Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
The West Block is one of the three buildings on Parliament Hill, in Ottawa, Ontario. Since 28 January 2019, it has housed the interim House of Commons Chamber, installed to accommodate the House while the Centre Block is closed; the West Block houses offices for parliamentarians, a branch of the Library of Parliament, committee rooms, some preserved pre-Confederation spaces. Built in the Victorian High Gothic style, the West Block has been extended twice since its original completion in 1865. Though not as renowned as the Centre Block of parliament, the West Block appears on the obverse of the Canadian five-dollar bill; the West Block has not been open for public tours. Designed by Thomas Stent and Augustus Laver, the West Block is an asymmetrical structure built in the Victorian High Gothic style, with load bearing masonry walls, all clad in a rustic Nepean sandstone exterior and dressed stone trim around windows and other edges, as well as displaying a multitude of stone carvings, including gargoyles and friezes, keeping with the style of the rest of the parliamentary complex.
The West Block adds to the Ottawa skyline three prominent towers: the Mackenzie Tower, the Laurier Tower, the Southwest Tower. The Department of Public Works sent out, on 7 May 1859, a call for architects to submit proposals for the new parliament buildings to be erected on Barrack Hill, answered by 298 submitted drawings. After the entries were narrowed down to three Governor General Sir Edmund Walker Head was approached to break the stalemate and the winner was announced on 29 August 1859; the departmental buildings, Centre Block, a new residence for the Governor General were each awarded separately and the team of Thomas Stent and Augustus Laver, under the pseudonym of Stat nomen in umbra, won the prize for the first category. Construction on all three blocks commenced by the end of 1859. By the time the West Block was completed in 1865, the building was three years behind schedule; the first tenants were the offices of the postmaster general, the Ministry of Public Works, the Crown lands departments.
As the number of parliamentary and administrative staff increased with the expansion of the country's area, more space was added to the West Block: the Mackenzie Wing and Tower in 1878 and, in 1906, the Laurier Tower and link. In the early 2000s, the masonry of the West Block was found to be in a state of severe disrepair. Scaffolding and protective sheeting were erected in order to prevent falling blocks from striking pedestrians and cars below and a restoration project was implemented; the two largest towers were stabilised with temporary steel structures for fear of stones falling off them. An $863 million project to renovate the West Block began in 2011, the renovated building opened on 28 January 2019. In preparation for a planned, decade-long renovation of the Centre Block to begin in 2019, the central courtyard of the West Block was transformed into a temporary chamber for the House of Commons; the new chamber is surrounded by exterior stone walls and covered by a glass dome roof which lets in natural sunlight.
Multiple underground levels as well as planned tunnel connections to other Parliament Hill buildings were constructed out of dug-out bedrock under the West Block during the extensive renovations. When the renovation of Centre Block is complete and the House returns to its traditional chamber, the new House chamber will be used as committee rooms. Explore the West Block
Britannia Yacht Club
The Britannia Yacht Club is a private social club, yacht club and tennis club based in Britannia, Ontario, Canada. It was founded in 1887 by a group of cottagers; the members have contributed to the sports of tennis. The non-profit corporation celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2012; the main entrance is on Cassels at Bradford Street. BYC is located on an extension of land at the eastern end of Lac Deschênes near the Deschênes Rapids on the Ottawa River. A land block owned by the National Capital Commission on the south side of the harbour is leased to the BYC; the area south of the property is occupied by residences of Britannia Bay. To the south and east of the property, the land is owned by the City of Ottawa and is occupied by the Britannia Water Treatment Plant, the Britannia Conservation area. To the north, is the Town of Aylmer, Quebec across the 800 m span of the Deschênes rapids; the harbour was built from an abandoned power canal. This harbour has been expanded twice since its original development.
The harbour water level is controlled by a system of stop logs at its entrance. The harbour is a well-protected basin consisting of a main harbour and an inner harbour, which provide 250 wet moorings of the Mediterranean type or floating finger docks. There are unlimited dry mooring spaces for ramp-launched boats and for crane-launched keel boats of less than 1,360 kg. BYC is a member of the Ontario Sailing Association, Canadian Power and Sail Squadrons, the Canadian Yachting Association, its officers include a Commodore, vice-commodore, rear-commodore and treasurer. The BYC is included in the City of Ottawa Inventory of Sports facilities. BYC provides access to 45 kilometres of sailing waters on the Ottawa River. Canadian Hydrographic Service Chart 1550 - Britannia Bay to Chats Falls covers the whole of Lac Deschênes; the BYC offers boating memberships to close to 1,200 members. BYC has a marina with a inner Harbour which accommodate 280 Keelboats. For Dinghy sailing, dry sail facilities are provided.
