Kew is an inner suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 5 km east from Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Boroondara. At the 2016 Census, Kew had a population of 24,605. Kew used to be a city in its own right, but in 1994 the cities of Kew and Camberwell were amalgamated to form the City of Boroondara. The suburb borders the Yarra River to the west and north, with Hawthorn to its south and Balwyn to its east. Prior to the establishment of Melbourne, the area was inhabited by the Wurundjeri peoples. In the 1840s European settlers named it the Parish of Boroondara – meaning "a place of shade" in the Woiwurrung language. In 1838 Dight travelled down the Yarra from Heidelberg and decided to locate a water-powered mill on a site adjacent to the falls. John Hodgson established a squatters run at Studley Park, on the eastern bank of the Yarra River, in 1840. Studley House known as Burke Hall, built in 1857, was named after Hodgson's birthplace of Studley and the house is now on the Register of the National Estate.
The house was built in the Victorian Period Italianate Revival style. Modifications were made to the house in 1875 and 1919; the house was owned by former bookmaker, ALP lobbyist, influential Irish-Catholic and millionaire, John Wren and was donated to Xavier College by the land developer T. M. Burke, it illustrates the importance of a residence in indicating success and status in nineteenth and early twentieth century Melbourne society. The nearby Villa Alba, built before 1863, is open to the public. In 1851, Crown land sales occurred in the area. One of the purchasers, Nicholas Fenwick, subdivided his land and named the region Kew, based on the thought that Kew in England was near Richmond, he notably named its streets after British statesmen. The area became a sought-after suburb for the well-to-do in Melbourne. Access to Kew was via Bridge Road in Richmond, crossing the Hawthorn Bridge to Burwood Road, until the owned Studley Park Bridge opened in 1857, connecting Church Street Richmond with Studley Park.
The commercial precinct known as Kew Junction began to take shape in the 1850s. The first store was opened by Mr. J. J. French in August 1853 and the first post office on 6 October 1856, however, it was not till towards the end of the decade that many shops appeared in High Street; the Kew Hotel opened in 1855, the Prospect Hill Hotel in 1857, the Council Hotel about 1860, the Clifton in 1869 and the Greyhound in 1874. The block of civic buildings comprising the former post office, the former court house and the former police station were built in 1888 as was the National Bank, at the corner of Walpole and High Streets. In 1856 a site was reserved for a mental asylum next to the river. By 1871 Kew Lunatic Asylum, now known as Willsmere Estate, was completed; the Kew Cottages for children were added in 1887. The hospital was built despite objections by residents and the Kew Borough Council and provides an historical example of nimbyism. Kew Cottages and Willsmere Hospital are listed on the Victorian Heritage Register.
Various churches opened in the 1850s, with the first school opened by the Anglican Church in 1856. In 1875 Sacred Heart Primary School was opened. More private schools were opened including Ruyton Girls' School and Xavier College. Other private schools soon followed, including Methodist Ladies' College in 1882, Genazzano FCJ College in 1889, Trinity Grammar School in 1903, Carey Baptist Grammar School in 1923. Preshil, The Margaret Lyttle Memorial School, was opened in the early 1930s. By 1990, Kew had six government campuses and twenty-eight non-government campuses, the highest concentration of education institutions in the Western world. A railway branch line to Kew from Hawthorn Station opened on 19 December 1887 and was closed on 13 May 1957. Kew was proclaimed a town on 8 December 1910, a city on 10 March 1921; the population of the area tripled between 1910 and World War II. Raheen is a historic 19th-century Italianate mansion, located at 92 Studley Park Road, it was built in the 1870s, its name means "little fort" in Irish.
Raheen was once the residence of Daniel Mannix, the former Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne and was bequeathed to the Catholic Church by John Wren. It was purchased in 1980 by the Australian businessman Richard Pratt and his family and is not open to the public. Pratt extensively renovated the house and gardens, including the addition of a new wing, designed by Glen Murcutt. Kew has grown since the early Bridge Road crossing development and is cited as one of the most prestigious suburbs in Melbourne; as a consequence, many of these residences now attract some of the highest residential resale values in Melbourne. Streets in the Sackville Ward, such as Alfred, Wellington and Sackville, have some exceptional examples of Edwardian and contemporary architecture. Kew has convenient access to public transport; the 109, 16 and 72 along with tram route 48 tram routes pass through the suburb and the City/Lilydale/Belgrave train line is accessed at Hawthorn and Glenferrie Stations. Kew Station and the associated railway branch was last served by passenger trains in 1952, with the station site now the headquarters of VicRoads.
