The Victoria Cross is the highest and most prestigious award of the British honours system. It is awarded for valour "in the presence of the enemy" to members of the British Armed Forces, it may be awarded posthumously. It was awarded to Commonwealth countries, most of which have established their own honours systems and no longer recommend British honours, it may be awarded to a person of any military rank in any service and to civilians under military command although no civilian has received the award since 1879. Since the first awards were presented by Queen Victoria in 1857, two-thirds of all awards have been presented by the British monarch; these investitures are held at Buckingham Palace. The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War. Since the medal has been awarded 1,358 times to 1,355 individual recipients. Only 15 medals, of which 11 were to members of the British Army and four were to members of the Australian Army, have been awarded since the Second World War.
The traditional explanation of the source of the metal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the Siege of Sevastopol. However, research has suggested another origin for the material. Historian John Glanfield has established that the metal for most of the medals made since December 1914 came from two Chinese cannon, that there is no evidence of Russian origin. Owing to its rarity, the VC is prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction. A number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross; the private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded. Following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museum's Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010. Beginning with the Centennial of Confederation in 1967, followed in 1975 by Australia and New Zealand, developed their own national honours systems, separate from and independent of the British or Imperial honours system.
As each country's system evolved, operational gallantry awards were developed with the premier award of each system—the Victoria Cross for Australia, the Canadian Victoria Cross and the Victoria Cross for New Zealand—being created and named in honour of the Victoria Cross. These are unique awards of each honours system, assessed and presented by each country. In 1854, after 39 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a major war against Russia; the Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, the dispatches of William Howard Russell described many acts of bravery and valour by British servicemen that went unrewarded. Before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. Officers were eligible for an award of one of the junior grades of the Order of the Bath and brevet promotions while a Mention in Despatches existed as an alternative award for acts of lesser gallantry; this structure was limited. Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were confined to those who were under the immediate notice of the commanders in the field members of the commander's own staff."Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against class or rank.
There was a growing feeling among the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with the length or merit of a man's service. Queen Victoria issued a warrant under the royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 that constituted the VC; the order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War. Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class; the medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services. To maintain its simplicity, Queen Victoria, under the guidance of Prince Albert, vetoed the suggestion that the award be called The Military Order of Victoria and instead suggested the name Victoria Cross; the original warrant stated that the Victoria Cross would only be awarded to officers and men who had served in the presence of the enemy and had performed some signal act of valour or devotion.
The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857 at which Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park, London. A single company of jewellers, Hancocks of London, has been responsible for the production of every VC awarded since its inception, it has long been believed that all the VCs were cast from the cascabels of two cannons that were captured from the Russians at the siege of Sevastopol. However, in 1990 Creagh and Ashton conducted a metallurgical examination of the VCs in the custody of the Australian War Memorial, the historian John Glanfield wrote that, through the use of X-ray studies of older Victoria Crosses, it was determined that the metal used for all VCs since December 1914 is taken from antique Chinese guns, replacing an earlier gun. Creagh noted the existence of Chinese inscriptions on the cannons, which are now legible due to corrosion. A explanation is that the cannons were taken as trophies during the First Opium War and held in the Woolwich repository.
The Y and Z Holes are two rings of concentric circuits of 30 and 29 near identical pits cut around the outside of the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge. The current view is. Radiocarbon dating of antlers deliberately placed in hole Y 30 provided a date of around 1600 BCE, a earlier date was determined for material retrieved from Z 29; these dates make the Z holes the last known structural activity at Stonehenge. The holes were discovered in 1923 by William Hawley, who, on removing the topsoil over a wide area noted them as visible patches of ‘humus’ against the chalk substrate. Hawley named them the ‘Y’ and ‘Z’ because for a short time he had earlier labeled the discovered Aubrey Holes the ‘X’ holes. 18 of the Y Holes have been 16 of the Z Holes. Further evidence of the Y and Z Holes being late in the sequence of events at Stonehenge is demonstrated by the fact that hole Z 7 was found to cut into the backfill of the construction ramp for stone 7 of the Sarsen Circle; the outer Y ring consists of 30 holes averaging 1.7 m × 1.14 m tapering to a flat base close to 1 m × 0.5 m, the inner Z holes, of which only 29 holes are known, are larger, on average by some 0.1 m.
They can be best described morphologically as ‘wedge-shaped’. The diameter of the Y Hole circuit, i.e. the best-fit circle is some 54 m, that of the Z Hole series, around 39 m. The fills of the holes was found to be stone-free, these deposits are thought to be the result of the gradual accumulation of wind-blown material. Examples of every material, both natural and artefactual, that have been found elsewhere at Stonehenge have been retrieved from their fills. A new landscape investigation of the Stonehenge site was conducted in April 2009 and a shallow bank, little more than 10 cm high, was identified between the two hole-circles. A further bank lies inside the Z Hole circle; these are interpreted as the spread of spoil from the original holes, or more speculatively as hedge banks from vegetation deliberately planted to screen the activities within. Neither Hawley, nor Richard Atkinson who investigated two of the holes in 1953 thought that there had been uprights of timber or stone in the holes.