BYC offers Tennis and social programs. At Sherwood Port, the entry to its harbour, a plaque was erected in honour of Hon. Justice Livius Anglin Sherwood, magistrate provincial judge and federal court judge and international sailing judge; the Main Harbour, which opens to the Ottawa River, is surrounded by Mauve Cove, Crimson Cove, Blue Lagoon. The Inner Harbour is surrounded by Mauve Cove and Crimson Cove. Onshore there is a perimeter reserved for the exclusive use of members as well as camping on Baskin's beach; the Clubhouse's dragon sailboat bar, Main Lounge, Bruce Neuk, Sunset Room restaurant and marquis tent provide casual and gourmet dining and social areas. Fuller Park is a popular social area for picnics. A range of dockside services for racing and pleasure boaters includes Gasoline, Diesel fuel, Fresh water, Bilge pump out. For both Powerboats and Sailboats, there are Dock services available. Launch service is offered via a Boat ramp. In 1975, BYC erected a small utility crane in the inner harbour named Charlotte Whitton in honour of the first female Mayor of Ottawa.
In 2012, BYC purchased a new Hydraulic power trailer and a new fixed, 5,000 kg lift capacity crane on the south side of the harbour at the BYC on a land block owned by the National Capital Commission and leased to the BYC. Marine services include secure winter storage. There is an outdoor Swimming pool area directly in front of the Clubhouse; the BYC SailShare fleet includes two 22 foot Tanzers. Family and children's programs and activities are offered. There is Junior Clubhouse; the Club has reciprocal club privileges with other Yacht clubs. The club is open year-round, however Navigation is limited by ice January through April. A Wind meter honouring former Commodore and amateur Meteorologist Ezekiel Stone Wiggins was located on the clubhouse roof in 2011; the BYC has extensive Perennial gardens, Wildflower gardens and Walkways with many plantings reflecting the blue and white club colours. By the 1830s, steamboats travelled for 10 or 11 months a year 48 kilometers up the Ottawa River from the Deschênes Rapids to the foot of the Rapids des Chats.
The log drives, which resulted in 16-foot logs lying along the waterfront, ended in 1982. By the 1870s, Britannia Village was a summer resort for people who lived in Ontario. In the 1870s, rails were laid towards the capital, linking the waterfront of Britannia Township and Westboro. By 1871, Britannia Township consisted of a flag station of the Canadian Central Railway, farmland, a few houses, shops, a mill and a Methodist church; the Britannia Aquatic Club was founded circa 1887 using a converted sawmill and boat storage built by John Cameron Jamieson, a lumberman and alderman as its headquarters. In 1892, the Britannia Aquatic Club changed its name to the Britannia Nautical Club, still using a converted Mill built in 1880–85 by John Cameron Jamieson as its headquarters. On August 29, 1891, the BNC held its first regatta which included sailing and rowing races; the mandate of the Club was to foster all kinds of water sports, to hold regattas, sailing races, canoe and log rolling events. In 1895 the Britannia Boat House Club was granted an Act of Incorporation by Judge Ross.
The board of directors consisted of Thomas H Kirby, C Jackson Booth, E. L. Brittain, Arthur Tache and William Wyld. In 1895, the Club ran its first annual regatta. In 1896 the Britannia Nautical Club changed its name to the Britannia Boat House Club; the Edward Miall award for Junior Members who show improvement in their ability wa
House of Commons of Canada
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons meets in a temporary Commons chamber in the West Block of the parliament buildings on Parliament Hill in Ottawa, while the Centre Block, which houses the traditional Commons chamber, undergoes a ten-year renovation; the House of Commons is a democratically elected body whose members are known as Members of Parliament. There were 308 members in the last parliament, but that number has risen to 338 following the election on Monday October 19, 2015. Members are elected by simple plurality in each of the country's electoral districts, which are colloquially known as ridings. MPs may hold office until Parliament is dissolved and serve for constitutionally limited terms of up to five years after an election. However, terms have ended before their expiry and the sitting government has dissolved parliament within four years of an election according to a long-standing convention.
