The Armory Show known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many exhibitions that have been held in the vast spaces of U. S. National Guard armories; the three-city exhibition started in New York City's 69th Regiment Armory, on Lexington Avenue between 25th and 26th Streets, from February 17 until March 15, 1913. The exhibition went on to show at the Art Institute of Chicago and to The Copley Society of Art in Boston, due to a lack of space, all the work by American artists was removed; the show became an important event in the history of American art, introducing astonished Americans, who were accustomed to realistic art, to the experimental styles of the European avant garde, including Fauvism and Futurism. The show served as a catalyst for American artists, who became more independent and created their own "artistic language."
The origins of the show lie in the emergence of progressive groups and independent exhibitions in the early 20th century, which challenged the aesthetic ideals, exclusionary policies, authority of the National Academy of Design, while expanding exhibition and sales opportunities, enhancing public knowledge, enlarging audiences for contemporary art. On December 14, 1911 an early meeting of what would become the Association of American Painters and Sculptors was organized at Madison Gallery in New York. Four artists met to discuss the contemporary art scene in the United States, the possibilities of organizing exhibitions of progressive artworks by living American and foreign artists, favoring works ignored or rejected by current exhibitions; the meeting included Jerome Myers, Elmer Livingston MacRae and Walt Kuhn. In January 1912, Walt Kuhn, Walter Pach, Arthur B. Davies joined together with some two dozen of their colleagues to reinforce a professional coalition: AAPS, they intended the organization to "lead the public taste in art, rather than follow it."
Other founding AAPS members included D. Putnam Brinley, Gutzon Borglum, John Frederick Mowbray-Clarke, Leon Dabo, William J. Glackens, Ernest Lawson, Jonas Lie, George Luks, Karl Anderson, James E. Fraser, Allen Tucker, J. Alden Weir. AAPS was to be dedicated to creating new exhibition opportunities for young artists outside of the existing academic boundaries, as well as to providing educational art experiences for the American public. Davies served with Kuhn acting as secretary; the AAPS members spent more than a year planning their first project: the International Exhibition of Modern Art, a show of giant proportions, unlike any New York had seen. The 69th Regiment Armory was settled on as the main site for the exhibition in the spring of 1912, rented for a fee of $5,000, plus an additional $500 for additional personnel, it was confirmed that the show would travel to Chicago and Boston. Once the space had been secured, the most complicated planning task was selecting the art for the show after the decision was made to include a large proportion of vanguard European work, most of which had never been seen by an American audience.
In September 1912, Kuhn left for an extended collecting tour through Europe, including stops at cities in England, the Netherlands, France, visiting galleries and studios and contracting for loans as he went. While in Paris Kuhn met up with Pach, who knew the art scene there intimately, was friends with Marcel Duchamp and Henri Matisse. Together they secured three paintings that would end up being among the Armory Show's most famous and polarizing: Matisse's "Blue Nude" and "Madras Rouge,"and Duchamp's "Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2." Only after Davies and Kuhn returned to New York in December did they issue an invitation for American artists to participate. Pach was the only American artist to be affiliated with the Section d'Or group of artists, including Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Duchamp brothers Marcel Duchamp, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Jacques Villon and others. Pach was responsible for securing loans from these painters for the Armory Show. Most of the artists in Paris who sent works to the Armory Show knew Pach and entrusted their works to him.
The Armory Show was the first, the only exhibition mounted by the AAPS. It displayed some 1,300 paintings and decorative works by over 300 avant-garde European and American artists. Impressionist and Cubist works were represented; the publicity that stormed the show had been well sought, with the publication of half-tone postcards of 57 works, including the Duchamp nude that would become its most infamous. News reports and reviews were filled with accusations of quackery, insanity and anarchy, as well as parodies, caricatures and mock exhibitions. About the modern works, former President Theodore Roosevelt declared, "That's not art!" The civil authorities did not, close down or otherwise interfere with the show. Among the scandalously radical works of art, pride of place goes to Marcel Duchamp's cubist/futurist style Nude Descending a Staircase, painted the year before, in which he expressed motion with successive superimposed images, as in motion pictures. Julian Street, an art critic, wrote that the work resembled "an explosion in a shingle factory", cartoonists satirized the piece.
