Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota. Their front pair of wings are hardened into wing-cases, distinguishing them from most other insects; the Coleoptera, with about 400,000 species, is the largest of all orders, constituting 40% of described insects and 25% of all known animal life-forms. The largest of all families, the Curculionidae with some 70,000 member species, belongs to this order. Found in every habitat except the sea and the polar regions, they interact with their ecosystems in several ways: beetles feed on plants and fungi, break down animal and plant debris, eat other invertebrates; some species are serious agricultural pests, such as the Colorado potato beetle, while others such as Coccinellidae eat aphids, scale insects and other plant-sucking insects that damage crops. Beetles have a hard exoskeleton including the elytra, though some such as the rove beetles have short elytra while blister beetles have softer elytra; the general anatomy of a beetle is quite uniform and typical of insects, although there are several examples of novelty, such as adaptations in water beetles which trap air bubbles under the elytra for use while diving.
Beetles are endopterygotes, which means that they undergo complete metamorphosis, with a series of conspicuous and abrupt changes in body structure between hatching and becoming adult after a immobile pupal stage. Some, such as stag beetles, have a marked sexual dimorphism, the males possessing enormously enlarged mandibles which they use to fight other males. Many beetles are aposematic, with bright colours and patterns warning of their toxicity, while others are harmless Batesian mimics of such insects. Many beetles, including those that live in sandy places, have effective camouflage. Beetles are prominent in human culture, from the sacred scarabs of ancient Egypt to beetlewing art and use as pets or fighting insects for entertainment and gambling. Many beetle groups are brightly and attractively coloured making them objects of collection and decorative displays. Over 300 species are used as food as larvae. However, the major impact of beetles on human life is as agricultural and horticultural pests.
Serious pests include the boll weevil of cotton, the Colorado potato beetle, the coconut hispine beetle, the mountain pine beetle. Most beetles, however, do not cause economic damage and many, such as the lady beetles and dung beetles are beneficial by helping to control insect pests; the name of the taxonomic order, comes from the Greek koleopteros, given to the group by Aristotle for their elytra, hardened shield-like forewings, from koleos and pteron, wing. The English name beetle comes from the Old English word bitela, little biter, related to bītan, leading to Middle English betylle. Another Old English name for beetle is ċeafor, used in names such as cockchafer, from the Proto-Germanic *kebrô. Beetles are by far the largest order of insects: the 400,000 species make up about 40% of all insect species so far described, about 25% of all animals. A 2015 study provided four independent estimates of the total number of beetle species, giving a mean estimate of some 1.5 million with a "surprisingly narrow range" spanning all four estimates from a minimum of 0.9 to a maximum of 2.1 million beetle species.
The four estimates made use of host-specificity relationships, ratios with other taxa, plant:beetle ratios, extrapolations based on body size by year of description. Beetles are found in nearly all habitats, including freshwater and coastal habitats, wherever vegetative foliage is found, from trees and their bark to flowers and underground near roots - inside plants in galls, in every plant tissue, including dead or decaying ones; the heaviest beetle, indeed the heaviest insect stage, is the larva of the goliath beetle, Goliathus goliatus, which can attain a mass of at least 115 g and a length of 11.5 cm. Adult male goliath beetles are the heaviest beetle in its adult stage, weighing 70–100 g and measuring up to 11 cm. Adult elephant beetles, Megasoma elephas and Megasoma actaeon reach 50 g and 10 cm; the longest beetle is the Hercules beetle Dynastes hercules, with a maximum overall length of at least 16.7 cm including the long pronotal horn. The smallest recorded beetle and the smallest free-living insect, is the featherwing beetle Scydosella musawasensis which may measure as little as 325 µm in length.
