It was one of many Revival styles of the mid to late 19th century, and just one among several concurrent modes of Classicism. Neo-Grec was eclectic, abstracted and sometimes bizarre and its treatment was intentionally dry and linear. Its vignettes and repeating patterns lent themselves to stencilling, typical Neo-Grec color harmonies were rich and harsh, black motifs and outlines against Pompeian red, powder blue and puce and olive drab might be combined in a single decor. Lions heads and feet and eagles talons, although an old ornament, were now everywhere to be found again, the British fancy was carried captive, journeys were taken, explorations were set on foot, measurements were made and at last the Elgin Marbles came to England. Mr. Flaxman, and representing Aurora visiting Cephalus on Mount Ida, round the bottom of the room still reign the emblems of night. In the rail of a marble table are introduced medallions of the god of sleep. The bird consecrated to the latter deity perches on the pillars of a marble mantelpiece.
The broad band which girds the top of the room contains medallions of the goddess and of the Phrygian youth intermixed with the instruments. It maintained its supremacy briefly before other fashions came to the top in France, in architecture the Neo-Grec is not always clearly distinguishable from the Neoclassical designs of the earlier part of the century, in buildings such as the Church of the Madeleine, Paris. Not only was the Neo-Grec popular in France, but in Victorian England and especially in the United States, the architectural historian Neil Levine has explained the style as a reaction against the rigidity of classicism. According to Levine, Neo-Grec was a looser style, which replaced the rhetorical form of classical architectural discourse by a more literal. It was meant to be a readable architecture, in painting, the Neoclassical style continued to be taught in the French Academy des Beaux-Arts, inculcating crisp outlines, pellucid atmosphere, and a clear, clean palette. However, a formal Neo-Grec group of artists was created in the mid 19th century after growing interest in Ancient Greece and Rome, and especially the excavations at Pompeii.
Gérôme gained fame from this exhibition, and in the year formed the Neo-Grec group with Jean-Louis Hamon. The Neo-Grec group took Gleyres style and interests, but adapted it from use in painting as in Gleyres work. Because they were inspired by discoveries at Pompeii, they were called néo-pompéiens. The paintings of the Neo-Grecs sought to capture everyday, anecdotal trivialities of ancient Greek life, in a manner of whimsy and charm, and were realistic, sensual. For this reason they were called anacreontic after the Greek poet Anacreon, alfred de Tanouarn describes one of Hamons paintings as clear and natural, the idea, the attitudes and the aspects
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%. Its usefulness derives from its low melting temperature. Carbon ranging from 1. 8–4 wt%, and silicon 1–3 wt% are the main alloying elements of cast iron, Iron alloys with less carbon content are known as steel. While this technically makes the Fe–C–Si system ternary, the principle of cast iron solidification can be understood from the simpler binary iron–carbon phase diagram, cast iron tends to be brittle, except for malleable cast irons. It is resistant to destruction and weakening by oxidation, the earliest cast iron artefacts date to the 5th century BC, and were discovered by archaeologists in what is now Jiangsu in China. Cast iron was used in ancient China for warfare, during the 15th century, cast iron became utilized for artillery in Burgundy, and in England during the Reformation. The first cast iron bridge was built during the 1770s by Abraham Darby III, cast iron is used in the construction of buildings.
Cast iron is made by re-melting pig iron, often along with quantities of iron, limestone, carbon. Phosphorus and sulfur may be burnt out of the iron, but this burns out the carbon. Depending on the application and silicon content are adjusted to the desired levels, other elements are added to the melt before the final form is produced by casting. Cast iron is melted in a special type of blast furnace known as a cupola. After melting is complete, the molten cast iron is poured into a furnace or ladle. Cast irons properties are changed by adding various alloying elements, or alloyants, next to carbon, silicon is the most important alloyant because it forces carbon out of solution. A low percentage of silicon allows carbon to remain in solution forming iron carbide, a high percentage of silicon forces carbon out of solution forming graphite and the production of grey cast iron. Other alloying agents, chromium, molybdenum and vanadium counteracts silicon, promotes the retention of carbon and copper increase strength, and machinability, but do not change the amount of graphite formed.