Gutzon Borglum, one of the early organizers of the show who for a variety of reasons withdrew both his organizational prowess and his work, labeled this piece A
The Upper Room (paintings)
The Upper Room is an installation of 13 paintings of rhesus macaque monkeys by English artist Chris Ofili in a specially-designed room. It was bought by the Tate gallery in 2005 from the Victoria Miro Gallery and was the cause of a media furore after a campaign initiated by the Stuckist art group as Ofili was on the board of Tate trustees at the time of the purchase. In 2006 the Charity Commission did not revoke it. A large walnut-panelled room designed by architect David Adjaye holds the paintings; the room is approached through a dimly-lit corridor, designed to give a sense of anticipation. There are thirteen paintings altogether, six along each of two long facing walls, a larger one at the shorter far end wall; each painting depicts a monkey based around a different colour theme. The twelve smaller paintings show a monkey from the side and they are based on a 1957 Andy Warhol drawing; the larger monkey is depicted from the front. Each painting is individually spotlit in the otherwise darkened room.
The room is designed to create an contemplative atmosphere. The paintings each rest on two round lumps of elephant dung and coated in resin. There is a lump of the dung on each painting. Speaking, each work is mixed media, comprising paint, glitter, mapping pins and elephant dung; the Upper Room as a whole is described by the Tate as an "installation". The Upper Room is a reference to the Biblical Last Supper of Jesus and his disciples, hence the thirteen paintings. Ofili states the work is not intended to be offensive, but rather to contrast the harmonious life of the monkeys with the travails of the human race; the work was first exhibited at the Victoria Miro Gallery in a solo show Freedom One Day in 2002, when it received favourable reviews from Adrian Searle, art critic of The Guardian, who wrote, "It is the bravest, one of the most original works I have seen by a painter for years... It would be a great pity to split The Upper Room apart; the Tate should buy it."Negotiations began between Victoria Miro and the Tate in 2002, but it was not until 2005 that the work was purchased.
In July 2005 this was publicly announced as part of the new BP-sponsored rehang of Tate Britain. Again reviews were favourable. In the same week as announcing the purchase, the Tate rejected a donation of 160 Stuckist paintings valued at £500,000 and was accused of "snubbing one of Britain’s foremost collections", the Walker Art Gallery, where the work had been in The Stuckists Punk Victorian show; this led Stuckist co-founder Charles Thomson to investigate the trustees who had ratified the decision and he found that Ofili was one of them. He applied to the Tate under the UK Freedom of Information Act 2000, the museum was forced to release previously-confidential trustee minutes relating to the purchase, as well as revealing that £100,000 had been donated by Tate Members towards it; the minutes showed that the Tate had begun negotiations with Ofili's dealer to purchase to The Upper Room when an unnamed American collector was going to enter into a joint purchase with the museum. When this fell through, Ofili's dealer Victoria Miro organised a consortium of five benefactors to donate half the purchase price, whilst buying their own Ofili work privately.
The Stuckists led a media campaign over the Tate's purchase of The Upper Room. On 14 August 2005 The Sunday Telegraph published an article by their arts correspondent, Chris Hastings, with the heading, "Chris Ofili said artists should give work to the Tate for nothing... so why has he accepted £100,000 for one of his dung pictures?" It expressed criticism of the Tate's purchase, because Ofili was a serving trustee, furthermore, the previous year had urged other artists to donate work to the Tate because of a shortage of funds to buy new acquisitions. There followed a series of articles in The Sunday Telegraph, as well as other newspapers, over the following few months, detailing more aspects of the purchase; the Tate had attempted to reduce the price, but Miro refused: she said she had lowered it from the price she wanted of £750,000 to £600,000. The Sunday Telegraph obtained an email sent by Miro to Serota in November 2002: There is extra pressure as Chris is getting married next week and I suspect he may be less willing than to wait for an extended period in terms of finance.