There are two Scout groups: 1st Kew and 4th Kew. In the mid-1900s there were up to seven, h
Chapel Street, Melbourne
Chapel Street is a shopping and entertainment precinct in Melbourne, Australia. It has myriad shops ranging from exclusive upmarket fashion designers at the South Yarra end to trendy retailers and eateries in Windsor. Chapel Street is straight and runs for over 4.14 kilometres along an approximate north-south alignment from the Yarra River in the north to Brighton Road in the south, traversing the south east suburbs of South Yarra, Windsor, St Kilda and St Kilda East. Major street crossings are Alexandra Avenue, Toorak Road, Commercial Road, High Street, Dandenong Road, Alma Road, Inkerman Street and Carlisle Street. To the north of Dandenong Road, Chapel Street is one of Melbourne’s premier shopping and entertainment strips with over 980 shops, street cafés, bars and nightclubs, it has a reputation as Melbourne's style capital. South of Dandenong Road is predominantly a residential area. Tram route 78 travels along the entire length between Richmond and St Kilda. Tram routes 3, 5, 6, 58, 64 and 72 all intersect Chapel Street.
The Sandringham line railway stations of South Yarra, Prahran and Balaclava are all within 300 metres of Chapel Street. The section of Chapel Street between Toorak Road and Dandenong Road is completely filled with traffic from around midnight to 3 a.m. each Friday and Saturday night. This is due to the large number of clubs and restaurants along Chapel Street, but to owners of modified cars cruising this section, without a specific destination; this practice is known in Melbourne as "Laps of Chaps" or "Chap Laps", is confined to Chapel Street, although this behaviour originated on Lygon Street, Carlton. Joseph Crook is believed to have built the first house in Chapel Street in 1849, when the street was known as Fitzroy Road. Chapel Street was named after the first church in Prahran, an Independent Church, built 100 metres north of Malvern Road on the east side, between 1850 and 1852; the first minister of "The Chapel", as it was known locally, was Rev William Moss. In an address to the Collins Street Independent Church in 1888 the Rev. Moss said, "I may mention that our chapel at Prahran was the only place of worship in the district for over two years, gave to the business street of that flourishing city its name Chapel Street".
The Chapel was used as a school building until about 1883, when it was demolished. The only surviving church in the commercial part of Chapel Street, the Baptist Church, built in the 1850s on the corner of Wilson Street, is now the Irish theme pub Bridie O'Reilly’s. A bridge linking Chapel Street and Church Street, Richmond was not built until 1857 and a ferry service operated over the Yarra River. In the 1850s much of the area between Commercial Road and the Yarra River was formed of deep clay deposits which resulted in a number of brickmakers establishing businesses on both sides of Chapel Street; the last of the brickworks, The South Yarra Fire Brick Company continued until the 1980s when it was sold to the Singapore Developer Jack Chia for "The South Yarra Project" development, to include The Como Centre. 1888 sparked major development on the street with the permanent installation of a tram service. From its beginning Chapel Street, between Toorak Road and Dandenong Road was a trading and shopping street with flour milling, bakers, boot makers, general stores, bricklayers and blacksmiths, chemists and an undertaker.
At the start of the 20th century large multi-level emporiums began to spring up in the Prahran section of the street. At this point, Chapel Street rivalled the CBD as Melbourne's shopping destination. Emporium development continued right through to the 1930s. In the 1970s, Pran Central opened as a major shopping mall. In the 1980s, the Jam Factory and Como Centre at the South Yarra end were the biggest developments to effect the character of the street. Gentrification ensured. From the Yarra River heading south: The Como Centre is a multi-storey office, retail cinema and hotel complex on the north-east corner of Chapel Street and Toorak Road, it is the headquarters of ATV-10 Television. The Jam Factory is an iconic shopping and entertainment complex on the corner of Garden Street. Just off Elizabeth Street is the Prahran Market, a fresh food market which has occupied its present site for over 120 years. Commercial Road shopping strip is the centre of one of Melbourne's gay villages; the Chapel Off Chapel gallery venue is at the end of Carlton Street.
