Foster Air Force Base
Foster Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base, located 6 miles east-northeast of Victoria, Texas. A flying training airfield during World War II, it was part of Tactical Air Command during the Cold War as a tactical fighter and command base. Named in memory of Lt. Arthur L. Foster, a native of Georgetown, a United States Army Air Corps instructor killed in a crash at Brooks Field, Texas in 1925. Foster's son received his training and commission at the base in the spring of 1942. Foster Air Force Base was established as an advanced single-engine flying school for fighter pilots six miles northeast of Victoria, Texas, in the spring of 1941. A local funding campaign led by E. J. Dysart the previous spring had raised some $17,000 to locate the base at Victoria on a 1,000-acre site as an economic asset. Subsequent government construction cost more than $4 million. Leases were formally approved by the War Department on 4 March 1941, with construction beginning on 14 April 1941 by American-Friedman-Bitulithic Associates.
The airfield was activated on 15 May 1941 by the Gulf Coast Air Corps Training Center. The mission of the new airfield was the training of aviation cadets in the advanced phase of flying training. Foster was assigned to the Air Corps Advanced Flying School. In the advanced phase, the cadets flew advanced trainers and fighter-bombers. Pilot wings were sent on to group combat training. Graduates were graded as Flight Officers; the initial class of cadets arrived in September 1941 and served under Lt. Col. Warren R. Carter, the first commander. WACs began to arrive the following May. Cadets used North American AT-6 Texan trainers and Curtis P-40 Warhawk fighters to drill in aerial gunnery, though actual practice took place on ranges located on Matagorda Island and Matagorda Peninsula. In addition to these bombing ranges on Matagorda, at least ten auxiliary landing fields and a sub-base was controlled by Foster for emergency landings and aircraft overflow; the field was formally dedicated to 1st Lt. Arthur L. Foster on Sunday, 22 February 1942, killed along with Maj. Lee O. Wright in the 1030 hrs. crash of a Curtiss JN-6H, AS-44806, ~2 miles E of Brooks Field, Texas on 10 February 1925.
Foster's widow, Mrs. Ruth Young Foster, of San Antonio, unveiled a plaque that read "Dedicated to the memory of Lieut. Arthur Lee Foster, a pioneer in aviation who gave his life teaching others to fly."In 1943, the War Department constituted and activated the 77th Flying Training Wing at Foster and assigned it to the AAF Central Flying Training Command. The 77th was a headquarters for advanced training at several bases of AAF Central Flying Training Command. Many pilots returning from overseas service were taught to become aerial gunnery instructors at Foster Field. In addition to the pilot training mission, Foster served as a medical evacuation facility for injured veterans. There were several housing facilities located on the base. On 1 January 1945 the 2539th Army Air Forces Base Unit took control of the ground station administrative functions; as World War II wound down Foster Field took control of several smaller facilities as they were being closed. On 1 September 1945 the mission at the airfield changed from pilot training to becoming a separation station.
Foster Field itself was inactivated on 31 October 1945. On 15 November the facility was closed and the Foster Field site returned to its prewar owners, the Buhler and Braman estates; the Air Force retained a recapture right, which it exercised at Foster and at many other former bases to accommodate the Korean War training surge. In the fall of 1951 the government purchased 1,376 acres at the site, Foster Field was reactivated for single-engine jet training. Foster Field was designated Foster Air Force Base on 1 September 1952, by Department of the Air Force General Order No. 38, dated 29 August 1952. Foster AFB was assigned to the United States Air Force's Air Training Command, with the 3580th Pilot Training Wing assigned to the base on 1 May 1952 as the primary training organization as well as the host wing. Students were a combination of cadets and commissioned USAF officer, with the first group of students graduating in March 1953 after three months of duty using North American T-28 Trojan propeller and Lockheed T-33 Shooting Star jet trainers.