The oldest known fossil insect that unequivocally resembles a Coleopteran is from the Lower Permian Period about 270 million years ago, though these members of the family Tshekardocoleidae have 13-segmented antennae, elytra with more developed venation and more irregular longitudinal ribbing, abdomen and ovipositor extending beyond the apex of the elytra. In the Permian–Triassic extinction event at the end of the Permian, some 30% of all insect species became extinct, so the fossil record of insects only includes beetles from the Lower Triassic 220 mya. Around this time, during the Late Triassic, fungus-feeding species such as Cupedidae appear in the fossil record. In the stages of the Upper Triassic, alga-feeding insects such as Triaplidae and Hydrophilidae begin to appear, alongside predatory water beetles; the first weevils, including the Obrienidae, appear alongside the first rove beetles, which resemb
Aimé Jacques Alexandre Bonpland was a French explorer and botanist who traveled with Alexander von Humboldt in Latin America from 1799 to 1804. He co-authored volumes of the scientific results of their expedition; the standard author abbreviation Bonpl. is used to indicate this person as the author when citing a botanical name. Bonpland was born as Aimé Jacques Alexandre Goujaud in La Rochelle, France, on 22, 28, or 29 August 1773, his father was a physician and, around 1790, he joined his brother Michael in Paris, where they both studied medicine. From 1791, they attended courses given at Paris's Botanical Museum of Natural History, their teachers included Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, Antoine Laurent de Jussieu, René Louiche Desfontaines. During this period, Aimé befriended his fellow student, Marie François Xavier Bichat. Amid the turmoil of the French Revolution and Revolutionary Wars, Bonpland served as a surgeon in the French army or navy. Having befriended Alexander von Humboldt at Corvisart's house, he joined him on a five-year journey through Mexico and the Orinoco and Amazon basins.
During this trip, he collected and classified about 6,000 plants that were unknown in Europe up to that time. His account of these findings was published as a series of volumes from 1808 to 1816 entitled Equatorial Plants. Upon his return to Paris, Napoleon granted him a pension of 3000 francs per year in return for the many specimens he bestowed upon the Museum of Natural History; the Empress Josephine was fond of him and installed him as superintendent over the gardens at Malmaison, where many seeds he had brought from the Americas were cultivated. In 1813, he published his Description of the Rare Plants Cultivated in Navarre. During this period, he became acquainted with Gay-Lussac and other eminent scientists and, after the abdication of Fontainebleau, vainly pleaded with Napoleon to retire to Mexico, he was present at Josephine's deathbed. In 1816, he took various European plants to Buenos Aires, where he was elected professor of natural history, he soon left his post, however. In 1821, he established a colony at Santa Ana near the Paraná for the specific object of harvesting and selling yerba mate.
The colony was located in territory claimed by both Argentina. The Paraguayans therefore destroyed the colony and Bonpland was arrested as a spy and detained at Santa Maria, Paraguay until 1829. During his captivity, he had several children, he was given freedom of movement and acted as a physician for the local poor and the military garrison. At the same epoch, the Swiss naturalist Johann Rudolph Rengger stayed in Paraguay: he was not allowed to cross the guarded border, but was free to circulate pending the request of a special permit for each excursion. Bonpland was freed in 1829 and in 1831 returned to Argentina, where he settled at San Borja in Corrientes. There, aged 58, he made a living farming and trading in yerba mate. In 1853, he returned to Santa Ana, he received a 10 000-piastre estate from the Corrientes government in gratitude for his work in the province. The small town around it is now known as "Bonpland" in his honor. A different small town in Misiones province just south of Santa Ana is named Bonpland.
He died at age 84, at San Borja, Santa Ana, or Restauración on 4 or 11 May 1858, before his planned return to Paris. Bonpland's biography was written by Adolphe Brunel. A fictionalized account of his travels with Humboldt occurs in Daniel Kehlmann's Die Vermessung der Welt, translated by Carol Brown Janeway as Measuring the World: A Novel. Bonpland Street in the ritzy Buenos Aires neighborhood of Palermo Hollywood lies among streets named after Charles Darwin, Robert FitzRoy, Alexander von Humboldt. There is a Bonpland Street in the city of Bahía Blanca, Argentina, in Caracas, in Montevideo, Uruguay. Many animals and plants are named in his honor, including the squid Grimalditeuthis bonplandi and the orchid Ornithocephalus bonplandi; the lunar crater Bonpland is named after him. Pico Bonpland in the Venezuelan Andes is named to his honor, although he never visited the Venezuelan Andes. A peak of over 2,300 m in New Zealand bears his name; the mountain is near the head of Lake Wakatipu in the South Island.