Evidently as Chris is a trustee, this is a sensitive situation, but if you could give me some indication as to which way to proceed, I will ensure that your decision is handled with discretion. Ideally I would still love the work to go to the Tate. Serota said Miro would have to find half the cost, she obtained £300,000 in donations towards the purchase from five anonymous private benefactors, several of whom were buying their own Ofili work; the revelation of this arrangement caused questions to be raised in the press as to whether the private benefactors knew privileged information, if they anticipated a profit through the increased value of Ofili's work after the Tate purchase. Richard Dorment, art critic of The Daily Telegraph, said The Upper Room was "one of the most important works of British art painted in the last 25 years," that the Tate had got "the bargain of the century," and "If you ask me, Miro and Ofili deserve medals for acting not in their own interests but for the public good."
The Times said, "Victoria Miro, Mr Ofili’s dealer, appears to have driven a hard bargain with the Tate, the job of a clever dealer." Charles Thomson, co-founder of the Stuckists, said, "Sir Nicholas Serota mentions
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.
Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.
In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.
The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status
The rhesus macaque is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys. It is listed as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, its tolerance of a broad range of habitats. Native to South and Southeast Asia, rhesus macaque have the widest geographic ranges of any nonhuman primate, occupying a great diversity of altitudes and a great variety of habitats, from grasslands to arid and forested areas, but close to human settlements; the rhesus macaque is brown or grey in color and has a pink face, bereft of fur. Its tail is of medium length and averages between 22.9 cm. Adult males weigh about 7.7 kg. Females are smaller, averaging 5.3 kg in weight. Rhesus macaques have, on average, their ratio of arm length to leg length is 89%. They have a wide rib cage; the rhesus macaque has 32 teeth with a dental formula of bilophodont molars. The upper molars have four cusps: paracone, metacone and hypocone; the lower molars have four cusps: metaconid, protoconid and entoconid.
Rhesus macaques are native to India, Pakistan, Burma, Afghanistan, southern China, some neighboring areas. They have the widest geographic ranges of any nonhuman primate, occupying a great diversity of altitudes throughout Central and Southeast Asia. Inhabiting arid, open areas, rhesus macaques may be found in grasslands, in mountainous regions up to 2,500 m in elevation, they are regular swimmers. Babies as young as a few days old can swim, adults are known to swim over a half mile between islands, but are found drowned in small groups where their drinking waters lie. Rhesus macaques are noted for their tendency to move from rural to urban areas, coming to rely on handouts or refuse from humans, they adapt well to human presence, form larger troops in human-dominated landscapes than in forests. The southern and the northern distributional limits for rhesus and bonnet macaques currently run parallel to each other in the western part of India, are separated by a large gap in the center, converge on the eastern coast of the peninsula to form a distribution overlap zone.
This overlap region is characterized by the presence of mixed-species troops, with pure troops of both species sometimes occurring in close proximity to one another. The range extension of rhesus macaque – a natural process in some areas, a direct consequence of introduction by humans in other regions – poses grave implications for the endemic and declining populations of bonnet macaques in southern India; the Thai population is locally classified as endangered. There are about 1,000 troops at Wat Tham Pha Mak Ho, Tambon Si Songkhram, Wang Saphung district, Loei province; the name "rhesus" is reminiscent of the mythological king Rhesus of Thrace, a minor character in the Iliad. However, the French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Audebert, who applied the name to the species, stated: "it has no meaning". According to Zimmermann’s first description of 1780, the rhesus macaque is distributed in eastern Afghanistan, Bhutan, as far east as the Brahmaputra Valley in peninsular India and northern Pakistan.