After the end of combat in Korea, Air Training Command returned various combat crew training responsibilities in front-line combat aircraft to the Strategic Air Command and the Tactical Air Command in 1954. The command was able to do this because bases like Greenville AFB, South Carolina and Laredo AFB, Texas had acquired sufficient facilities to assume their full share of the pilot training load. Various bases were transferred to the combat commands, among these was the transfer of Foster AFB to TAC on 1 July 1954 Foster Air Force Base was designated a permanent military installation on 1 July 1954. Col Frank L. Dunn became the new commander, replacing Col C. C. Sonnkalb. Under Tactical Air Command, the 450th Fighter-Bomber Wing, was activated at Foster, on 1 July 1954, replacing and absorbing the assets of the 3580th PTW. Four operational squadrons were assigned to the 450th Fighter-Bomber Group being equipped with the North American F-86F Sabre, its aircraft wore an approximation of the stars and stripes, with seven red and six white stripes
Our Lady of Guadalupe
Our Lady of Guadalupe known as the Virgin of Guadalupe, is a Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with a Marian apparition and a venerated image enshrined within the Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe in Mexico City. The basilica is the most visited Catholic pilgrimage site in the world, the world's third most-visited sacred site. Pope Leo XIII granted the venerated image a Canonical Coronation on 12 October 1895. Catholic accounts claim that the Virgin Mary appeared four times before Juan Diego and once more before Juan Diego's uncle. According to those Catholic version accounts, the first apparition occurred on the morning of December 9, 1531, when it is said that a native Mexican peasant named Juan Diego experienced a vision of a young woman at a place called the Hill of Tepeyac, which would become part of Villa de Guadalupe, in a suburb of Mexico City. According to the accounts, the woman, speaking to Juan Diego in his native Nahuatl language, identified herself as the Virgin Mary, "mother of the true deity".
She was said to have asked for a church to be built at that site in her honor. Based on her words, Juan Diego sought out the archbishop of Mexico City, Fray Juan de Zumárraga, to tell him what had happened. Not unexpectedly, the bishop did not believe Diego, but on the same day Juan Diego saw the young woman for a second time; the story continues saying she asked him to keep insisting. On Sunday, December 10, Juan Diego talked to the archbishop for a second time; the latter instructed him to return to Tepeyac Hill, to ask the lady for a acceptable, miraculous sign to prove her identity. That same day, the third apparition occurred when Diego returned to Tepeyac and encountering the same woman, he reported back to her the bishop's request for a sign. By Monday, December 11, Juan Diego's uncle, Juan Bernardino, had fallen sick so Juan Diego was obliged to attend to him. In the early hours of Tuesday, December 12, Juan Bernardino's condition having deteriorated overnight, Juan Diego set out to Tlatelolco to fetch a Catholic priest to hear Juan Bernardino's confession and help minister to him on his death-bed.
In order to avoid being delayed by the Virgin and ashamed at having failed to meet her on the Monday as agreed, Juan Diego chose another route around the hill, but the Virgin intercepted him and asked where he was going. In the words which have become the most famous phrase of the Guadalupe event and are inscribed over the main entrance to the Basilica of Guadalupe, she asked, "¿No estoy yo aquí que soy tu madre?". She assured him that Juan Bernardino had now recovered and she told him to gather flowers from the top of Tepeyac Hill, barren in the cold of December. Juan followed her instructions and he found Castilian roses, not native to Mexico, blooming there; the Virgin arranged the flowers in Juan's tilma, or cloak, when Juan Diego opened his cloak before archbishop Zumárraga on December 12, the flowers fell to the floor, on the fabric was the image of the Virgin of Guadalupe. The next day, on December 13, Juan Diego found his uncle recovered, as the Virgin had assured him, Juan Bernardino recounted that he too had seen her, at his bed-side.
The bishop kept Juan Diego's mantle first in his private chapel and in the church on public display where it attracted great attention. On December 26, 1531 a procession formed for taking the miraculous image back to Tepeyac where it was installed in a small hastily erected chapel. In course of this procession, the first miracle was performed when an Indian was mortally wounded in the neck by an arrow shot by accident during some stylized martial displays executed in honour of the Virgin. In great distress, the Indians pleaded for his life. Upon the arrow being withdrawn, the victim made a immediate recovery. Juan Diego's tilma has become Mexico's most popular religious and cultural symbol, has received widespread ecclesiastical and popular support. In the 19th century it became the rallying call of the Spaniards born in America, in what they labeled New Spain, they said they saw the story of the apparition as legitimizing their own indigenous Mexican origin, infused it with an messianic sense of mission and identity – thus legitimizing their armed rebellion against Spain.
The devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe did not lack significant Catholic clerical opposition within Mexico and elsewhere in the early years, in more recent times some Catholic scholars, a former abbot of the basilica, Monsignor Guillermo Schulenburg, have openly doubted the historical existence of Juan Diego, referring to their devotion as symbolic, propagated by a sensational cult who were looking to bolster Catholic devotion from amongst the indigenous. Nonetheless, Juan Diego was canonized under the name Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin. While the image garners much religious devotion and fervent Mexican patriotism, scholarly criticism on the image is notable, considering the artistic disproportion of the image, the similarity of the image to Spanish pre-colonial artwork related to the Aztec colony at the time, the alleged relationship of Marcos C
The Tonkawa are a Native American tribe indigenous to present-day Texas. They once spoke the now-extinct Tonkawa language, a language isolate. Today, many descendants are enrolled in the federally recognized Tonkawa Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. In the 16th century, the Tonkawa tribe had around 1,879 members with their numbers diminishing to around 1,600 by the late 17th century due to fatalities from new infectious diseases and conflict with other tribes, most notably the Apache. By 1921, only 34 tribal members remained, their numbers have since recovered to close to 700 in the early 21st century. Most live in Oklahoma; the Tonkawa's autonym is Tickanwa•tic. The name Tonkawa is derived from the Waco tribal word, meaning "they all stay together"; the Tonkawa tribe operates a number of businesses which have an annual economic impact of over $10,860,657. Along with several smoke shops, the tribe runs 3 different casinos: Tonkawa Indian Casino and Tonkawa Gasino located in Tonkawa and the Native Lights Casino in Newkirk, Oklahoma.
The annual Tonkawa Powwow is held on the last weekend in June to commemorate the end of the tribe's own Trail of Tears when the tribe was forcefully removed and relocated from its traditional lands to present-day Oklahoma. Scholars once thought. Recent research, has shown that the tribe inhabited northwestern Oklahoma in 1601. By 1700, the stronger and more aggressive Apache had pushed the Tonkawa south to the Red River which forms the border between current-day Oklahoma and Texas. In the 1740s, some Tonkawa were involved with the Yojuanes and others as settlers in the San Gabriel Missions of Texas along the San Gabriel River. In 1758, the Tonkawa along with allied Bidais, Wichitas and Yojuanes went to attack the Lipan Apache in the vicinity of Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá, which they destroyed; the tribe continued their southern migration into Texas and northern Mexico, where they allied with the Lipan Apache. In 1824, the Tonkawa entered into a treaty with Stephen F. Austin to protect Anglo-American immigrants against the Comanche.
At the time, Austin was an agent recruiting immigrants to settle in the Mexican state of Coahuila y Texas. In 1840 at the Battle of Plum Creek and again in 1858 at the Battle of Little Robe Creek, the Tonkawa fought alongside the Texas Rangers against the Comanche; the Tonkawas visited the capital city of Austin during the days of the Republic of Texas and during early statehood. In 1859, the United States escorted the Tonkawa and a number of other Texas Indian tribes to a new home at the Wichita Agency in Indian Territory, placed them under the protection of nearby Fort Cobb; when the American Civil War started, the troops at the fort received orders to march to Fort Leavenworth, leaving the Indians at the Wichita Agency unprotected. In response to years of animosity, a number of pro-Union tribes, including the Delawares and Penateka Comanches, attacked the Tonkawas as they tried to escape; the fight, known as the Tonkawa Massacre killed nearly half of the remaining Tonkawas, leaving them with little more than 100 people.
The tribe returned to Texas where they remained for the rest of the Civil War. In October, 1884, the United States removed them, once again, to the new Oakland Agency in northern Indian Territory, where they remain to this day; this journey involved going to Cisco, where they boarded a railroad train that took them to Stroud in Indian Territory, where they spent the winter at the Sac and Fox Agency. The Tonkawas travelled 100 miles to the Ponca Agency, arrived at nearby Fort Oakland on June 30, 1885. On October 21, 1891, the tribe signed an agreement with the Cherokee Commission to accept individual allotments of land; the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma incorporated in 1938. The Tonkawa were made up of various groups, many of which are no longer known by name; these groups are counted as Tonkawa: Eurycea tonkawae Jeffrey D. Carlisle: Tonkawa Indians from the Handbook of Texas Online
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and for Mexican independence. He influenced early Mexican politics and government, was an adept soldier and cunning politician, who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny", who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but fought in support of it. Though not the first caudillo of modern Mexico, he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history," and among the earliest. Conservative historian and politician Lucas Alamán wrote that "The history of Mexico since 1822 might be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions.... His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."An enigmatic and controversial figure, Santa Anna had great power in Mexico.
