 12 miles per hour and greatly increased the level of mobility in the country, both for people and for mail
Arriva Shires & Essex
Arriva Shires & Essex is a bus operator providing services in Bedfordshire, Essex and Greater London. Until 2002 its operations included Colchester and it is a subsidiary of Arriva. Operations are split between two registered companies, Arriva East Herts & Essex Limited and Arriva The Shires Limited, Arriva East Herts & Essex Limited is based in Harlow, and operate two bus garages in Harlow and Ware. Arriva East Herts & Essex emerged from London Country North East, one of the successor companies, County Bus & Coach, with depots at Harlow and Grays, was bought by its management in 1990. In 1994 County was sold to West Midlands Travel, itself bought by National Express in 1995, the Cowie Group bought County from National Express in 1996. County Bus & Coach was renamed Arriva East Herts & Essex in April 1998, Cowie had acquired Southend Transport and Colchester Borough Transport with its acquisition of British Bus in 1996. Both companies became part of Arriva East Herts & Essex, Harlow garage was opened by London Transport on 22 May 1963 to serve Harlow New Town and to replace Epping garage.
Harlow was allocated 25 AEC Regent III RTs,16 AEC Routemasters, seven RFs, London Country North East and County Bus used the garage until The Cowie Group purchased County Bus in 1997. This was previously an Arriva East Herts & Essex garage, but it is now part of the Tellings-Golden Miller subsidiary, Ware garage replaced the Hertford depot in 1993. It runs part of route 724 along with Harlow garage, operation of London bus route 327 was transferred from Ware to Arriva Londons Enfield garage on 3 January 2009. Ware did briefly become an Arriva The Shires garage in late 2010, on 4 September 2010, routes 250 and 251 transferred from Harlow to Ware. Arriva The Shires Limited is based in Luton and operates bus garages in Luton, High Wycombe, Stevenage and Hemel Hempstead. Arriva the Shires evolved from the purchase of the Luton, depots at Watford, High Wycombe, Hemel Hempstead and Slough were acquired with London Country North West in 1990, although Amersham has since closed and Slough was sold to Bee Line.
LDT was bought in 1994 by British Bus, itself bought in 1996 by The Cowie Group, lDTs was renamed Arriva the Shires in April 1998. Aylesbury depot was a depot of United Counties acquired by LDT in 1987, in 1987, LDT acquired the long-established Aylesbury independent company, Red Rover. Hemel Hempstead was a depot of London Country Bus Services, acquired by Luton & District Transport in 1988, High Wycombe was another depot of London Country Bus Services, acquired by LDT in 1988. In 2000 Arriva bought the High Wycombe depot of the Go-Ahead Groups Oxford Bus Company, in 2005, High Wycombe garage relocated to a new purpose built depot following the closure of the old bus station in the town, where the previous garage was. High Wycombe operate a number of services, Hitchin depot was a depot of United Counties acquired by LDT in 1987
Wallis, Gilbert and Partners
Wallis and Partners was a British architectural partnership responsible for the design of many Art Deco buildings in the UK in the 1920s and 1930s. It was established by Thomas Wallis in 1914, Wallis had previously served with Sir Frank Baines in the Office of Works. Although the identity of Gilbert has not been established, partners included Frederick Button, Douglas Wallis, Agbolahan Adesegun, notable buildings include the Hoover Factory and the Firestone Tyre Factory. The firm designed country houses, for instance and Ripley Grange at Loughton for Charles Frederick Clark. The Old Vinyl Factory, Hayes,1907 Caribonum Factory, London,1918, general Electrical Company Witton Works, Electric Avenue, Birmingham 1920, Grade II listed. The Solex Factory, Marylebone Road, London,1925, the Shannon Factory, London,1928. Firestone Tyre Factory, Great West Road, Middlesex, pyrene Building, Great West Road, Brentford, 1929-1930 Tower and extension to the Alaska factory, London 1930s. Albion Motor Car Company Ltd Works, Glasgow 1930, daimler Hire Garage,9 Herbrand Street, London 1931.