The carbon in the form of graphite results in an iron, reduces shrinkage, lowers strength. Sulfur, largely a contaminant when present, forms iron sulfide, the problem with sulfur is that it makes molten cast iron viscous, which causes defects. To counter the effects of sulfur, manganese is added because the two form into manganese sulfide instead of iron sulfide, the manganese sulfide is lighter than the melt so it tends to float out of the melt and into the slag
Alfred Waterhouse RA was an English architect, particularly associated with the Victorian Gothic Revival architecture. He is perhaps best known for his design for Manchester Town Hall, financially speaking, Waterhouse was probably the most successful of all Victorian architects. Though expert within Neo-Gothic, Renaissance revival and Romanesque revival styles, Waterhouse was born on 19 July 1830 in Aigburth, Lancashire, the son of wealthy mill-owning Quaker parents. Alfred Waterhouse was educated at the Quaker Grove House School in Tottenham and he studied architecture under Richard Lane in Manchester, and spent much of his youth travelling in Europe and studying in France and Germany. On his return to Britain, Alfred set up his own practice in Manchester. Waterhouse continued to practise in Manchester for 12 years, until moving his practice to London in 1865 and his earliest commissions were for domestic buildings. His success as a designer of buildings was assured in 1859 when he won the open competition for the Manchester Assize Courts.
This work not only showed his ability to plan a building on a large scale. In 1860, he married Elizabeth Hodgkin, daughter of John Hodgkin, Elizabeth was herself the author of several books, including a collection of verse and some anthologies. Her best known work was The Island of Anarchy, a Utopian story set in the late 20th century, first published in 1887, Waterhouse had connections with wealthy Quaker industrialist through schooling and religious affiliation. Many of these Quaker connections commissioned him to design and build country houses, several were built for members of the Backhouse family, founders of Backhouses Bank, a forerunner of Barclays Bank. For Alfred Backhouse, Waterhouse built Pilmore Hall, now known as Rockliffe Hall, in the same village he built the Grange, now the Hurworth Grange Community Centre, which Alfred Backhouse had commissioned as a wedding gift for his nephew, James E. Backhouse. Another Backhouse family mansion designed and built by Waterhouse was Dryderdale Hall, near Hamsterley, in 1865, Waterhouse was one of the architects selected to compete for the Royal Courts of Justice.
The University Club of New York was undertaken in 1866, girton College, Cambridge, a building of simpler type, dates originally from the same period, but has been periodically enlarged by further buildings. From the late 1860s, Waterhouse lived in Reading and these included his own residences of Foxhill House and Yattendon Court, together with Reading Town Hall, Grove House, a boarding house at Leighton Park School and Reading School. Foxhill House is still in use by the University of Reading, as are his Whiteknights House, for the Prudential Assurance Company, Waterhouse designed many offices, including their Holborn Bars head office in Holborn and branch offices in Southampton and Leeds. He designed offices for the National Provincial Bank in Piccadilly, Liverpool Infirmary was Waterhouses largest hospital, and St Marys Hospital, the Alexandra Hospital in Rhyl, and extensive additions at the Nottingham General Hospital, involved him. He was involved in a series of works for the Victoria University of Manchester, St Marys Church in Twyford, Hampshire shows interestingly similar patterning to the Natural History Museum and was designed at the same time
Mentmore Towers, historically known simply as Mentmore, is a 19th-century English country house built between 1852 and 1854 for the Rothschild family in the village of Mentmore in Buckinghamshire. The mansion has been described as one of the greatest houses of the Victorian era, Mentmore was the first of what were to become virtual Rothschild enclaves in the Vale of Aylesbury. Baron Mayer de Rothschild began purchasing land in the area in 1846, other members of the family built houses at Tring in Hertfordshire, Aston Clinton and Halton. Much of the parkland was sold in 1944, but Mentmore remained with family until 1977, in 1999, it was sold to investor Simon Halabi, who planned to build additional hotel and conference facilities. Mentmore Towers is a Grade I listed building, with its park, baron Rothschild hired Sir George Paxton, who had previously designed the much-admired Crystal Palace, to design Mentmore. The builder was the London firm George Myers, frequently employed by members of the Rothschild family, the design is closely based on that of Robert Smythsons Wollaton Hall.