In any case, an Act of Parliament now limits each term to four years. Seats in the House of Commons are distributed in proportion to the population of each province and territory. However, some ridings are more populous than others, the Canadian constitution contains some special provisions regarding provincial representation; as a result, there is some regional malapportionment relative to population. The House of Commons was established in 1867, when the British North America Act—now called the Constitution Act, 1867—created the Dominion of Canada, was modelled on the British House of Commons; the lower of the two houses making up the parliament, the House of Commons in practice holds far more power than the upper house, the Senate. Although the approval of both Houses is necessary for legislation, the Senate rarely rejects bills passed by the commons. Moreover, the Cabinet is responsible to the House of Commons; the prime minister stays in office only as long as they retain the support, or "confidence", of the lower house.
The term derives from the Anglo-Norman word communes, referring to the geographic and collective "communities" of their parliamentary representatives and not the third estate, the commonality. This distinction is made clear in the official French name of the body, Chambre des communes. Canada and the United Kingdom remain the only countries to use the name "House of Commons" for a lower house of parliament; the House of Commons came into existence in 1867, when the British Parliament passed the British North America Act, uniting the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation called the Dominion of Canada. The new Parliament of Canada consisted of the Senate and the House of Commons; the Parliament of Canada was based on the Westminster model. Unlike the UK Parliament, the powers of the Parliament of Canada were limited in that other powers were assigned to the provincial legislatures; the Parliament of Canada remained subordinate to the British Parliament, the supreme legislative authority for the entire British Empire.
Greater autonomy was granted by the Statute of Westminster 1931, after which new acts of the British Parliament did not apply to Canada, with some exceptions. These exceptions were removed by the Canada Act 1982. From 1867, the Commons met in the chamber used by the Legislative Assembly of Canada until the building was destroyed by fire in 1916, it relocated to the amphitheatre of the Victoria Memorial Museum—what is today the Canadian Museum of Nature, where it met until 1922. Until the end of 2018, the Commons sat in Centre Block chamber. Starting with the final sitting before the 2019 federal election, the Commons sits in a temporary chamber in the West Block until at least 2028, while renovations are undertaken in the Centre Block of Parliament; the House of Commons comprises 338 members. The constitution specifies a basic minimum of 295 electoral districts, but additional seats are allocated according to various clauses. Seats are distributed among the provinces in proportion to population, as determined by each decennial census, subject to the following exceptions made by the constitution.
Firstly, the "senatorial clause" guarantees that each province will have at least as many MPs as Senators. Secondly, the "grandfather clause" guarantees each province has at least as many Members of Parliament now as it had in 1985; as a result of these clauses, smaller provinces and provinces that have experienced a relative decline in population have become over-represented in the House. Ontario, British Columbia, Alberta are under-represented in proportion to their populations, while the other seven provinces are over-represented. Boundary commissions, appointed by the federal government for each province, have the task of drawing the boundaries of the electoral districts in each province. Territorial representation is independent of population; the calculation for the provinces is done with a base of 279 seats. The total population of the provinces is divided by 279 to equal the electoral quotient; the population of the province is divided by the electoral q
2000 in Canada
The following lists events that happened during 2000 in Canada. Estimated Canadian population: 30,790,834 Head of state – Elizabeth II Governor general – Adrienne Clarkson Prime minister – Jean Chrétien Chief Justice – Antonio Lamer Beverley McLachlin Parliament – 36th Lieutenant Governor of Alberta – Bud Olson Lois Hole Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia – Garde Gardom Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba – Peter Liba Lieutenant Governor of New Brunswick – Marilyn Trenholme Counsell Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland – Arthur Maxwell House Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia – James Kinley Myra Freeman Lieutenant Governor of Ontario – Hillary Weston Lieutenant Governor of Prince Edward Island – Gilbert Clements Lieutenant Governor of Quebec – Lise Thibault Lieutenant Governor of Saskatchewan – Jack Wiebe Lynda Haverstock Premier of Alberta – Ralph Klein Premier of British Columbia – Dan Miller Ujjal Dosanjh Premier of Manitoba – Gary Doer Premier of New Brunswick – Bernard Lord Premier of Newfoundland – Brian Tobin Beaton Tulk Premier of Nova Scotia – John Hamm Premier of Ontario – Mike Harris Premier of Prince Edward Island – Pat Binns Premier of Quebec – Lucien Bouchard Premier of Saskatchewan – Roy Romanow Commissioner of Yukon – Judy Gingell Jack Cable Commissioner of Northwest Territories – Daniel Joseph Marion Glenna Hansen Commissioner of Nunavut – Helen Maksagak Peter Irniq Premier of the Northwest Territories – Jim Antoine Stephen Kakfwi Premier of Nunavut – Paul Okalik Premier of Yukon – Piers McDonald Pat Duncan January 1 – The magnitude 5.2 Kipawa earthquake occurs in Ontario and Quebec, Canada.