British Bemberg Factory, Yorkshire,1931, Hoover Factory, Western Avenue, Perivale 1931-1938. Coty Cosmetics Factory, Great West Road, Brentford,1932, simmonds Aerocessories, Beechams Pharmaceuticals Factory, Great West Road, Brentford, 1936-1942. Richard Klinger Factory, London,1937, a Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. Form and fancy and factory buildings by Wallis, Wallis, Gilbert & Partners - London Historians
Megabus is a long distance coach operator operated by the Stagecoach Group. It commenced operating in August 2003, initially in the United Kingdom, some services link with Megatrain services, operated by Stagecoach. Advertised fares start at £1 with a 50p booking fee, using a yield management model, services from London to Oxford commenced on 4 August 2003, and from Edinburgh to Glasgow and Perth and Glasgow to Dundee were added one month later. During November 2003 routes from Manchester to Liverpool and Leeds were added, Stagecoach West lost the contract to run the National Express route between London and Gloucester, prompting it to introduce competing Megabus services from 5 September 2004. This enabled Stagecoach to cancel the dedicated Megabus service between the two cities, on 10 October 2004 routes from London to Liverpool and Newcastle. On 15 November 2004, the London to Oxford service was replaced by seats on the Oxford Tube. On 31 January 2005, Stagecoach bus route X5 between Oxford and Cambridge became part of the Megabus network, selling a number of seats per journey in the way as the Oxford Tube.
On 13 June 2005 a new service was introduced between London and Coventry, the London to Swansea service was withdrawn between Cardiff and Swansea. A joint venture between Scottish Citylink and Megabus led to co-ordination of services in Scotland, on 21 November 2005, the 900 Motorvator service was replaced by an enhanced Citylink service, with the facility to buy seats through the Megabus website was retained. Tickets for the combined Megabus/Citylink services are available through both companies websites, though often at different prices, from 16 February 2006, the slower Citylink service between Dundee and Glasgow became available to book through the Megabus website, restoring Perth bus station to the Megabus network. The same day of the Citylink service modifications, the London to Manchester route was extended to Preston and this coincided with the loss of National Express work at Preston depot. The extensions to Blackpool and Lancaster were short lived, and were withdrawn in February 2006, one journey a day in each direction was extended to Wolverhampton.
The stops in the south of Birmingham were no longer served, a number of changes to routes were made on 27 March 2006. A direct service was introduced between Ferrytoll Park & Ride in Fife and London via Newcastle and Sheffield, together with changes to the Leeds to London services, this meant that changes at Tibshelf services were no longer needed. In addition, many routes had timetable changes, in particular, the London to Southampton and London to Portsmouth routes became feeders to the London to Bournemouth service, with passengers required to change at Winchester. Some London to Bristol journeys were extended to Cwmbran, early in February 2007, it was announced that the service between London, Milton Keynes and Nottingham would be withdrawn on 11 March 2007. These services were restored Monday-Saturday following the acquisition of the East Midlands Trains franchise by Stagecoach, to, from 21 May 2007, services between London and Leeds were extended to Middlesbrough and Newcastle. On 1 October 2007, the London hub moved from Bulleid Way to Victoria Coach Station, from October 2009 M35 Cardiff to Newcastle began
Transport in London
London has an extensive and developed transport network which includes both private and public services. Journeys made by transport systems account for 25% of Londons journeys while private services accounted for 41% of journeys. Londons public transport network serves as the hub for the United Kingdom in rail, air. Public transport services are dominated by the agency for transport in London. TfL controls the majority of transport, including the Underground, Tramlink, the Docklands Light Railway, London River Services. Other rail services are either franchised to train operating companies by the national Department for Transport, TfL controls most major roads in London, but not minor roads. In addition, there are several independent airports operating in London, including Heathrow, early public transport in London began with horse-drawn omnibus services in 1829, which were gradually replaced by the first motor omnibuses in 1902. Over the years the companies which began these services amalgamated with the London General Omnibus Company to form a unified bus service.
The Underground Group became part of the new London Passenger Transport Board in 1933, Underground trains, the London Transport name continued in use until 2000, although the political management of transport services changed several times. The LPTB oversaw transport from 1933 to 1947 until it was re-organised into the London Transport Executive, responsibility for London Transport was subsequently taken over to the London Transport Board, the Greater London Council and London Regional Transport. Following the privatisation of London bus services in 1986, bus services were spun off to a separate operation based on competitive tendering, Transport for London operates three different railway systems across London. The largest is the London Underground, a transit system operating on sub-surface lines. TfL operates the Docklands Light Railway, a light rail system in the east of the city. The London Underground and the DLR account for 40 percent of the journeys between Inner London and Outer London, making them the most highly used systems in all of London and these three systems extend to most points of London, creating a comprehensive and extensive system.
One major area missed by these systems is South London, which is dominated by a suburban rail network. Colloquially known as the Tube, the London Underground was the first rapid transit system in the world, more than 3 million passengers travel on the Underground every day, amounting to over 1 billion passenger journeys per year for the first time in 2006. The Underground serves North London much more extensively than South London and this is the result of a combination of unfavourable geology, historical competition from surface railways and the historical geography of London which was focused to the north of the River Thames. South London is served primarily by surface railways Carrying nearly 50% of Londons commuters, the Docklands Light Railway is an automated light rail system serving the Docklands area of east London
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area