Baron Mayer de Rothschild and his wife did not live long after the Towers completion, after the Baronesss death it was inherited by her daughter Hannah, Countess of Rosebery. Following her death from Brights Disease in 1890 at age 39, in the late 1920s, the fifth earl gave the estate to his son Harry Meyer Archibald Primrose, Lord Dalmeny, who in 1929 on the death of his father, became the sixth Earl. Both earls bred numerous winners of horse races at the two stud farms on the estate, including five Epsom Derby winners. These were Ladas, Sir Visto, and Cicero from the Crafton Stud, plus Ocean Swell, the second wife of the sixth Earl, Eva Primose, Countess of Rosebery, was interested in the arts and was acquainted with Kenneth Clark and other national art museum directors. As a result of Lady Roseberys friendships, Mentmore was chosen by the British government to store part of the British national art collections during the Second World War. The collections of the National Portrait Gallery were subsequently stored at Mentmore for the duration of the war, along with pieces from the Royal Collection, including the Gold State Coach.
Further works transferred to Mentmore included the portraits from Speakers House in the Palace of Westminster, the collection was stored in the battery room subsequently nicknamed the refuge, part of the gas house, a group of outbuildings where gas and electric light were supplied for the estate. Four men guarded the refuge at night, and two during the day, the government refused to spend such large sums from the fund, and the sale fell through. The government was offered the house and contents for UK £2 million, after three more years of fruitless discussion, the executors of the estate sold the contents by public auction, and the large collection lost. The estate made over £6,000,000, but a fraction of its estimated worth today. Among the paintings sold were works by Gainsborough, Boucher, Drouais and other known artists. Also represented were the finest German and Russian silver- and goldsmiths and this Rothschild/Mentmore collection is said to have been one of the finest ever to be assembled in private hands, other than the collections of the Russian and British royal families
The Italianate style of architecture was a distinct 19th-century phase in the history of Classical architecture. The style of architecture that was created, though characterised as Neo-Renaissance, was essentially of its own time. The Italianate style was first developed in Britain about 1802 by John Nash and this small country house is generally accepted to be the first Italianate villa in England, from which is derived the Italianate architecture of the late Regency and early Victorian eras. The Italianate style was developed and popularised by the architect Sir Charles Barry in the 1830s. Barrys Italianate style drew heavily for its motifs on the buildings of the Italian Renaissance, the style was not confined to England and was employed in varying forms, long after its decline in popularity in Britain, throughout Northern Europe and the British Empire. From the late 1840s to 1890 it achieved popularity in the United States. A late intimation of Nashs development of the Italianate style was his 1805 design of Sandridge Park at Stoke Gabriel in Devon.
Later examples of the Italianate style in England tend to take the form of Palladian-style building often enhanced by a belvedere complete with Renaissance-type balustrading at the roof level. Sir Charles Barry, most notable for his works on the Tudor, unlike Nash he found his inspiration in Italy itself. Barry drew heavily on the designs of the original Renaissance villas of Rome, the Lazio and his most defining work in this style was the large Neo-Renaissance mansion Cliveden. Thomas Cubitt, a London building contractor, incorporated simple classical lines of the Italianate style as defined by Sir Charles Barry into many of his London terraces. Following the completion of Osborne House in 1851, the became a popular choice of design for the small mansions built by the new. These were mostly built in cities surrounded by large but not extensive gardens, on occasions very similar, if not identical, designs to these Italianate villas would be topped by mansard roofs, and termed chateauesque. However, after a modest spate of Italianate villas, and French chateaux by 1855 the most favoured style of an English country house was Gothic, the Italianate style came to the small town of Newton Abbot in Devon, with Isambard Brunels atmospheric railway pumping houses.
An example that is not very known, but a clear example of Italianate architecture, is St. Christophers Anglican church in Hinchley Wood, Surrey. When the Ottomans exiled Fakhreddine to Tuscany in 1613, he entered an alliance with the Medicis, upon his return to Lebanon in 1618, he began modernising Lebanon. He developed an industry, upgraded olive-oil production, and brought with him numerous Italian engineers who began the construction of mansions. The cities of Beirut and Sidon were especially built in the Italianate style, the influence of these buildings, such as the ones in Deir el Qamar, influenced building in Lebanon for many centuries and continues to the present time
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she adopted the title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, both the Duke of Kent and King George III died in 1820, and Victoria was raised under close supervision by her German-born mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. She inherited the throne aged 18, after her fathers three brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was already a constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held relatively little direct political power. Privately, Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments, Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together, after Alberts death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength and her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration. Her reign of 63 years and seven months is known as the Victorian era and it was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. She was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover and her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victorias father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, until 1817, Edwards niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen and her brother Leopold was Princess Charlottes widower.