January 15 – CTV News Channel mistakenly airs tape of Avery Haines flubbing a line and joking about it in terms many viewers find offensive. January 19 Stephen Kakfwi becomes premier of the Northwest Territories. HRDC scandal hits the public as a result of an internal audit. February 7 – Rogers Communications buys Quebec's Vidéotron. February 15 – Thomson Corp sells all its newspaper holdings other than The Globe and Mail. February 24 – Ujjal Dosanjh becomes premier of British Columbia, replacing Dan Miller. March 15 – The House of Commons passes the Clarity Act outlining conditions for another Quebec separation referendum. March 25 – The Reform Party of Canada is dissolved and replaced with the Canadian Alliance. April 19 – Wiebo Ludwig is found guilty of a 1998 oil well bombing. May 6 – Pat Duncan becomes premier of Yukon, replacing Piers McDonald. May 11 – The Alberta legislature passes a bill allowing the private sector to play a larger role in health care. May 24 – An E. coli outbreak in Walkerton, Ontario.
It will kill nine people. May 25 – The remains of an unidentified Canadian soldier killed in France in World War I are brought back to Canada and buried in the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Ottawa. June 17 – Seagram announces plans to merge with France's Vivendi. July 8 – Stockwell Day is elected the first leader of the Canadian Alliance party. July 12 – Matthew Coon Come is elected leader of the Assembly of First Nations. July 14 – A tornado near Pine Lake, kills eleven people. July 31 – Conrad Black's Hollinger sells all its Canadian newspaper holdings to Izzy Asper's CanWest. August – The prohibition of marijuana is ruled illegal by an Ontario court. August 15 – Michael Cowpland resigns as CEO of Corel. August 26 – Sponsorship scandal: Minister of Public Works Alfonso Gagliano is criticized for giving contracts to a firm that employs his son. September 9 – Star Ray TV, a pirate television station in Toronto, begins broadcasting. September 26 – Long-serving Saskatchewan Premier Roy Romanow announces his plans to retire.
September 28 to October 3 – Death and state funeral of Pierre Trudeau, former prime minister. October 16 – Beaton Tulk becomes premier of Newfoundland, replacing Brian Tobin. October 27 – The Royal Canadian Mounted Police arrest Ripudaman Singh Malik and Ajaib Singh Bagri in connection with the bombing of Air India Flight 182. November 21 – Launch of Anik F1 Canada's most powerful communications satellite to date. November 27 – In the 2000 Canadian election Jean Chrétien's Liberals increase their majority in the House of Commons. November 30 – Marc Garneau returns to space for a third time. December – The federal government opens a marijuana growing operation in an abandoned mine in Manitoba. Canada passes the Modernization of Benefits and Obligations Act, which extends full benefits and obligations to persons in homosexual relationships, excluding the right to marry; the Bank of Canada withdraws the $1,000 currency from circulation to fight against money laundering and organized crime. The Blind Assassin: Margaret Atwood Virtual War: Kosovo and Beyond: Michael Ignatieff Star-Spangled Canadians: Jeffrey Simpson Island: Alistair MacLeod The Farfarers, Before the Norse: Farley Mowat No Logo: Naomi Klein City of Glass: Douglas Coupland Before You're a Stranger: Raymond Fraser Elizabeth Rex – Timothy Findley Margaret Atwood wins the Booker Prize for The Blind Assassin Michael Ondaatje wins the Prix Médicis for Anil's Ghost Giller Prize for Canadian Fiction: Michael Ondaatje: Anil's Ghost and David Adams Richards: Mercy Among the Children See 2000 Governor General's Awards for a complete list of winners and finalists for those awards.