Atkinson however suggested that they had been intended to house bluestones, the question remains unresolved. Although unique in many ways, a similarity of form between these holes and the contemporary grave pits under the Bronze Age Barrow mounds has been pointed out. Attempts at interpreting the methods of construction used in building the stone monument sometimes show the Y and Z Holes used to locate temporary scaffold–like timber structures or ‘A’ frames; the fact that the stonework has been shown to be around 700 or 800 years earlier than the Y and Z Holes precludes the possibility that the holes represent features cut for constructional purposes. For the same reason the Y and Z Holes cannot be logically introduced into any scheme that suggests they performed a structural function within the design of the stone monument; some interpretations introduce the idea that the holes were deliberately laid out in a ‘spiral’ pattern. However their irregular pattern still retains an integrity that can be explained as reciprocal errors created by prehistoric surveyors using a cord passed around the stone monument.
The distances between the two circuits appears to have been established by the geometry of simple square and circle relationships
Francesca "Franky" Doyle is a fictional character from the television drama Wentworth, played by Nicole da Silva. Doyle is a former prisoner of Wentworth Correctional Centre. In an interview da Silva said that Franky was "someone, so dynamic, but she comes from a messed-up childhood and that has impacted on the way she operates."Up until "Poking Spiders", Franky had appeared in every episode, except for seven episodes on season 4. Franky was absent in "Prisoner". Franky has been absent in episode "Screw Lover", "Love and Hate", "Divide and Conquer", "Panic Button" and "Plan Bea". Franky's absence is mentioned within the series when Doreen mentions not being able to get a hold of her in "Divide and Conquer"Da Silva made her final appearance as Franky during the sixth season episode "Bleed Out", which aired on 3 July 2018. Franky Doyle is serving a 7 year sentence at Wentworth and is the Top Dog at Wentworth at the start of Episode 1; the "return" of Jacs Holt threatens this however, as Jacs and Franky are involved in a rivalry for the top dog position.
We first meet Franky when Bea Smith is shown to her cell. Franky is having sex with Kim Chang in there and afterwards, comes out to talk to Bea, she sees an opportunity in Bea—one of Franky's drug smuggling plans fails, she coerces Bea to smuggle drugs in for her. Franky holds up the line for the phones, implies she can keep doing so, in order to stop Bea from seeing Debbie. Franky receives a lot of fan mail at Wentworth, in part due to the nature of her crime, she was a participant on a Reality TV show about underprivileged youth being given the chance to learn to cook, she violently attacked the host after he verbally abused her on camera, burning him with hot oil. The incident however garnered nearly 100 million views on a video sharing website. From a young age, Franky had a hard upbringing, her father left when she was ten, unable to cope with his wife's drug problems. He left Franky with reasoning that a mother wouldn't hurt her own child, it is revealed in the season 1 finale. The murder was accidental as Franky thought Jacs had grabbed her from behind so stabbed the person in defense.
To her shock, it was in fact Meg. Franky appears to have a soft spot for the Governor Erica Davidson as both people flirt and exchange long lingering looks between one another throughout season 1 as a result in episode 10 they engage in a forceful kiss which both passionately enjoy. After Bea is released from solitary confinement at the beginning of season 2, Franky orders Boomer to attack Bea to display dominance as the new top dog since Jacs Holt's death; this causes friction between Bea. Franky is being monitored by The Governor, who knows Franky is responsible for the smuggling of contraband into the prison. Franky takes advantage of the garden project, organizing a male inmate from Walford prison to import drugs in return for oral sex from Boomer; the inmate informs Franky of a new product called "Pink Dragon", which he adds will "cost her". Franky and the inmate meet in the garden shed; the male inmate implies. As he tries to rape her, Franky stabs the man in the genitals, his screams alert the guards of the situation.
Liz informs The Governor of the whereabouts of the missing drugs, which results in Boomer being sentenced to seven additional years in Wentworth when the drugs are discovered in her cell. The identity of the lagger is unknown to Franky, who becomes paranoid accusing Doreen and attempting to strangle Bea before Liz confesses. Franky and Liz have an emotional discussion, in which Franky admits that Liz is the only one to care about her. Before leaving H Block, Franky warns Liz not to come back to Wentworth. Franky sees an opportunity in Maxine, trying to hire her as a henchman; when The Governor cuts off Maxine's hormone treatment, she seeks out Franky to smuggle the drugs for her, in return becomes a part of her crew. Franky orders Maxine to attack Bea, who Franky suspects is working with The Governor and conspiring against her. Boomer informs Franky that she is planning an attack on Liz on the outside, to which Bea interferes and gets Boomer locked up for an attempted attack, to which Bea remarks that she and Franky are going down.
After Boomer is slotted, Franky confronts Bea in the cafeteria, who admits she is planning to take over as top dog. Franky finds out that Maxine is smuggled in a shiv. Franky seizes the shiv, prompting Bea to sneak into the mail room to steal a Stanley knife and tape. In the second last episode of the season, Franky uses the knife against Bea during a fight outbreak in the laundry. Bea wins the fight, turning down the opportunity to kill Franky using a box cutter, instead slices her owns arms and ends up in the hospital. In the season final, Franky has lost the respect of the other inmates; the Governor offers her the place of top dog. Franky learns that her partner, will be leaving Wentworth as her parole has been approved, she and Franky argue over the two resuming their relationship outside of the prison, with Franky brushing Kim off, telling her to return to her boyfriend. As the second season comes to an end and Bea come face-to-face on Bea's return to H Block, after being arrested for the murder of Brayden Holt, to which Franky tells the onlooking crowd that Bea is the new top dog.