The Duke and Duchess of Kents only child, was born at 4.15 a. m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace and she was baptised Alexandrina, after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of the Dukes eldest brother, the Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarences daughters died as infants. Victorias father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old, a week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son, George IV. The Duke of York died in 1827, when George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, William IV, and Victoria became heir presumptive
Selwyn College, Cambridge
Selwyn College is a constituent college in the University of Cambridge in England. The college currently has 56 Fellows and around 110 non-academic staff, in 2006 it had an estimated financial endowment of £22 million, and in 2004 fixed assets were worth £70 million. The college was ranked 16th out of 30 in an assessment of college wealth conducted by the student newspaper Varsity in November 2006, in 2008, Selwyn was ranked first out of the 29 colleges which admit undergraduate students on the Tompkins Table. In 2016 it had fallen to 15th, Selwyns sister college at Oxford is Keble College. It proposed that a new Cambridge college should be established as a memorial to his legacy, the foundation stone of the College was laid by Edward Herbert, 3rd Earl of Powis in a ceremony on 1 June 1881, following a lunch in Kings College, Cambridge. Selwyns first 28 undergraduates, joined the original Master and twelve other Fellows at the Public Hostel of the university in 1882, the college was founded by subscription, with an explicitly Christian mission.
Membership was initially restricted to baptised Christians, the foundation charter specified that the college should make provision for those who intend to serve as missionaries overseas and. The chapel was built in 1895 before the hall, as it was deemed to be more important. However, a library was opened in 1928, funded by subscriptions in honour of College members who had died in the First World War. University education was expensive at the time of Selwyns foundation, and it was intended to be a college for poorer students, undergraduates initially paid £27 per term for food, lodgings and tuition, with a small surcharge for medics and engineers. This was only raised to £28 in 1916, and £33 in 1918, to keep the College afloat, Selwyn, in common with other Cambridge colleges, originally admitted only men, but was one of the first colleges to become mixed when women were admitted from 1976. In 1976, women lived only on E and H Staircases, in 2009, Selwyn became the first Cambridge college to appoint a female head porter, Helen Stephens.
Phase I was completed in July 2005 and consists of 43 ensuite rooms and 15 administrative offices, the second phase, including 40 en-suite bedrooms forming staircases Q and R and a new Junior Combination Room at a cost of £2.5 million, was completed in Summer 2009. The College bar was refurbished in 2002, and redecorated in 2011, the plans for Phase 5 may turn into two more staircases of accommodation, as needs dictate. The Selwyn College coat of arms incorporates the arms of the Selwyn family impaled with a version of the arms of the Diocese of Lichfield, Selwyn College began to use its Arms long before an official grant by the College of Arms. The dexter half of the arms are unusual, with or countercharged on argent, violating the rule of tincture and this is thought to refer to the arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which famously violates this rule. Selwyns pastoral staff is based on a hardwood Māori staff which is held in the College Chapel, the College was granted a badge, A Mitre Or within an Annulet Purpure.
The College motto is a quotation from 1 Corinthians, chapter 16, verse 13, in Greek, ΑΝΔΡΙΖΕΣΘΕ
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It shares a border with England to the south, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east. In addition to the mainland, the country is made up of more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles, the Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, the legal system within Scotland has remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland, Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.
Glasgow, Scotlands largest city, was one of the worlds leading industrial cities. Other major urban areas are Aberdeen and Dundee, Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third-largest city in Scotland, the title of Europes oil capital, following a referendum in 1997, a Scottish Parliament was re-established, in the form of a devolved unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, having authority over many areas of domestic policy. Scotland is represented in the UK Parliament by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs, Scotland is a member nation of the British–Irish Council, and the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland comes from Scoti, the Latin name for the Gaels, the Late Latin word Scotia was initially used to refer to Ireland. By the 11th century at the latest, Scotia was being used to refer to Scotland north of the River Forth, alongside Albania or Albany, the use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass all of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages.