Nega Mezlekia's non-fiction win for Notes from the Hyena's Belly becomes a subject of controversy when poet Anne Stone alleges that she ghostwrote the majority of the book. Stone was subsequently sued for defamation by Mezlekia, who stated that Stone's role in the book's publica
Senate of Canada
The Senate of Canada is the upper house of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons and the Monarch. The Senate is modelled after the British House of Lords and consists of 105 members appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister. Seats are assigned on a regional basis: four regions—defined as Ontario, the Maritime provinces, the Western provinces—each receive 24 seats, with the remaining portions of the country—Newfoundland and Labrador receiving 6 seats and the three northern territories each assigned the remaining one seat. Senators may serve until they reach the age of 75. While the Senate is the upper house of Parliament and the House of Commons is the lower house, this does not imply the Senate is more powerful than the House of Commons, it entails that its members and officers outrank the members and officers of the Commons in the order of precedence for the purposes of protocol. As a matter of practice and custom, the Commons is the dominant chamber.
The prime minister and Cabinet are responsible to the House of Commons and remain in office only so long as they retain the confidence of the House of Commons. The approval of both chambers is necessary for legislation and, the Senate can reject bills passed by the Commons. Between 1867 and 1987, the Senate rejected fewer than two bills per year, but this has increased in more recent years. Although legislation can be introduced in either chamber, the majority of government bills originate in the House of Commons, with the Senate acting as the chamber of "sober second thought"; the Senate came into existence in 1867, when the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the British North America Act 1867, uniting the Province of Canada with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick into a single federation, a dominion called Canada. The Canadian parliament was based on the Westminster model. Canada's first prime minister, Sir John A. Macdonald, described it as a body of "sober second thought" that would curb the "democratic excesses" of the elected House of Commons and provide regional representation.
He believed that if the House of Commons properly represented the population, the upper chamber should represent the regions. It was not meant to be more than a brake on the House of Commons. Therefore, it was deliberately made an appointed house, since an elected Senate might prove too popular and too powerful and be able to block the will of the House of Commons; the original Senate chamber was lost to the fire that consumed the Parliament Buildings in 1916. Subsequently, the Senate sat in the mineral room of what is today the Canadian Museum of Nature until 1922, when it relocated to Parliament Hill. With the Centre Block undergoing renovations, temporary chambers have been constructed in the Senate of Canada Building, where the Senate began meeting in 2019. Reform of the Senate has been an issue since its creation, mirrors pre-Confederation debates regarding appointed Legislative Councils in the former colonies; the federal Parliament first considered reform measures in 1874 and the Senate debated reforming itself in 1909.
There were minor changes in 1965, when the mandatory retirement age for new Senators was set at 75 years and, in 1982, when the Senate was given a qualified veto over certain constitutional amendments. There have been at least 28 major proposals for constitutional Senate reform since the early 1970s and all have failed. Discussion of reforming the appointment mechanism resurfaced alongside the Quiet Revolution and the rise of Western alienation with the chief goal of making the Senate better represent the provinces in parliament, it was suggested that provincial governments should appoint senators, as was done in the United States before the Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution. Others suggested that senators should be members of provincial legislatures, similar to the Bundesrat of Germany; the discussions suggested redistributing Senate seats to the growing western provinces Formal suggestions for equality of seats between provinces occurred in 1981. Schemes to create an elected Senate did not gain widespread support until after 1980, when Parliament enacted the National Energy Program in the wake of the energy crises of the 1970s.
Many Western Canadians called for a "Triple-E Senate", standing for elected and effective. They believed that allowing equal representation of the provinces, regardless of population, would protect the interests of the smaller provinces and outlying regions; the Meech Lake Accord, a series of constitutional amendments proposed by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, would have required the federal government to choose a senator from a list of persons nominated by the provincial government. Before the failure of the Meech Lake accord, Alberta had passed the Senatorial Selection Act of 1987, which provided for the direct election of Alberta senators; the first of such elections was held in 1989. The results of these elections are non-binding, only prime ministers Brian Mulroney and Stephen Harper have appointed senators that had won these elections; the Charlottetown Accord, involved a provision under which the Senate would include an equal number of senators from each province, each elected either by the majority in the relevant provincial legislature or by the majority of voters in the province.
This accord was defeated in the referendum held in 1992. Prime Minister Stephen Harper was an advocate of