Embankment Pier is a pier on the River Thames in London, UK. It is located on the North Bank of the river, immediately next to the Hungerford Bridge and it is conveniently close to Charing Cross railway station. The Embankment Pier is the main departure point for the MBNA Thames Clippers route RB1 commuter service. All commuter services go west to London Eye Pier before turning and continuing east to the North Greenwich Pier for The O2, the pier is operated by London River Services. The pier has ticket booths for Circular Cruise Westminster and Thames Clippers however they are open at the busiest times of the day
Aldwych tube station
Aldwych is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in Central London. The station building is close to the Strands junction with Surrey Street, during its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo. Served mostly by a train and having low passenger numbers. Service was offered only during peak hours from 1962 and discontinued in 1994. Disused parts of the station and the tunnels were used during both world wars to shelter artworks from Londons public galleries and museums from bombing. The station has long been popular as a location and has appeared as itself. In recognition of its significance, the station is a Grade II listed building. The Great Northern and Strand Railway first proposed a station in the Strand area in a bill presented to Parliament in November 1898. Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern, in September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway, which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge.
Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes, the companies were formally merged as the Great Northern and Brompton Railway following parliamentary approval in November 1902. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the tunnels would have run. In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, the branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station, allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, in 1905, with the Royal Commissions report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, the second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street.
From there the line was to continue as a tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted, the linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the route in July 1902
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end. A pipeline is not a tunnel, though some recent tunnels have used immersed tube construction techniques rather than traditional tunnel boring methods, a tunnel may be for foot or vehicular road traffic, for rail traffic, or for a canal. The central portions of a transit network are usually in tunnel. Some tunnels are aqueducts to supply water for consumption or for hydroelectric stations or are sewers, utility tunnels are used for routing steam, chilled water, electrical power or telecommunication cables, as well as connecting buildings for convenient passage of people and equipment. Secret tunnels are built for military purposes, or by civilians for smuggling of weapons, special tunnels, such as wildlife crossings, are built to allow wildlife to cross human-made barriers safely. A tunnel is relatively long and narrow, the length is much greater than twice the diameter, although similar shorter excavations can be constructed.
The definition of what constitutes a tunnel can vary widely from source to source, for example, the definition of a road tunnel in the United Kingdom is defined as a subsurface highway structure enclosed for a length of 150 metres or more. In the United States, the NFPA definition of a tunnel is An underground structure with a length greater than 23 m. The place where a road, canal or watercourse passes under a footpath, cycleway, or another road or railway is most commonly called a bridge or, if passing under a canal, an aqueduct. Where it is important to stress that it is passing underneath, it may be called an underpass, a longer underpass containing a road, canal or railway is normally called a tunnel, whether or not it passes under another item of infrastructure. An underpass of any length under a river is usually called a tunnel. In the US, the term means an underground rapid transit system. Rail station platforms may be connected by tunnels or footbridges. Much of the technology of tunneling evolved from mining and military engineering.
The etymology of the mining, military engineering, and civil engineering reveals these deep historic connections. A major tunnel project must start with an investigation of ground conditions by collecting samples from boreholes. An informed choice can be made of machinery and methods for excavation and ground support, in planning the route, the horizontal and vertical alignments can be selected to make use of the best ground and water conditions. It is common practice to locate a tunnel deeper than otherwise would be required and this may be a particular concern in large-diameter tunnels
Edward VII was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death in 1910. The eldest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, before his accession to the throne, he served as heir apparent and held the title of Prince of Wales for longer than any of his predecessors. During the long reign of his mother, he was excluded from political power. He travelled throughout Britain performing ceremonial duties, and represented Britain on visits abroad. His tours of North America in 1860 and the Indian subcontinent in 1875 were popular successes, as king, Edward played a role in the modernisation of the British Home Fleet and the reorganisation of the British Army after the Second Boer War. He reinstituted traditional ceremonies as public displays and broadened the range of people with whom royalty socialised and he died in 1910 in the midst of a constitutional crisis that was resolved the following year by the Parliament Act 1911, which restricted the power of the unelected House of Lords.