The following genera and species have been described by Aimé Bonpland. 1805: Essai sur la géographie des plantes. Written with Alexander von Humboldt. Von Humboldt, Alexander. Essay on the geography of plants. Translated by Sylvie Romanowski, with an Introduction by Stephen T. Jackson. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 9780226360669. OCLC 977369593. English translation from 2009. 1811: A collection of observations on zoology and comparative anatomy written with Alexander von Humboldt, Printing JH Stone, Paris. Digital version at the website Gallica. 1813: Description of rare plants grown at Malmaison and Navarre by Aimé Bonpland. Printing P; the elder Didot, Paris. By Aimé Bonpland dedicated to the Empress Joséphine. Digital version at the website Botanicus, Digital version of the illustrations at the website of the Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de santé. 1815: Nova plantarum genera and species written with Alexander von Humboldt and Karl Sigismund Kunth
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water. This landform is so named for its distinctive curved shape. In Australia, an oxbow lake is called a billabong, from the indigenous Wiradjuri language. In south Texas, oxbows left by the Rio Grande are called resacas; the word "oxbow" can refer to a U-shaped bend in a river or stream, whether or not it is cut off from the main stream. An oxbow lake forms. After a long period of time, the meander becomes curved, the neck of the meander becomes narrower and the river cuts through the neck during a flood, cutting off the meander and forming an oxbow lake; when a river reaches a low-lying plain in its final course to the sea or a lake, it meanders widely. In the vicinity of a river bend, deposition occurs on the convex bank. In contrast, both lateral erosion and undercutting occur on the cut bank or concave bank Continuous deposition on the convex bank and erosion of the concave bank of a meandering river cause the formation of a pronounced meander with two concave banks getting closer.
The narrow neck of land between the two neighboring concave banks is cut through, either by lateral erosion of the two concave banks or by the strong currents of a flood. When this happens a new, straighter river channel develops—and an abandoned meander loop, called a cutoff, forms; when deposition seals off the cutoff from the river channel, an oxbow lake forms. This process can occur over a time from a few years to several decades, may sometimes become static. Gathering of erosion products near the concave bank and transporting them to the convex bank is the work of the secondary flow across the floor of the river in the vicinity of a river bend; the process of deposition of silt and gravel on the convex bank is illustrated in point bars. River flood plains that contain rivers with a sinuous platform are populated by longer oxbow lakes than those with low sinuosity; this is because rivers with high sinuosity have larger meanders, greater opportunity for longer lakes to form. Rivers with lower sinuosity are characterized by fewer cutoffs and shorter oxbow lakes due to the shorter distance of their meanders.
The effect of the secondary flow can be demonstrated using a circular bowl. Fill the bowl with water and sprinkle dense particles such as sand or rice into the bowl. Set the water into circular motion with one hand or a spoon; the dense particles sweep into a neat pile in the center of the bowl. This is the mechanism that leads to the formation of point bars and contributes to the formation of oxbow lakes; the primary flow of water in the bowl is circular and the streamlines are concentric with the side of the bowl. However, the secondary flow of the boundary layer across the floor of the bowl is inward toward the center; the primary flow might be expected to fling the dense particles to the perimeter of the bowl, but instead the secondary flow sweeps the particles toward the center. The curved path of a river around a bend makes the water's surface higher on the outside of the bend than on the inside; as a result, at any elevation within the river, water pressure is greater near the outside of the bend than on the inside.
A pressure gradient toward the convex bank provides the centripetal force necessary for each parcel of water to follow its curved path. The boundary layer that flows along the river floor does not move fast enough to balance the pressure gradient laterally across the river, it responds to this pressure gradient, its velocity is downstream and across the river toward the convex bank. As it flows along the floor of the river, it sweeps loose material toward the convex bank; this flow of the boundary layer is different from the speed and direction of the primary flow of the river, is part of the river's secondary flow. When a fluid follows a curved path, such as around a circular bowl, around a bend in a river or in a tropical cyclone, the flow is described as vortex flow: the fastest speed occurs where the radius is smallest, the slowest speed occurs where the radius is greatest; the higher fluid pressure and slower speed where the radius is greater, the lower pressure and faster speed where the radius is smaller, are all consistent with Bernoulli's principle.
Notable examples Bole and Burton Round in West Burton, England are a good example of previous lakes in a close proximity to one another. Carter Lake, Iowa was created after severe flooding in 1877 led to the river shifting 1.25 mi to the southeast. Cuckmere Haven in Sussex, England contains a meandering river with many oxbow lakes referred to in physical geography textbooks. Half Moon Lake in downtown Eau Claire, Wisconsin was formed due to a shift in the course of the Chippewa River, which now flows to the south. Kanwar Lake Bird Sanctuary, India contains rare and endangered migratory birds and is one of Asia's largest oxbow lakes; the Oxbow, a 2.5-mile bend in the Connecticut River, is disconnected at one end. There are many oxbow lakes alongside its tributaries; the largest oxbow lake in North America, Lake Chicot, was part of the Mississippi River, as was Horseshoe Lake, the namesake for the town of Horseshoe Lake, Arkansas. Reelfoot Lake in west Tennessee is another notable oxbow lake. Oxbow lake
The Amazon Basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries. The Amazon drainage basin covers an area of about 6,300,000 km2, or about 35.5 percent that of the South American continent. It is located in the countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Peru and Venezuela. Most of the basin is covered by the Amazon Rainforest known as Amazonia. With a 5,500,000 km2 area of dense tropical forest, this is the largest rainforest in the world; the Amazon River begins in the Andes Mountains at the west of the basin with its main tributary the Marañón River in Peru. The highest point in the watershed of the Amazon is the peak of Yerupajá at 6,635 metres. With a length of about 6,400 km before it drains into the Atlantic Ocean, it is one of the two longest rivers in the world; the Amazon system transports the largest volume of water of any river system, accounting for about 20% of the total water carried to the oceans by rivers. Some of the Amazon rainforests are deforested because of the increasing of cattle ranches and soy beans field.