Today, this is known as the Indian rhesus macaque M. m. mulatta, which includes the morphologically similar M. rhesus villosus, described by True in 1894, from Kashmir, M. m. mcmahoni, described by Pocock in 1932 from Kootai, Pakistan. Several Chinese subspecies of rhesus macaques were described between 1867 and 1917; the molecular differences identified among populations, are alone not consistent enough to conclusively define any subspecies. The Chinese subspecies can be divided as follows: M. m. mulatta is found in western and central China, in the south of Yunnan, southwest of Guangxi. M. m. tcheliensis, the north Chinese rhesus macaque, lives in the north of Henan, south of Shanxi, near Beijing. Some consider it as the most endangered subspecies. Others consider it synonymous with M. m. sanctijohannis, if not with M. m. mulatta. M. m. vestita, the Tibetan rhesus macaque, lives in the southeast of Tibet, northwest of Yunnan, including Yushu. M. m. littoralis, the south Chinese rhesus macaque, lives in Fujian, Anhui, Hunan, Guizhou, northwest of Guangdong, north of Guangxi, northeast of Yunnan, east of Sichuan, south of Shaanxi.
M. m. brevicaudus referred to as Pithecus brevicaudus, lives on the Hainan Island and Wanshan Islands in Guangdong, the islands near Hong Kong. M. m. siamica, the Indochinese rhesus macaque, is distributed in Myanmar, in the north of Thailand and Vietnam, in Laos, in the Chinese provinces of Anhui, northwest Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan and eastern Sichuan, western and south-central Yunnan. Around the spring of 1938, a colony of rhesus macaques called "the Nazuris" was released in and around Silver Springs in Florida by a tour boat operator known locally as "Colonel Tooey" to enhance his "Jungle C
Hoxton is an area of East London, part of the London Borough of Hackney, England. Together with the rest of Shoreditch, it is described as part of the East End, the historic core of wider East London. Hoxton lies north of the City of London financial district, forming the western part of Shoreditch; the area has never been formally defined, but approximates to an area bordered by the Regent's Canal on the north side, Wharf Road and City Road to the west, Old Street to the south, Kingsland Road to the east. There is a Hoxton electoral ward; the area forms part of the Hackney Shoreditch parliamentary constituency. "Hogesdon" is first recorded in the Domesday Book, meaning an Anglo-Saxon farm belonging to Hoch, or Hocq. Little is recorded of the origins of the settlement, though there was Roman activity around Ermine Street, which ran to the east of the area from the 1st century. In medieval times, Hoxton formed a rural part of Shoreditch parish, it achieved independent ecclesiastical status in 1826 with the founding of its own parish church dedicated to St John the Baptist, though civil jurisdiction was still invested in the Shoreditch vestry.
The Worshipful Company of Haberdashers remains Patron of the advowson of the parish of St John's. In 1415, the Lord Mayor of London "caused the wall of the City to be broken towards Moorfields, built the postern called Moorgate, for the ease of the citizens to walk that way upon causeways towards Islington and Hoxton" – at that time, still marshy areas; the residents responded by harassing walkers to protect their fields. A century the hedges and ditches were destroyed, by order of the City, to enable City dwellers to partake in leisure at Hoxton. By Tudor times many moated manor houses existed to provide ambassadors and courtiers country air nearby the City; this included many Catholics, attracted by the house of the Portuguese Ambassador, who, in his private chapel, celebrated the masses forbidden in a Protestant country. One such resident was Sir Thomas Tresham, imprisoned here by Elizabeth I of England for harbouring Catholic priests; the open fields to the north and west were used for archery practice, on 22 September 1598 the playwright Ben Jonson fought a fatal duel in Hoxton Fields, killing actor Gabriel Spencer.