Pran Central at the corner of Commercial Road is a redevelopment of a National Trust classified building into a retail and residential complex with a multicultural food court. Greville Street is a small niche shopping strip. Prahran Town Hall, on the corner of Greville Street was opened in 1861; the Prahran Mission, a community services organization run by UnitingCare Australia. The Prahran campus of Swinburne University is near the south west corner of High Street; the first bowling club in Australia, the Melbourne Bowling Club, is situated behind Chapel Street in Union Street. The club was founded on 11 March 1864; the Astor Theatre on the south west corner of Dandenong Road is a Heritage Victoria registered, 1930’s art deco cinema which seats over 1,100 people. St Michael's Grammar School now incorporates many of the area's old buildings. Jordan Moore's jaw; the jaw of this once infamous British explorer is seen floating around the steps of Revolver nightclub on Chapel Street. Legend has it if you see it between 3am and 4am on the last Sunday in March during a full moon, you will have eternal good luck and fortune
Spring Street, Melbourne
Spring Street is a major street in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia. It runs north-south and is the easternmost street in the original 1837 Hoddle Grid. Spring Street is famous as the traditional seat of the Government of Victoria, as well as being central to many of the state's major cultural institutions; the street's name is used as a metonym to refer to the state's bureaucracy. Spring Street is notable for its impressive Victorian architecture, including Melbourne Parliament House, the Old Treasury Building, the Windsor Hotel and the Princess Theatre; the street is thought to be named after Baron Thomas Spring Rice, Chancellor of the Exchequer under Lord Melbourne. An alternative theory is that the name is due to the golden wattle trees in full bloom during Richard Bourke's visit; the street runs from Flinders Street in the south to Victoria Street and the Carlton Gardens in the north. Nicholson Street begins as an offshoot of Spring Street south to its intersection with Lonsdale Street.
Spring Street has a number of architecturally notable buildings and important gardens, with many featuring on the Victorian Heritage Register and/or National Trust of Australia. These include: Parliament House * Old Treasury Building * Treasury Gardens * Gordon Reserve * Hotel Windsor * Princess Theatre * Alcaston House an early apartment building designed by A&K Henderson in the palazzo style to complement the wider area Royal Australasian College of Surgeons **Also classified by the National Trust Holy Name Sisters Parliament railway station an underground railway station built for the City Loop 1 Collins Street a post-modern tower by Denton Corker Marshall amongst the city's first to incorporate heritage buildings Casselden Place a tall office building, home to government offices Shell House at the corner of Spring and Flinders Street is a notable granite clad office tower designed by Harry Seidler in a similar style to his buildings in Sydney and Brisbane; the building's floor plates are in the shape of a shell as it was the Australian Head Office of Royal Dutch Shell.
Spring Street forms the western border of the Treasury Gardens. Gordon Reserve, a small triangle of parkland featuring heritage listed statues, is located on Spring Street. Another small Chinese garden, known as the Tianjin Garden, is located at the northern end of Spring Street, it is a symbol of Melbourne's close friendship with its sister city, China. A number of tram routes run along Spring Street for all or part of its length, including the City Circle Tram, route 48 and route 96. Parliament railway station, connecting to most suburban Melbourne train lines as part of the underground City Loop, lies directly beneath and parallel to Spring Street. Australian roads portal
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
RMIT University is an Australian public research university located in Melbourne, Victoria. Founded by Francis Ormond in 1887, RMIT began as a night school offering classes in art and technology, in response to the industrial revolution in Australia, it was a private college for more than a hundred years before merging with the Phillip Institute of Technology to become a public university in 1992. It has an enrolment of around 87,000 higher and vocational education students, making it the largest dual-sector education provider in Australia. With an annual revenue of around A$1.3 billion, it is one of the wealthiest universities in Australia. It is rated a five star university by Quacquarelli Symonds and is ranked 17th in the World for art and design subjects in the QS World University Rankings, making it the top art and design university in Australia, its main campus is situated on the northern edge of the historic Hoddle Grid in the city centre of Melbourne. It has two satellite campuses in the northern suburbs of Brunswick and Bundoora and a training site, situated on the Williams base of the Royal Australian Air Force, in the western suburb of Point Cook.