In the periods of time when he was not serving as president, he continued to pursue his military career. A wealthy landowner, he built a firm political base in the major port city of Veracruz, he was perceived as a hero by his troops. He rebuilt his reputation after major losses. Historians and many Mexicans rank him as the principal inhabitant today of Mexico's pantheon of "those who failed the nation." His centralist rhetoric and military failures resulted in Mexico losing just over half its territory, beginning with the Texas Revolution of 1836, culminating with the Mexican Cession of 1848 following its defeat by the United States in the Mexican–American War. His political positions changed in his lifetime, he was overthrown for the final time by the liberal Revolution of Ayutla in 1854 and lived most of his years in exile. Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón was born in Xalapa, Nueva España, on 21 February 1794, he was from a respected Spanish colonial family.
His father was a royal army officer perpetually in debt, served for a time as a sub-delegate for the Gulf Coast Spanish province of Veracruz. However, his parents were wealthy enough to send him to school. In June 1810, the 16-year-old Santa Anna joined the Fijo de Veracruz infantry regiment as a cadet against the wishes of his parents, who wanted him to pursue a career in commerce. In September 1810, secular cleric Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla rebelled against Spanish rule, sparking a spontaneous mass movement in Mexico's rich agricultural area, the Bajío; the Mexican War of Independence was to last until 1821, Santa Anna, like most creole military men, fought for the crown against the mixed-raced insurgents for independence. Santa Anna's commanding officer was José Joaquín de Arredondo, who taught him much about dealing with Mexican rebels. In 1811, Santa Anna was wounded in the left hand by an arrow during the campaign under Col. Arredondo in the town of Amoladeras, in the state of San Luis Potosí.
In 1813, Santa Anna served in Texas against the Gutiérrez–Magee Expedition, at the Battle of Medina, in which he was cited for bravery. He was promoted quickly. In the aftermath of the rebellion, the young officer witnessed Arredondo's fierce counter-insurgency policy of mass executions. During the next few years, in which the war for independence reached a stalemate, Santa Anna erected villages for displaced citizens near the city of Veracruz, he pursued gambling, a habit that would follow him all through his life. In 1816, Santa Anna was promoted to captain, he conducted occasional campaigns to suppress Native Americans or to restore order after a tumult had begun. When royalist officer Agustín de Iturbide changed sides in 1821 and allied with insurgent Vicente Guerrero, fighting for independence under the Plan of Iguala, Santa Anna joined the fight for independence; the changed circumstances in Spain, where liberals had ousted Ferdinand VII and began implementing the Spanish liberal constitution of 1812, made many elites in Mexico reconsider their options.
The clergy in New Spain would have lost power under the Spanish liberal regime and new Mexican clerics saw independence as a way to maintain their position in an autonomous Mexico. Santa Anna rose to prominence fighting for independence by driving Spanish forces out of the vital port city of Veracruz and Iturbide rewarded him with the rank of general. Iturbide rewarded Santa Anna with command of the vital port of Veracruz, the gateway from the Gulf of Mexico to the rest of the nation and site of the customs house. However, Iturbide subsequently removed Santa Anna from the post, prompting Santa Anna to rise in rebellion in December 1822 against Iturbide. Santa Anna had significant power in his home region of Veracruz, "he was well along the path to becoming the regional caudillo." Santa Anna claimed in his Plan of Veracruz that he rebelled because Iturbide had diss
Romanesque Revival architecture
Romanesque Revival is a style of building employed beginning in the mid-19th century inspired by the 11th- and 12th-century Romanesque architecture. Unlike the historic Romanesque style, Romanesque Revival buildings tended to feature more simplified arches and windows than their historic counterparts. An early variety of Romanesque Revival style known as Rundbogenstil was popular in German lands and in the German diaspora beginning in the 1830s. By far the most prominent and influential American architect working in a free "Romanesque" manner was Henry Hobson Richardson. In the United States, the style derived from examples set by him are termed Richardsonian Romanesque, of which not all are Romanesque Revival. Romanesque Revival is sometimes referred to as the "Norman style" or "Lombard style" in works published during the 19th century after variations of historic Romanesque that were developed by the Normans and Lombards, respectively. Like its influencing Romanesque style, the Romanesque Revival style was used for churches, for synagogues such as the New Synagogue of Strasbourg built in 1898, the Congregation Emanu-El of New York built in 1929.