Jonson was able to prove his literacy. Hoxton's public gardens were a popular resort from the overcrowded City streets, it is reputed that the name of Pimlico came from the publican, Ben Pimlico, his particular brew. Have at thee my merrie boyes, beg for old Ben Pimlico’s nut-brown ale; the gardens appear to have been situated near Hoxton Street, known at that time, as Pimlico Path. The modern area of Pimlico derives its name from its former use in Hoxton. On 26 October 1605 Hoxton achieved notoriety, when a letter arrived at the home of local resident William Parker, Lord Monteagle warning him not to attend the Parliament summoned by James I to convene on 5 November, because "yet I say they shall receive a terrible blow, the Parliament, yet they shall not see who hurts them"; the letter may have been sent by his brother-in-law Francis Tresham, or he may have written it himself, to curry favour. The letter was read aloud at supper, before prominent Catholics, he delivered it to Robert Cecil at Whitehall.
While the conspirators were alerted, by the public reading, to the existence of the letter they persevered with their plot as their gunpowder remained undiscovered. William Parker accompanied Thomas Howard, the Lord Chamberlain, at his visit to the undercroft of Parliament, where Guy Fawkes was found in the early hours of 5 November. Most of the conspirators fled on the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot, but Francis Tresham was arrested a few days at his house in Hoxton. A commemorative plaque is attached to modern flats at the site of Parker's house in Hoxton Street. By the end of the 17th century the nobility's estates began to be broken up. Many of these large houses became to be used as schools, hospitals or mad houses, with almshouses being built on the land between by benefactors, most of whom were City liverymen. Aske's Almshouses were built on Pitfield Street in 1689 from Robert Aske's endowment for 20 poor haberdashers and a school for 20 children of freemen. Hoxton House, was established as a private asylum in 1695.
It was owned by the Miles family, expanded into the surrounding streets being described by Coleridge as the Hoxton madhouse. Here fee-paying'gentle and middle class' people took their exercise in the extensive grounds between Pitfield Street and Kingsland Road. Over 500 pauper lunatics resided in closed wards, it remained the Naval Lunatic Asylum until 1818; the asylum closed in 1911. At this time Hoxton Square and Charles Square were laid out. Non-conformist sects were attracted to the area, away from the restrictions of the City's regulations. In the Victorian era the railways made travelling to distant suburbs easier, this combined with infill building and industrialisation to drive away the wealthier classes, leaving Hoxton a concentration of the poor with many slums; the area became a centre for the furniture trade. In the 1860s Hoxton Square became home to the Augustinian Priory and school of St Monica built 1864-66 and the first Augustinian House in Englan
Yayoi Kusama is a Japanese contemporary artist who works in sculpture and installation, but is active in painting, film, poetry and other arts. Her work is based in conceptual art and shows some attributes of feminism, surrealism, Art Brut, pop art, abstract expressionism, is infused with autobiographical and sexual content, she has been acknowledged as one of the most important living artists to come out of Japan. Raised in Matsumoto, Kusama trained at the Kyoto School of Arts and Crafts in a traditional Japanese painting style called nihonga. Kusama was inspired, however, by American Abstract Impressionism, she moved to New York City in 1958 and was a part of the New York avant-garde scene throughout the 1960s in the pop-art movement. Embracing the rise of the hippie counterculture of the late 1960s, she came to public attention when she organized a series of happenings in which naked participants were painted with brightly colored polka dots. Since the 1970s, Kusama has continued to create art, most notably installations in various museums around the world.
Yayoi Kusama was born on 22 March 1929 in Nagano. She was born into an affluent family of merchants who owned a plant nursery and seed farm, Kusama started creating art at an early age and began writing poetry at age 18, her mother was physically abusive, Kusama remembers her father as "the type who would play around, who would womanize a lot". The artist says that her mother would send her to spy on her father's extramarital affairs, which instilled within her a lifelong contempt for sexuality the male body and the phallus: "I don’t like sex. I had an obsession with sex; when I was a child, my father had lovers and I experienced seeing him. My mother sent me to spy on him. I didn’t want to have sex with anyone for years The sexual obsession and fear of sex sit side by side in me."When she was ten years old, she began to experience vivid hallucinations which she has described as "flashes of light, auras, or dense fields of dots". These hallucinations included flowers that spoke to Kusama, patterns in fabric that she stared at coming to life and engulfing or expunging her, a process which she has carried into her artistic career and which she calls "self-obliteration".