Beyond Melbourne, it has a research site near the Grampians National Park in the rural city of Hamilton. Outside Australia, it has a presence in Europe. In Asia, it has two branch campuses in the Vietnamese cities of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City as well as teaching partnerships in China, Hong Kong, Indonesia and Sri Lanka. In Europe, it has a coordinating centre in the Catalonian city of Barcelona; the antecedent of RMIT, the Working Men's College of Melbourne, was founded by the Scottish-born grazier and politician The Hon. Francis Ormond in the 1880s. Planning began in 1881, with Ormond basing his model for the college on the Birkbeck Literary and Scientific Institution, Brighton College of Art, Royal College of Art, the Working Men's College of London. Ormond donated the sum of £5000 toward the foundation of the college, he was supported in the Victorian Parliament by Charles Pearson and in the Melbourne Trades Hall by William Murphy. The workers' unions of Melbourne rallied their members to match Ormond's donation.
The site for the college, on the corners of Bowen Street and La Trobe Street, opposite the Melbourne Public Library, was donated by the Victorian Government. The Working Men's College of Melbourne opened on 4 June 1887 with a gala ceremony at the Melbourne Town Hall, becoming the fifth tertiary education provider in Victoria, it took 320 enrollments on its opening night. It opened as a night school for instruction in "art and technology"—in the words of its founder—"especially to working men". Ormond was a firm believer in the transformative power of education and believed the college would be of "great importance and value" to the industrialisation of Melbourne during the late-19th century. In 1904, it was incorporated under the Companies Act as a private college. Between the turn of the 20th century and the 1930s, it expanded over the neighbouring Old Melbourne Gaol and constructed buildings for new art and radio schools, it made its first contribution to Australia's war effort through training of returned military personnel from World War I.
Following a petition by students, it changed its name to the Melbourne Technical College in 1934. The expanded college made a greater contribution to Australia's effort during World War II by training a sixth of the country's military personnel—including the majority of its Royal Australian Air Force communication officers, it trained 2000 civilians in munitions manufacturing and was commissioned by the Australian Government to manufacture military aircraft parts—including the majority of parts for the Beaufort Bomber. Following World War II, in 1954 it became the first Australian tertiary education provider to be awarded royal patronage for its service to the Commonwealth in the area of education and for its contribution to the war effort, it became the only higher education institution in Australia with the right of the prefix "Royal" along with the use of the Australian monarchy's regalia. Its name was changed to the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology in 1960. During the mid-20th century, it was restructured as a provider of general higher and vocational education, pioneered dual sector education in Australia.
It began an engagement with Southeast Asia during this time. In 1979, the neighbouring Emily McPherson College of Domestic Economy joined with RMIT. After merging with the Phillip Institute of Technology in 1992, it became a public university by act of the Victorian Government under the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology Act 1992. During the 1990s, the university underwent a rapid expansion and amalgamated with a number of nearby colleges and institutes; the Melbourne College of Decoration and Design joined RMIT in 1993, to create a new dedicated vocational design school, followed by the Melbourne College of Printing and Graphic Arts in 1995. That same year, it opened its first radial campus in Bundoora in the northern Melbourne metropolitan area. In 1999, it acquired the Melbourne Institute of Textiles campus in Brunswick in the inner-northern Melbourne metropolitan area for its vocational design schools. At the turn of the 21st century, it was invited by the Vietnamese Government
Abbotsford is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 2 km northeast of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Yarra. At the 2016 census, Abbotsford had a population of 8,184. Abbotsford is bounded by Collingwood and Clifton Hill and separated from Kew by the meandering Yarra River. Part of the City of Collingwood, it is now part of the City of Yarra. Victoria Street forms the southern boundary to Abbotsford; some well known Abbotsford landmarks include the Skipping Girl Sign, Dights Falls, the former Collingwood Town Hall, Victoria Park Football Stadium and Abbotsford Convent. Abbotsford is designated one of the 82 Major Activity centres listed in the Metropolitan Strategy Melbourne 2030. Abbotsford takes its name from the estate of John Orr, which in turn is named after a ford in Scotland's Tweed River, used by the Abbott of Melrose Abbey; the Abbotsford area was once bush along the Yarra River sporadically occupied by the Wurundjeri people. The area of Abbotsford was first sold at an auction in Sydney.