The style was quite popular for university campuses in the late 19th and early 20th century in the United States and Canada. See also: Romanesque Revival architecture in the United KingdomThe development of the Norman revival style took place over a long time in the British Isles starting with Inigo Jones's refenestration of the White Tower of the Tower of London in 1637–38 and work at Windsor Castle by Hugh May for Charles II, but this was little more than restoration work. In the 18th century, the use of round arched windows was thought of as being Saxon rather than Norman, examples of buildings with round arched windows include Shirburn Castle in Oxfordshire, Wentworth in Yorkshire, Enmore Castle in Somerset. In Scotland the style started to emerge with the Duke of Argyl's castle at Inverary, started in 1744, castles by Robert Adam at Culzean, Oxenfoord and Seton Palace, 1792. In England James Wyatt used round arched windows at Sandleford Priory, Berkshire, in 1780–89 and the Duke of Norfolk started to rebuild Arundel Castle, while Eastnor Castle in Herefordshire was built by Robert Smirke between 1812 and 1820.
At this point, the Norman Revival became a recognisable architectural style. In 1817, Thomas Rickman published his An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest To the Reformation, it was now realised that'round-arch architecture' was Romanesque in the British Isles and came to be described as Norman rather than Saxon. The start of an "archaeologically correct" Norman Revival can be recognised in the architecture of Thomas Hopper, his first attempt at this style was at Gosford Castle in Armagh in Ireland, but far more successful was his Penrhyn Castle near Bangor in North Wales. This was built for the Pennant family, between 1820 and 1837; the style did not catch on for domestic buildings, though many country houses and mock castles were built in the Castle Gothic or Castellated style during the Victorian period, a mixed Gothic style. However, the Norman Revival did catch on for church architecture. Thomas Penson, a Welsh architect, would have been familiar with Hopper’s work at Penrhyn, who developed Romanesque Revival church architecture.
Penson was influenced by French and Belgian Romanesque architecture, the earlier Romanesque phase of German Brick Gothic. At St David’s Newtown, 1843–47, St Agatha’s Llanymynech, 1845, he copied the tower of St. Salvator's Cathedral, Bruges. Other examples of Romanesque revival by Penson are Christ Church, Welshpool, 1839–1844, the porch to Langedwyn Church, he was an innovator in his use of Terracotta to produce decorative Romanesque mouldings, saving on the expense of stonework. Penson’s last church in the Romanesque Revival style was Rhosllannerchrugog, Wrexham 1852The Romanesque adopted by Penson contrasts with the Italianate Romanesque of other architects such as Thomas Henry Wyatt, who designed Saint Mary and Saint Nicholas Church, in this style at Wilton, built between 1841 and 1844 for the Dowager Countess of Pembroke and her son, Lord Herbert of Lea. During the 19th century, the architecture selected for Anglican churches depended on the churchmanship of particular congregations. Whereas high churches and Anglo-Catholic, which were influenced by the Oxford Movement, were built in Gothic Revival architecture, low churches and broad churches of the period were built in the Romanesque Revival style.
Some of the examples of this Romanesque architecture is seen in Non-conformist or Dissenting churches and chapels. A good example of this is by the Lincoln architects Drury and Mortimer, who designed the Mint Lane Baptist Chapel in Lincoln in a debased Italianate Romanesque revival style in 1870. After about 1870 this style of Church architecture in Britain disappears, but in the early 20th century, the style is succeeded by Byzantine Revival architecture. Two of Canada's provincial legislatures, the Ontario Legislative Building in Toronto and the British Columbia Parliament Buildings in Victoria, are Romanesque Revival in style. University College, one of seven colleges at the University of Toronto, is a chief example of the Romanesque Revival style; the building, designed by Frederic Cumberland and William G. Storm, was intended to be Gothic in style but was rejected by the governor general. Construction of the final d
John B. Magruder
John Bankhead Magruder was an American and Confederate military officer. A graduate of West Point, Magruder served with distinction during the Mexican–American War and was a prominent Confederate Army general during the American Civil War; as a major general, he received recognition for delaying the advance of Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's prodigiously large force, the Army of the Potomac, during the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, as well as recapturing Galveston, Texas the following year; when the Civil War began in 1861, Magruder left the Union Army to accept a commission in the Confederacy. As commander of the Army of the Peninsula, he fortified the Virginia Peninsula and won the Battle of Big Bethel. In the Peninsula Campaign, he stalled McClellan's Army of the Potomac outside Yorktown, allowing Maj. Gen. Joseph E. Johnston to arrive with reinforcements, organize a retreat, defend the Confederate capital, Richmond. Magruder was criticized for his leadership in battles at Savage's Station and Malvern Hill during the Seven Days Campaign.