Edward was born at 10,48 in the morning on 9 November 1841 in Buckingham Palace and he was the eldest son and second child of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. He was christened Albert Edward at St Georges Chapel, Windsor Castle and he was named Albert after his father and Edward after his maternal grandfather Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn. He was known as Bertie to the family throughout his life. As the eldest son of the British sovereign, he was automatically Duke of Cornwall, as a son of Prince Albert, he held the titles of Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Duke of Saxony. He was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester on 8 December 1841, Earl of Dublin on 17 January 1850, a Knight of the Garter on 9 November 1858, and a Knight of the Thistle on 24 May 1867. In 1863, he renounced his rights to the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in favour of his younger brother. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert were determined that their eldest son should have an education that would prepare him to be a constitutional monarch.
At age seven, Edward embarked on an educational programme devised by Prince Albert. Unlike his elder sister Victoria, Edward did not excel in his studies and he tried to meet the expectations of his parents, but to no avail. Although Edward was not a diligent student—his true talents were those of charm and tact—Benjamin Disraeli described him as informed, after the completion of his secondary-level studies, his tutor was replaced by a personal governor, Robert Bruce. After an educational trip to Rome, undertaken in the first few months of 1859, he spent the summer of that year studying at the University of Edinburgh under, among others, in October, he matriculated as an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford. Now released from the strictures imposed by his parents, he enjoyed studying for the first time
Thomas Brassey was an English civil engineering contractor and manufacturer of building materials who was responsible for building much of the worlds railways in the 19th century. By 1847, he had built about one-third of the railways in Britain and this included three-quarters of the lines in France, major lines in many other European countries and in Canada, South America and India. He built the structures associated with railways, including docks, viaducts, tunnels. As well as engineering, Brassey was active in the development of steamships, locomotive factories, marine telegraphy. The Brassey family traced back to a Norman ancestor from the town of Brécey in Lower Normandy who crossed to England with William the Conqueror in 1066. Initially their home was at Bulkeley, near Malpas in Cheshire, at some time, and certainly by 1663, the family moved to Manor Farm in Buerton, a small settlement in the parish of Aldford,6 miles south of Chester. Thomas Brassey was the eldest son of John Brassey, a prosperous farmer, Thomas Brassey was educated at home until the age of 12, when he was sent to The Kings School in Chester.
Aged 16, he became an apprentice to a land surveyor and agent. Lawton was the agent of Francis Richard Price of Overton, during the time Brassey was an apprentice he helped to survey the new Shrewsbury to Holyhead road, assisting the surveyor of the road. While he was engaged in work he met the engineer for the road. When his apprenticeship ended at the age of 21, Brassey was taken into partnership by Lawton, forming the firm of Lawton, Brassey moved to Birkenhead where their business was established. Birkenhead at that time was a small place, in 1818 it consisted of only four houses. The business flourished and grew, extending into areas beyond land surveying, at the Birkenhead site a brickworks and lime kilns were built. The business either owned or managed sand and stone quarries in Wirral, amongst other ventures, the firm supplied the bricks for building the custom house for the port which was developing in the town. When Lawton died, Brassey became sole manager of the company and sole agent and it was during these years that he gained the basic experience for his future career.
Brasseys first experiences of civil engineering were the construction of 4 miles of the New Chester Road at Bromborough, during that time he met George Stephenson, who needed stone to build the Sankey Viaduct on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Stephenson and Brassey visited a quarry in Storeton, a village near Birkenhead, in 1835 Brassey submitted a tender for building the Penkridge Viaduct, further south on the same railway, between Stafford and Wolverhampton, together with 10 miles of track. The tender was accepted, the work was completed
A cofferdam is a temporary enclosure built within, or in pairs across, a body of water and constructed to allow the enclosed area to be pumped out. This pumping creates a dry environment for the major work to proceed. Enclosed coffers are commonly used for construction and repair of oil platforms, bridge piers and these cofferdams are usually welded steel structures, with components consisting of sheet piles and cross braces. Such structures are typically dismantled after the work is completed. These cofferdams are typically a conventional embankment dam of both earth- and rock-fill, but concrete or some sheet piling may be used. Typically, upon completion of the dam and associated structures, the downstream coffer is removed and the upstream coffer is flooded as the diversion is closed and the reservoir begins to fill. Dependent upon the geography of a dam site, in some applications, when complete, the cofferdam is removed and a similar one is created on the opposite side of the river for the construction of the dams other half.