One of these lots was purchased by John Dight and the lot was called Dight's Paddock. Dight further subdivided the land into 5 acre lots and in 1878 Edwin Trenerry, a Cornwall-based property developer, purchased a large portion of Dight's Paddock for his nephew Fredrick Trenerry Brown and proceeded to further subdivide it for a residential estate. In order to provide recreational facilities for potential residents and hence boost the value of the lots being offered for sale Fred Brown and solicitor David Abbott created a sports oval and called it Victoria Park in 1879. Abbotsford established as an industrial area, home to many Irish factory workers, until the construction of Melbourne's sewerage and drainage systems was flooded by the Yarra River. Like many inner Melbourne suburbs, its working class origins have given it a reputation for crime. Since World War II the area has become quite ethnically diverse, with many Greeks, Vietnamese and more Arabs and Africans, making it their home. In the 1960s a section of the northern part of the suburb was demolished to make way for the Eastern Freeway.
Along with Clifton Hill and Collingwood, the suburb was a part of the City of Collingwood, until former State premier Jeff Kennett conducted a wholesale merger of local government areas in 1994. Property values have skyrocketed in recent years and many young professionals have moved to the area and the old industrial areas have experienced significant gentrification and urban renewal since 2000. A steady stream of migration since the 1980s has made Abbotsford home to Melbourne's largest Vietnamese community. So much so that Victoria Street is known as Little Saigon, it is best known for its exceptional varieties of Vietnamese food, which draws tourists to the area from across Melbourne. Abbotsford is home to Carlton and United Breweries, the company which produces Victoria Bitter and Foster's Lager; the malt smell of brewing fills the surrounding area. Visitors can tour the brewery. Smaller breweries such as Moon Dog Craft Brewery and Bodriggy Brewing Co are located in Abbotsford. Dights Falls, where the Merri Creek and Yarra River joins, is a short walk from the Collingwood Children's Farm and is a favourite spot for kayakers and picnickers.
Cyclists pass through the farm on the Yarra River Trail, which follows the Yarra River from the city to Dight's Falls, where it meets the Merri Creek Trail. This forms part of the Capital City Trail. Studley Park, an extensive parkland which merges with the larger Yarra Bend Park, contains Dights Falls and features within it a golf course, sports grounds, small pockets of natural forest. Victoria Park was the home ground of the Collingwood Football Club from its inception in 1892 until 2005. AFL matches are no longer played there, but Collingwood's reserves team are scheduled to play in nine matches per season in the VFL competition from 2010 onwards. Collingwood Children's Farm was established in 1979 by the local community with the support of the former City of Collingwood and the former Department of Education to give city children "a taste of country life", it is located next to the grounds of the Abbotsford Convent Arts Precinct and a Steiner School, on a bend in the Yarra River. It is a small-holding functioning working farm with Rare Breeds livestock, vegetable gardens and fruit orchards.