The Amazon basin flowed west to Pacific Ocean until the Andes formed, causing the basin to flow eastward towards the Atlantic Ocean. Politically the basin is divided into the Brazilian Amazônia Legal, the Peruvian Amazon, the Amazon region of Colombia and parts of Bolivia and the Venezuelan state of Amazonas. Plant growth is dense and its variety of animal inhabitants is comparatively high due to the heavy rainfall and the dense and extensive evergreen and coniferous forests. Little sunlight reaches the ground due to the dense roof canopy by plants; the ground remains dark and damp and only shade tolerant vegetation will grow here. Orchids and bromeliads exploit other plants to get closer to the sunlight, they grow hanging onto the branches or tree trunks with aerial roots, not as parasites but as epiphytes. Species of tropical trees native to the Amazon include rubber tree and Assai palm. More than 1,400 species of mammals are found in the Amazon, the majority of which are species of bats and rodents.
Its larger mammals include the jaguar, ocelot and South American tapir. About 1500 bird species inhabit the Amazon Basin; the biodiversity of the Amazon and the sheer number of diverse bird species is given by the number of different bird families that reside in these humid forests. An example of such would be the cotinga family. Birds such as toucans, hummingbirds are found here. Macaws are famous for gathering by the hundreds along the clay cliffs of the Amazon River. In the western Amazon hundreds of macaws and other parrots descend to exposed river banks to consume clay on an daily basis, the exception being rainy days; the green anaconda inhabits the shallow waters of the Amazon and the emerald tree boa and boa constrictor live in the Amazonian tree tops. Many reptiles species are illegally exported for the international pet trade. Live animals are the fourth largest commodity in the smuggling industry after drugs and weapons. More than 1,500 species of amphibians are found in the Amazon. Unlike temperate frogs which are limited to habitats near the water, tropical frogs are most abundant in the trees and few are found near bodies of water on the forest floor.
The reason for this occurrence is quite simple: frogs must always keep their skin moist since half of their respiration is carried out through their skin. The high humidity of the rainforest and frequent rainstorms gives tropical frogs infinitely more freedom to move into the trees and escape the many predators of rainforest waters; the differences between temperate and tropical frogs extend beyond their habitat. About 2,500 fish species are known from the Amazon basin and it is estimated that more than 1,000 additional undescribed species exist; this is more than any other river basin on Earth, Amazonia is the center of diversity for Neotropical fishes. About 45% of the known Amazonian fish species are endemic to the basin; the remarkable species richness can in part be explained by the large differences between the various parts of the Amazon basin, resulting in many fish species that are endemic to small regions. For example, fauna in clearwater rivers differs from fauna in white and blackwater rivers, fauna in slow moving sections show distinct differences compared to that in rapids, fauna in small streams differ from that in major rivers, fauna in shallow sections show distinct differences compared to that in deep parts.
By far the most diverse orders in the Amazon are Characiformes and Siluriformes, but other groups with many species include Cichlidae and Gymnotiformes. In addition to major differences in behavior and ecology, Amazonian fish vary extensively in form and size; the largest, the arapaima and piraiba can reach 3 m or more in length and up to 200 kg in weight, making them some of the largest strict freshwater fish in the world. The bull shark and common sawfish, which have been recorded far up the Amazon, may reach greater sizes, but they are euryhaline and seen in marine waters. In contrast to the giants, there are Amazonian fish from several families that are less than 2 cm long; the smallest are the Leptophilypnion sleeper gobies, which do not surpass 1 cm and are among the smallest fish in the world. The Amazon supports large fisheries, including well-known species of large catfish (such as Brachyplatystoma, which perform l
Eduard Friedrich Poeppig
Eduard Friedrich Poeppig was a German botanist and explorer. Poeppig was born in Saxony, he studied medicine and natural history at the University of Leipzig, graduating with a medical degree. On graduation, the rector of the university gave him a botanical mission to South America, he was helped out financially by a small group of friends and scientists in Leipzig, that included botanist Christian Friedrich Schwägrichen, who in exchange, received sets of specimens. He subsequently worked as a naturalist in Pennsylvania. In 1826 he departed for Valparaiso and spent several years performing scientific exploration throughout Chile and Brazil; as a result of his journey in South America, he published "Reise in Chile, Peru und auf dem Amazonenstrome, während der Jahre 1827-1832 ". In the autumn of 1832, he returned to Germany with significant zoological and botanical collections — several hundred stuffed animals, a collection of ethnographic objects, more than 17,000 dried plants. During the following year, he became an associate professor at the University of Leipzig, where in 1834 he was named director of its zoological museum.