He spent the remainder of the war administering the District of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona and the Department of Arkansas. After surrendering the Trans-Mississippi Department in June 1865, Magruder fled to Mexico, he worked in an administrative role under Emperor Maximillian I before returning to the United States in 1867. In 1869, he embarked on a lecture tour. Magruder died in Houston in 1871. John Bankhead Magruder was born in Port Royal, Virginia on May 1, 1807 to Thomas Magruder and his wife, Elizabeth Bankhead, he was the fifth child of nine other siblings. Magruder's father, was from a family of Scottish plantation owners. Despite his illustrious position, practicing law in the Chancery Court of Fredericksburg, Thomas was negligent and a constant debtor. By 1820, he lost ownership of all his slaves, his homestead was sold in a public auction five years later. Thomas was reduced to living on Elizabeth's property in Aberfoyle with his daughter Isabella, while his wife lived with their son Allan in Albemarle County.
Magruder did not enjoy law but loved the idea of "soldiering". His uncle James Monroe Bankhead, a military officer during the War of 1812, is assumed to have instilled in Magruder a fascination with combat, in large part because of his and Colonel James Bankhead's—Magruder's grandfather and American Revolutionary War veteran—war stories. In 1825, on letters of recommendation from his father and Virginian congressman Robert S. Garnett, Magruder was notified of his appointment to West Point where he was to report a year later, he spent one semester at the University of Virginia in the interim. At West Point, Magruder was a hyperactive and ambitious cadet, at odds with superintendent Sylvanus Thayer's regulations, his closest friends were Alexander J. Swift, he graduated in 1830, fifteenth in his class of 42 cadets, was commissioned as a brevet second lieutenant in the 7th Infantry Regiment. Magruder spent most of his furlough in the company of 20 year-old Henrietta von Kapff, the wealthy daughter of businessman Johann von Kapff.
The couple soon began a romance and married on May 18, 1831. They had three children; the family traveled with Magruder during his various assignments but, because of the unfavorable conditions in the various remote locales, Henrietta found it more practical to live in Baltimore where she could raise their children and stay close to her business interests. Thereafter, Magruder infrequently spent time with his family. Despite his absences, close family friends noted that Henrietta remained "in love with to an uncommon degree". On a request to the United States Department of War, Magruder arranged a transfer to the 1st Artillery with Albert Miller Lea, a correspondent from West Point, to stay close to Henrietta. Biographer Thomas M. Settles described the lieutenant as a great favorite among his men—"always charming, frivolous at times, but intelligent and well read". Known as "Prince John", a resplendently uniformed man with a theatrical manner, Magruder attained a reputation for his social grace and etiquette.
The 1830s for Magruder, were regulated to garrison duty in North Carolina and Florida. By 1844, working as a recruitment officer, was dissatisfied with military service; the adverse northern climate found at his latest post, the Hancock Barracks in Maine, contributed to a bronchial infection, he had seen no military action, felt slighted by the lack of recognition for organizing crucial supplies during the Second Seminole War. In August 1845, Magruder volunteered for assignment in Corpus Christi, Texas to join General Zachary Taylor's army there, occupying the former republic. After hostilities opened on April 25, 1846, Magruder first saw combat at the Battle of Palo Alto, 14 days later. On April 18, 1847, Magruder served with "zeal and ability", in General Winfield Scott's expedition, under heavy fire and t
Guadalupe River (Texas)
The Guadalupe River runs from Kerr County, Texas, to San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico. It is a popular destination for rafting, fly fishing, canoeing. Larger cities along it include Kerrville, New Braunfels, Gonzales and Victoria, it has several dams along its length, the most notable of which, Canyon Dam, forms Canyon Lake northwest of New Braunfels. The upper part, in the Texas Hill Country, is a smaller, faster stream with limestone banks and shaded by pecan and bald cypress trees, it is formed by the North Fork and South Fork Guadalupe Rivers. It is popular as a tubing destination where recreational users float down it on inflated tire inner tubes during the spring and summer months. East of Boerne, on the border of Kendall County and Comal County, it flows through Guadalupe River State Park, one of the more popular tubing areas along it; the lower part begins near New Braunfels. The section between Canyon Dam and New Braunfels is the most used in terms of recreation, it is a popular destination for whitewater rafters, canoeists and tubing.