Community Garden Plots are a part of the Farm. Eggs and seasonal produce are for sale, visitors are encouraged to interact with farm animals through activities such as cow milking; the Collingwood Children's Farm is sited on the Abbotsford Precinct Heritage Farmlands, the oldest continually farmland in the state of Victoria. The former convent itself was home to the Lincoln Early Childhood Studies Institute and a campus of La Trobe University for a while, but is now the site of a community and arts precinct use after protracted negotiations between developers, the state government and the Yarra City Council; the Skipping Girl Sign, the first animated sequence neon sign in Australia, is located at 627 Victoria Street. Abbotsford contains some impressive public buildings, most of them centred on the historic Collingwood Town Hall precinct. Among them is the Carringbush Library, a former Church of Christ, built between 1888 and 188
A restaurant, or an eatery, is a business which prepares and serves food and drinks to customers in exchange for money. Meals are served and eaten on the premises, but many restaurants offer take-out and food delivery services, some offer only take-out and delivery. Restaurants vary in appearance and offerings, including a wide variety of cuisines and service models ranging from inexpensive fast food restaurants and cafeterias to mid-priced family restaurants, to high-priced luxury establishments. In Western countries, most mid- to high-range restaurants serve alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine; some restaurants serve all the major meals, such as breakfast and dinner. Other restaurants may only serve a single meal or they may serve two meals; the word derives from the French verb "restaurer" and, being the present participle of the verb, it means "that which restores". The term restaurant was defined in 1507 as a "restorative beverage", in correspondence in 1521 to mean "that which restores the strength, a fortifying food or remedy".
The first use of the word to refer to a public venue where one can order food is believed to be in the 18th century. In 1765, a French chef by the name of A. Boulanger established a business selling soups and other "restaurants". Additionally, while not the first establishment where one could order food, or soups, it is thought to be the first to offer a menu of available choices The "first real restaurant" is considered to have been "La Grande Taverne de Londres" in Paris, founded by Antoine Beauviliers in either 1782 or 1786. According to Brillat-Savarin, this was "the first to combine the four essentials of an elegant room, smart waiters, a choice cellar, superior cooking". In 1802 the term was applied to an establishment where restorative foods, such as bouillon, a meat broth, were served. Restaurants are distinguished in many different ways; the primary factors are the food itself. Beyond this, restaurants may differentiate themselves on factors including speed, location, service, or novelty themes.
Restaurants range from inexpensive and informal lunching or dining places catering to people working nearby, with modest food served in simple settings at low prices, to expensive establishments serving refined food and fine wines in a formal setting. In the former case, customers wear casual clothing. In the latter case, depending on culture and local traditions, customers might wear semi-casual, semi-formal or formal wear. At mid- to high-priced restaurants, customers sit at tables, their orders are taken by a waiter, who brings the food when it is ready. After eating, the customers pay the bill. In some restaurants, such as workplace cafeterias, there are no waiters. Another restaurant approach which uses few waiters is the buffet restaurant. Customers serve food onto their own plates and pay at the end of the meal. Buffet restaurants still have waiters to serve drinks and alcoholic beverages. Fast food restaurants are considered a restaurant; the travelling public has long been catered for with ship's messes and railway restaurant cars which are, in effect, travelling restaurants.
Many railways, the world over cater for the needs of travellers by providing railway refreshment rooms, a form of restaurant, at railway stations. In the 2000s, a number of travelling restaurants designed for tourists, have been created; these can be found on trams, buses, etc. A restaurant's proprietor is called a restaurateur, this derives from the French verb restaurer, meaning "to restore". Professional cooks are called chefs, with there being various finer distinctions. Most restaurants will have various waiting staff to serve food and alcoholic drinks, including busboys who remove used dishes and cutlery. In finer restaurants, this may include a host or hostess, a maître d'hôtel to welcome customers and to seat them, a sommelier or wine waiter to help patrons select wines. A new route to becoming a restauranter, rather than working one's way up through the stages, is to operate a food truck. Once a sufficient following has been obtained, a permanent restaurant site can be opened; this trend has become common in the UK and the US.
A chef's table is a table located in the kitchen of a restaurant, reserved for VIPs and special guests. Patrons may be served a themed tasting menu served by the head chef. Restaurants can charge a higher flat fee; because of the demand on the kitchen's facilities, chef's tables are only available during off-peak times. In China, food catering establishments that may be described as restaurants have been known since the 11th century in Kaifeng, China's capital during the first half of the Song dynasty. Growing out of the tea houses and taverns that catered to travellers, Kaifeng's restaurants blossomed into an industry catering to locals as well as people from ot