She was fascinated by the smooth white stones covering the bed of the river near her family home, which she cites as another of the seminal influences behind her lasting fixation on dots. When Kusama was 13, she was sent to work in a military factory where she was tasked with sewing and fabricating parachutes for the Japanese army embroiled in World War II. Discussing her time in the factory, she says that she spent her adolescence "in closed darkness" although she could always hear the air-raid alerts going off and see American B-29s flying overhead in broad daylight, her childhood was influenced by the events of the war, she claims that it was during this period that she began to value notions of personal and creative freedom. She went on to study Nihonga painting at the Kyoto Municipal School of Arts and Crafts in 1948. Frustrated with this distinctly Japanese style, she became interested in the European and American avant-garde, staging several solo exhibitions of her paintings in Matsumoto and Tokyo in the 1950s.
By 1950, Kusama was depicting abstracted natural forms in watercolor and oil on paper. She began covering surfaces—walls, floors and household objects, naked assistants—with the polka dots that would become a trademark of her work; the vast fields of polka dots, or "infinity nets", as she called them, were taken directly from her hallucinations. The earliest recorded work in which she incorporated these dots was a drawing in 1939 at age 10, in which the image of a Japanese woman in a kimono, presumed to be the artist's mother, is covered and obliterated by spots, her first series of large-scale, sometimes more than 30 ft-long canvas paintings, Infinity Nets, were covered in a sequence of nets and dots that alluded to hallucinatory visions. On her 1954 painting Flower Kusama has said: One day I was looking at the red flower patterns of the tablecloth on a table, when I looked up I saw the same pattern covering the ceiling, the windows, the walls, all over the room, my body and the universe. I felt as if I had begun to self-obliterate, to revolve in the infinity of endless time and the absoluteness of space, be reduced to nothingness.
As I realized it was happening and not just in my imagination, I was frightened. I knew. I ran up the stairs; the steps below me began to fall apart and I fell down the stairs straining my ankle. After living in Tokyo and France, Kusama left Japan at the age of 27 for the United States, she has stated that she began to consider Japanese society "too small, too servile, too feudalistic, too scornful of women." In 1957, she moved to Seattle. She stayed there for a year before moving on to New York City, following correspondence with Georgia O'Keeffe in which she professed an interest in joining the limelight of the city, sought O'Keeffe's advice. During her time in the US, she established her reputation as a leader in the avant-garde movement and received praise for her work from the anarchist art critic Herbert Read. In 1961 she moved her studio into the same building as sculptor Eva Hesse. In the early 1960s Kusama began to cover items such as ladders and chairs with
Ian Hamilton Finlay
Ian Hamilton Finlay, CBE was a Scottish poet, writer and gardener. Finlay was born in Nassau, Bahamas, to James Hamilton Finlay and his wife, Annie Pettigrew, both of Scots descent, he was educated at Dollar Academy, in Clackmannanshire and Glasgow School of Art. At the age of 13, with the outbreak of the Second World War, he was evacuated to family in the countryside. In 1942, he joined the British Army. Finlay was married twice and had two children and Ailie, he died in Edinburgh. He is buried with his parents and wife in Abercorn Churchyard in West Lothian; the grave lies in the extreme south-east corner of the churchyard. At the end of the war, Finlay worked as a shepherd, before beginning to write short stories and poems, while living on Rousay, in Orkney, he published his first book, The Sea Bed and Other Stories in 1958 with some of his plays broadcast on the BBC, some stories featured in The Glasgow Herald. His first collection of poetry, The Dancers Inherit the Party was published in 1960 by Migrant Press with a second edition published in 1962.