The cofferdam is used on occasion in the shipbuilding and ship repair industry. An example of such an application is certain ship lengthening operations, in some cases a ship is actually cut in two while still in the water, and a new section of ship is floated in to lengthen the ship. Torch cutting of the hull is done inside a cofferdam attached directly to the hull of the ship, the cofferdam is replaced while the hull sections are welded together again. As expensive as this may be to accomplish, use of a drydock may be more expensive. A 100-ton open caisson that was lowered more than a mile to the sea floor in attempts to stop the flow of oil in the Deepwater Horizon oil spill has been called a cofferdam and it did not work, as methane hydrates froze in the upper levels preventing the containment. A cofferdam may refer to a space between two watertight bulkheads or decks within a ship. A cofferdam may be a space or a ballast space. Cofferdams are usually employed to ensure oil or other chemicals do not leak into machinery spaces, if two different cargoes that react dangerously with each other are carried on the same vessel, one or more cofferdams are usually required between the cargo spaces.
Portable cofferdams are inflatable cofferdams that can be reused, cofferdams of this type are stretched across the site, inflated with water from the prospected dry area. Once the area is dry, water still remaining from the dry area can be siphoned over to the wet area, the dictionary definition of cofferdam at Wiktionary Nautical Terms at phrontistery. info Portable Cofferdam at phrontistery. info
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea. It is the main thoroughfare running south from Trafalgar Square towards Parliament Square, the name Whitehall is used as a metonym for British civil service, and as the geographic name for the surrounding area. The name was taken from the Palace of Whitehall that was the residence of Kings Henry VIII through to William III, before its destruction by fire in 1698, only the Banqueting House survived. Whitehall was originally a road that led to the front of the palace. As well as government buildings, the street is known for its statues and monuments, including Britains primary war memorial. The Whitehall Theatre, now the Trafalgar Studios, has been a place for farce comedies since the mid-20th century. The name Whitehall was used for buildings in the Tudor period. It either referred to a made of light stone, or as a general term for any festival building.
This included the Royal Palace of Whitehall, which in turn gave its name to the street, the street is about 0.4 miles long and runs through the City of Westminster. It is part of the A3212, a road in Central London that leads towards Chelsea via the Houses of Parliament. It runs south from Trafalgar Square, past numerous government buildings, including the old War Office building, Horse Guards, the Ministry of Defence, the Cabinet Office and it ends at the Cenotaph, the road ahead being Parliament Street. Great Scotland Yard and Horse Guards Avenue branch off to the east, the nearest tube stations are Charing Cross at the north end, and Westminster at the south. Numerous London bus routes run along Whitehall, including 12,24,53,88,159 and 453. It had become a street by the 16th century, and had become a popular place to live by the 17th, with residents including Lord Howard of Effingham. The Palace of Whitehall, to the east of the road, was originally named York Palace, the palace was redesigned in 1531–32 and became the Kings main residence in the decade.
He married Ann Boleyn here in 1533, followed by Jane Seymour in 1536, Charles I owned an extensive art collection at the palace and several of William Shakespeares plays had their first performances here. It ceased to be a residence after 1689, when William III moved to Kensington Palace. The palace was damaged by fire in 1691, following which the front entrance was redesigned by Sir Christopher Wren, in 1698, most of the palace burned to the ground owing to an accident started by a careless washerwoman
Waterloo Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge crossing the River Thames in London, between Blackfriars Bridge and Hungerford Bridge. Its name commemorates the victory of the British, the Dutch, thanks to its location at a strategic bend in the river, the views from the bridge are widely held to be the finest from any spot in London at ground level. The first bridge on the site was designed in 1809–10 by John Rennie for the Strand Bridge Company, before its opening it was known as the Strand Bridge. During the 1840s the bridge gained a reputation as a place for suicide attempts. In 1841 the American daredevil Samuel Gilbert Scott was killed performing a act in which he hung by a rope from a scaffold on the bridge. In 1844 Thomas Hood wrote the poem The Bridge of Sighs, paintings of the bridge were created by the French Impressionist Claude Monet and the English Romantic John Constable. The bridge was nationalised in 1878 and placed under the control of the Metropolitan Board of Works, Michael Faraday tried in 1832 to measure the potential difference between each side of the bridge caused by the ebbing salt water flowing through the Earths magnetic field.