When the water is flowing at less than 1,000 cu ft/s there could be hundreds if not thousands of tubes on this stretch of it. At flows greater than 1,000 cu ft/s, there should be few tubes on the water. Flows greater than 1,000 cu ft/s and less than 2,500 cu ft/s are ideal for paddling; the flow is controlled by Canyon Dam, by the amount of rainfall the area has received. It is joined by the Comal River in New Braunfels and the San Marcos River about two miles west of Gonzales; the part below the San Marcos River, as well as the latter, is part of the course for the Texas Water Safari. The San Antonio River flows into it just north of Tivoli. Ahead of the entry into the San Antonio Bay estuary, it forms a delta and splits into two distributaries referred as the North and South parts; each distributary flows into the San Antonio Bay estuary at Guadalupe Bay. The river was first called after Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe by Alonso de León in 1689, it was renamed the San Augustin by Domingo Terán de los Ríos who maintained a colony on it, but the name Guadalupe persisted.
Many explorers referred to the current Guadalupe as the San Ybón above its confluence with the Comal, instead the Comal was called the Guadalupe. Evidence indicates that it has been home to humans for several thousand years, including the Karankawa and Huaco Indians. Being led by Prince Solms, 228 pioneer immigrants from Germany traveled overland from Indianola to the site chosen to be the first German settlement in Texas, New Braunfels. Upon reaching the river, the pioneers found it too high to cross due to the winter rains. Prince Solms wishing to impress the others with his bravado, plunged into the raging waters and crossed the swollen river on horseback. Not to be outdone by anyone, Betty Holekamp followed and crossed the river, thus Betty Holekamp is known as the first white woman to cross the Guadalupe on horseback. The river gained national attention on July 17, 1987, when a sudden flash flood swept a bus full of children away at a low water crossing; the tragedy occurred near the town of Comfort, which lies about 50 miles northwest of San Antonio.
At the time, the Pot O' Gold Ranch, situated on the south side of the river about two miles southwest of Comfort, was hosting a church camp which over 300 children from various churches were attending. On the night of July 16 and into the morning of the 17th 12 inches of rain had fallen across the Texas Hill country to the north, triggering immense flash flooding on the Guadalupe River; the camp was scheduled to end on the 17th and the children were to be headed home that day, but the camp supervisors at the ranch decided to evacuate the children early that morning before it rose too high. At around 9 AM that morning, the children were loaded into their respective buses and the buses were directed to a low water crossing. While most of the buses managed to make it across, one bus from the Seagoville Road Baptist Church/Balch Springs Christian Academy in the Dallas suburb of Balch Springs was swept away, along with Pastor Richard Koons, his wife, chaperons Allen and Deborah Coalson, 39 children, ranging in age from 8 to 17.
The vehicle had been among the last to leave the camp and proceed alongside the flooded crossing, but when the bus stalled due to rising waters and Coalson attempted to get the children to safety by instructing the children to form a human chain by which the could reach shore hand in hand. However, as this was being carried out, a sudden rush of water broke the chain and swept everybody away. Rescuers from the Texas Department of Public Safety and the US Army's 507th Medical Division managed to save all four adults and 29 of the children via helicopters; the last survivor was rescued from the river around 11:30 AM, by that afternoon two campers had been confirmed dead, eight were missing. The first confirmed fatality was 14-year-old Melanie Finley, who after being lifted from the river by helicopter lost her grip on the rope and fell to her death; the second fatality was thirteen-year-old Tonya Smith, found entangled in barbed wire two miles downstream from where the bus was washed away. Several parents of children both rescued and missing descended on Comfort, most staying at a makeshift shelter set up by town residents and the American Red Cross at the Comfort Elementary School, awaiting news on the missing children.
Six more bodies were recovered from the river on July 18, identified as Lagenia Keenum, 15.