The third edition, published by Fulcrum Press in 1969, included a number of new poems and was inaccurately described by the publisher as a first edition and which led to a complex legal dispute. Dancers was included in its entirety in a New Directions annual a few years later. In 1963, Finlay published Rapel, his first collection of concrete poetry, it was as a concrete poet that he first gained wide renown. Much of this work was issued in his magazine'Poor. Old. Tired. Horse'. Finlay became notable as a poet, when reducing the monostich form to one word with his concrete poems in the nineteen sixties. Repetition and tradition lay at the heart of Hamilton's poetry, exploring' the juxtaposition of opposite ideas'. Finlay began to compose poems to be inscribed into stone, incorporating these sculptures into the natural environment; this kind of'poem-object' features in the garden Little Sparta that he and Sue Finlay created together in the Pentland Hills near Edinburgh. The five-acre garden includes more conventional sculptures and two garden temples.
In December 2004, in a poll conducted by Scotland on Sunday, a panel of fifty artists, gallery directors and arts professionals voted Little Sparta to be the most important work of Scottish art. Second and third were the Glasgow School of Art by Charles Rennie Mackintosh and The Skating Minister by Henry Raeburn. Sir Roy Strong has said of Little Sparta that it is "the only original garden made in this country since 1945"; the Little Sparta Trust plans to preserve Little Sparta for the nation by raising enough to pay for an ongoing maintenance fund. Ian Appleton, Stephen Bann, Stephen Blackmore, Patrick Eyres, Richard Ingleby, Ian Kennedy, Magnus Linklater, John Leighton, Duncan Macmillan, Victoria Miro, Paul Nesbitt, Jessie Sheeler and Ann Uppington are trustees. Finlay's work is notable for a number of recurring themes: a penchant for classical writers, his 1973 screenprint of a tank camouflaged in a leaf pattern, referring to the Utopian Arcadia of poetry and art, is described by the Tate as drawing "an ironic parallel between this idea of a natural paradise and the camouflage patterns on a tank".
His use of Nazi imagery led an accusation of neo-Nazi sympathies and anti-semitism. Finlay sued a Paris magazine which had made such accusations, was awarded nominal damages of one franc; the stress of this situation brought about the separation between his wife Sue. Finlay came into conflict with the Strathclyde Regional Council over his liability for rates on a byre in his garden, which the council insisted was being used as commercial premises. Finlay insisted. One of the few gardens outside Scotland to permanently display his work is the Improvement Garden in Stockwood Discovery Centre, created in collaboration with Sue Finlay, Gary Hincks and Nicholas Sloan. Finlay was nominated for the Turner Prize in 1985, he was awarded honorary doctorates from Aberdeen University in 1987, Heriot-Watt University in 1993 and the University of Glasgow in 2001, an honorary and/or visiting professorship from the University of Dundee in 1999. The French Communist Party presented him with a bust of Saint-Just in 1991.
He received the Scottish Horticultural Medal from the Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society in 2002, the Scottish Arts Council Creative Scotland Award in 2003. Awarded in the Queen's New Year's Honours list in 2002, Finlay was a CBE. Finlay's work has been seen as austere, but at times witty, or darkly whimsical. Ian Hamilton Finlay is represented by the Wild Hawthorn Press, the Archive of Ian Hamilton Finlay, which works with the Ingleby Gallery and the Victoria Miro Gallery in the U. K. Finlay's designs were most built by others. Finlay respected the expertise of sandblasters and printers he worked with having one hundred collaborators including Patrick Caulfield, Richard Demarco, Malcolm Fraser, Christopher Hall, Margot Sandeman, he worked with a host of lettering artists including Michael Harvey and Nicholas Sloan. A partial list of Finlay sculptures and gardens. A few photographs are reachable through the external links. Little Sparta, Lanarkshire, Scotland, 1966 Canterbury sundial, England, University of Kent, near Rutherford College, 1972 UNDA wall, Schiff, W