From 1884 serious problems were found in Rennies bridge piers, after scour from the river flow after Old London Bridge was demolished damaged their foundations. In 1925, a steel framework was built on top of the existing bridge. London County Council decided to demolish the bridge and replace it with a new designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott. The engineers were Ernest Buckton and John Cuerel of Rendel Palmer & Tritton, Scott, by his own admission, was no engineer and his design, with reinforced concrete beams under the footways, leaving the road to be supported by transverse slabs, was difficult to implement. The beams were shaped to look as much like arches as and they are clad in Portland stone, which cleans itself whenever it rains. To guard against the possibility of further subsidence from scour each pier was given a number of jacks that can be used to level the structure, the new bridge was partially opened on Tuesday 11 March 1942 and was completed in 1945. It is the only Thames bridge to have been damaged by German bombers during the Second World War, the building contractor was Peter Lind & Company Limited.
It is frequently asserted that the force was largely female. Granite stones from the bridge were subsequently presented to various parts of the British world to further historic links in the British Commonwealth of Nations. The monument, built in 1945, is on Queens Wharf and it includes a bronze likeness of Paddy, a drinking fountain and drinking bowls below for dogs. The north end of the bridge passes above the Victoria Embankment where the road joins the Strand and this end housed the southern portal of the Kingsway Tramway Subway until the late 1950s
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river entirely in England and it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary, the Thames drains the whole of Greater London. Its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise, in Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the average discharge from a drainage basin that is 60% smaller. Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs and its catchment area covers a large part of South Eastern and a small part of Western England and the river is fed by 38 named tributaries. The river contains over 80 islands, in 2010, the Thames won the largest environmental award in the world – the $350,000 International Riverprize.
The Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys Thames. It has suggested that it is not of Celtic origin. A place by the river, rather than the river itself, indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name Thames is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit. It is believed that Tamesubugus name was derived from that of the river, tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography. The rivers name has always pronounced with a simple t /t/, the Middle English spelling was typically Temese. A similar spelling from 1210, Tamisiam, is found in the Magna Carta, the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as River Thames or Isis down to Dorchester, richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida.
An alternative, and simpler proposal, is that London may be a Germanic word, for merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the London River. Londoners often refer to it simply as the river in such as south of the river. Thames Valley Police is a body that takes its name from the river. The marks of human activity, in cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river
Blackfriars Bridge is a road and foot traffic bridge over the River Thames in London, between Waterloo Bridge and Blackfriars Railway Bridge, carrying the A201 road. The north end is near the Inns of Court and Temple Church, the south end is near the Tate Modern art gallery and the Oxo Tower. The first fixed crossing at Blackfriars was a 995 feet long toll bridge designed in an Italianate style by Robert Mylne, beating designs by John Gwynn and George Dance, it took nine years to build, opening to the public in 1769. It was the bridge across the Thames in the built-up area of London, supplementing the ancient London Bridge, which dated from several centuries earlier. It was made toll free, the Fleet can be seen discharging into the Thames at its north side. This created the junction at St Georges Circus between Westminster Bridge Road, Borough Road and the named Blackfriars Road which crossed the largely open parish of Christchurch Surrey, the continuation to the south at the major junction at Elephant and Castle is therefore named London Road.
Although it was built of Portland stone the workmanship was very faulty and this is the present bridge which in 1869 was opened by Queen Victoria. The present bridge is 923 feet long, consisting of five wrought iron arches built to a design by Joseph Cubitt, Cubitt designed the adjacent rail bridge and it was a condition that the spans and piers of the two bridges be aligned. It was built by P. A. Thom & Co, like its predecessor it is owned and maintained by the Bridge House Estates, a charitable trust overseen by the City of London Corporation. Like London Bridge the full length and its end is within the Citys borders. Due to the volume of traffic over the bridge, it was widened between 1907–10, from 70 feet to its present 105 feet. In 2005, five suspected members of the Mafia were tried in a Rome court for Calvis murder, on the piers of the bridge are stone carvings of water birds by sculptor John Birnie Philip. On the East side, the carvings show marine life and seabirds, on the north side of the bridge is a statue of Queen Victoria, to whom the bridge was dedicated.