In 1846 he attained a full professorship at Leipzig, a position he maintained until his death in 1868. He contributed to the establishment of a scientific museum in Leipzig, bequeathed to it some of his collections, with the remainder being sent to museums in Berlin and Vienna. In South America he described numerous new species of plants, his botanical magnum opus, "Nova genera ac Species Plantarum quas in regno, Peruviano, ac Terra Amazonica, anni 1827-1832 lectarum ", was published in three volumes. In it he described 31 new genera and 477 new species. For the first two volumes he collaborated with Stephan Endlicher; the plant genus Poeppigia is named after him, as are taxa with the specific epithets of poeppigi and poeppigiana, a few examples being: the silvery woolly monkey, the snake Atractus poeppigi, the toad Rhinella poeppigii, the orchid Campylocentrum poeppigii Rolfe, the angiosperm species Guatteria poeppigiana Mart.. Fragmentum synopseos plantarum phanerogamarum.. Selbstanzeige der Reisebeschreibung in Blätter für literarische Unterhaltung..
Reise in Chile, Peru und auf dem Amazonenstrome während der Jahre 1827-1832, 2 volumes.. Nova genera ac species plantarum, quas in regno Chilensi Peruviano et in terra Amazonica: annis MDCCCXXVII ad MDCCCXXXII.. Reise nach den Vereinigten Staaten ].. Über alte und neue Handelswege nach der Westküste Amerikas.. Landschaftliche Ansichten und erlauternde Darstellungen.. Poeppig was a primary contributor of ethnological and biological articles about the Americas for the "Allgemeine Encyclopaedie ", edited by Ersch and Gruber. Urban, Ignaz. Notae biographicae, Symb. Antill. 3:103,1900. Parts of this article are based on a translation of an equivalent article at the German Wikipedia. CRC World Dictionary of Plant Names: M-Q by Umberto Quattrocchi. Wilson, J. G.. "Poeppig, Eduard". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton
In usage in the United States, a bayou is a body of water found in a flat, low-lying area, can be either an slow-moving stream or river, or a marshy lake or wetland. The term bayou can refer to a creek whose current reverses daily due to tides and which contains brackish water conducive to fish life and plankton. Bayous are sometimes paved to help prevent flooding. Bayous are found in the Gulf Coast region of the southern United States, notably the Mississippi River Delta, with the states of Louisiana and Texas being famous for them. A bayou is an anabranch or minor braid of a braided channel, moving much more than the mainstem becoming boggy and stagnant. Though fauna varies by region, many bayous are home to crawfish, certain species of shrimp, other shellfish, frogs, American alligators, American crocodiles, turtles, snakes and many other species; the word entered American English via Louisiana French in Louisiana and is thought to originate from the Choctaw word "bayuk", which means "small stream".
The first settlements of Bayou Teche, other bayous, were by the Cajuns, and, why bayous are associated with Cajun culture. An alternative spelling, "buyou", has been used, as in "Pine Buyou", used in a description by Congress in 1833 of Arkansas Territory; the term Bayou Country is most associated with Cajun and Creole cultural groups derived from French settlers and stretching along the Gulf Coast from Houston, Texas to Mobile and picking back up in South Florida around the Everglades with its center in New Orleans, Louisiana. Houston has the nickname "Bayou City"; as of 2016 "bye-you" is the most common pronunciation, while a few use "bye-oh", although that pronunciation is declining. Bayou Bartholomew Bayou Lafourche Bayou Teche Cypress Bayou Bayou St. John Big Bayou Canot Buffalo Bayou Bayou La Batre Bayou Corne Backswamp Billabong Hurricane on the Bayou Oxbow lake Yazoo stream Bayeux