The ends of the bridge are shaped like a pulpit in a reference to Black Friars, Blackfriars Bridge station continued as a goods stop until 1964 when it was completely demolished, and much of it redeveloped into offices. The River Fleet empties into the Thames under the end of Blackfriars Bridge. The structure was given Grade II listed status in 1972, in 1774 the new bridge was mentioned in a popular song in Charles Dibdins opera The Waterman, referring to the boatmen who used to carry fashionable folks to Vauxhall Gardens and Ranelagh Gardens. And did you not hear of the jolly young waterman, Who at Blackfriars Bridge used for to ply, and he feathered his oars with such skill and dexterity, Winning each heart and delighting each eye. The name was given to one of the Bailey Bridges over the Rhine River in 1945, in Neil Gaimans Neverwhere, Blackfriars Bridge was named as the home of an unknown order of monks who held the key to an angelic prison
Strand is a major thoroughfare in the City of Westminster, Central London. The roads name comes from the Old English strond, meaning the edge of a river, the street was popular with the British upper classes between the 12th and 17th centuries, with many historically important mansions being built between the Strand and the river. These included Essex House, Arundel House, Somerset House, Savoy Palace, Durham House, the aristocracy moved to the West End over the 17th century, following which the Strand became well known for coffee shops and taverns. The street was a point for theatre and music hall during the 19th century. At the east end of the street are two churches, St Mary le Strand and St Clement Danes. Several authors and philosophers have lived on or near the Strand, including Charles Dickens, Ralph Waldo Emerson, the street has been commemorated in the song Lets All Go Down the Strand, now recognised as a typical piece of Cockney music hall. The street is the link between the two cities of Westminster and London.
It runs eastward from Trafalgar Square, parallel to the River Thames, traffic travelling eastbound follows a short crescent around Aldwych, connected at both ends to the Strand. The road marks the boundary of the Covent Garden district. The name was first recorded in 1002 as strondway, in 1185 as Stronde and it is formed from the Old English word strond, meaning the edge of a river. Initially it referred to the bank of the once much wider Thames. The name was applied to the road itself. In the 13th century it was known as Densemanestret or street of the Danes, Strand Bridge was the name given to Waterloo Bridge during its construction, it was renamed for its official opening on the second anniversary of the coalition victory in the Battle of Waterloo. London Bus routes 6,23,139 and 176 all run along the Strand, as do numerous night bus services. During Roman Britain, what is now the Strand was part of the route to Silchester, known as Iter VIII on the Antonine Itinerary, and it was briefly part of a trading town called Lundenwic that developed around 600 AD, and stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych.
Alfred the Great gradually moved the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, and the area returned to fields. In the Middle Ages, the Strand became the route between the separate settlements of the City of London and the royal Palace of Westminster. The landmark Eleanors Cross was built in the 13th century at the end of the Strand at Charing Cross by Edward I commemorating his wife Eleanor of Castile
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The network has expanded to 11 lines, and in 2015–16 carried 1.34 billion passengers, the 11 lines collectively handle approximately 4.8 million passengers a day. The system has 270 stations and 250 miles of track, despite its name, only 45% of the system is actually underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, the current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares, the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style.
Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, to prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, and was later, in 1861, the worlds first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground inner circle connecting Londons main-line termini. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and this opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells. The Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, the Metropolitan Railway protested about the change of plan, but after arbitration by the Board of Trade, the DC system was adopted.
When the Bakerloo was so named in July 1906, The Railway Magazine called it an undignified gutter title, by 1907 the District and Metropolitan Railways had electrified the underground sections of their lines. In January 1913, the UERL acquired the Central London Railway, the Bakerloo line was extended north to Queens Park to join a new electric line from Euston to Watford, but World War I delayed construction and trains reached Watford Junction in 1917. During air raids in 1915 people used the stations as shelters. An extension of the Central line west to Ealing was delayed by the war, the Metropolitan promoted housing estates near the railway with the Metro-land brand and nine housing estates were built near stations on the line. Electrification was extended north from Harrow to Rickmansworth, and branches opened from Rickmansworth to Watford in 1925, the Piccadilly line was extended north to Cockfosters and took over District line branches to Harrow and Hounslow. In 1933, most of Londons underground railways and bus services were merged to form the London Passenger Transport Board, the Waterloo & City Railway, which was by in the ownership of the main line Southern Railway, remained with its existing owners.
In the same year that the London Passenger Transport Board was formed, in the following years, the outlying lines of the former Metropolitan Railway closed, the Brill Tramway in 1935, and the line from Quainton Road to Verney Junction in 1936