Repeated glaciations, which covered the land mass of modern Scotland. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, the groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period and it contains the remains of an early Bronze Age ruler laid out on white quartz pebbles and birch bark. It was discovered for the first time that early Bronze Age people placed flowers in their graves, in the winter of 1850, a severe storm hit Scotland, causing widespread damage and over 200 deaths. In the Bay of Skaill, the storm stripped the earth from a large irregular knoll, when the storm cleared, local villagers found the outline of a village, consisting of a number of small houses without roofs. William Watt of Skaill, the laird, began an amateur excavation of the site, but after uncovering four houses
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century. In its purest form, it is a style derived from the architecture of classical antiquity, the Vitruvian principles. In form, Neoclassical architecture emphasizes the wall rather than chiaroscuro, Neoclassical architecture is still designed today, but may be labelled New Classical Architecture for contemporary buildings. In Central and Eastern Europe, the style is referred to as Classicism. Many early 19th-century neoclassical architects were influenced by the drawings and projects of Étienne-Louis Boullée, the many graphite drawings of Boullée and his students depict spare geometrical architecture that emulates the eternality of the universe. There are links between Boullées ideas and Edmund Burkes conception of the sublime, the baroque style had never truly been to the English taste. The most popular was the four-volume Vitruvius Britannicus by Colen Campbell, the book contained architectural prints of famous British buildings that had been inspired by the great architects from Vitruvius to Palladio.
At first the book featured the work of Inigo Jones. Palladian architecture became well established in 18th-century Britain, at the forefront of the new school of design was the aristocratic architect earl, Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington, in 1729, he and William Kent, designed Chiswick House. This House was a reinterpretation of Palladios Villa Capra, but purified of 16th century elements and this severe lack of ornamentation was to be a feature of the Palladianism. In 1734 William Kent and Lord Burlington designed one of Englands finest examples of Palladian architecture with Holkham Hall in Norfolk, the main block of this house followed Palladios dictates quite closely, but Palladios low, often detached, wings of farm buildings were elevated in significance. This classicising vein was detectable, to a degree, in the Late Baroque architecture in Paris. This shift was even visible in Rome at the redesigned façade for S, by the mid 18th century, the movement broadened to incorporate a greater range of Classical influences, including those from Ancient Greece.
The shift to neoclassical architecture is conventionally dated to the 1750s, in France, the movement was propelled by a generation of French art students trained in Rome, and was influenced by the writings of Johann Joachim Winckelmann. The style was adopted by progressive circles in other countries such as Sweden. A second neoclassic wave, more severe, more studied and more consciously archaeological, is associated with the height of the Napoleonic Empire, in France, the first phase of neoclassicism was expressed in the Louis XVI style, and the second in the styles called Directoire or Empire. The Scottish architect Charles Cameron created palatial Italianate interiors for the German-born Catherine II the Great in St. Petersburg, neoclassicism made a discovery of the genuine classic interior, inspired by the rediscoveries at Pompeii and Herculaneum. These had begun in the late 1740s, but only achieved an audience in the 1760s
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
Queen Anne style architecture
George Devey and the better-known Norman Shaw popularized the Queen Anne style of British architecture of the industrial age in the 1870s. Norman Shaw published a book of architectural sketches as early as 1858, Shaws eclectic designs often included Tudor elements, and this Old English style became popular in the United States, where it became known as the Queen Anne style. Confusion between buildings constructed during the reign of Queen Anne and the Queen Anne Style still persists, in the late 1850s the name Queen Anne was in the air, following publication in 1852 of William Makepeace Thackerays novel, The History of Henry Esmond, Esq. A Colonel in the Service of Her Majesty Queen Anne, one minor side-effect of Thackerays novel and of Norman Shaws freehand picturesque vernacular Renaissance survives to this day. The British Victorian version of the style more closely with the Arts and Crafts movement than does its American counterpart. A good example is Severalls Hospital in Colchester, now defunct, in the 20th century Edwin Lutyens and others used an elegant version of the style, usually with red-brick walls contrasting with pale stone details.
In the United States, the so-called Queen Anne style is used of a wide range of picturesque buildings with free Renaissance details rather than of a specific formulaic style in its own right. The gabled and domestically scaled Queen Anne style arrived in New York City with the new housing for the New York House and School of Industry Sidney V. Stratton, architect, 1878). Dentils, classical columns, spindle work and bay windows, horizontal bands of leaded windows, monumental chimneys, painted balustrades, front gardens often had wooden fences. The Federation period went from 1890 to 1915 and included twelve styles and this became the most popular style for houses built between 1890 and 1910. The style often utilised Tudor-style woodwork and elaborate fretwork that replaced the Victorian taste for wrought iron, verandahs were usually a feature, as were the image of the rising sun and Australian wildlife, plus circular windows and towers with conical or pyramid-shaped roofs. The first Queen Anne house in Australia was Caerleon in the suburb of Bellevue Hill, Caerleon was designed initially by a Sydney architect, Harry Kent, but was substantially reworked in London by Maurice Adams.
This led to controversy over who deserved the credit. The house was built in 1885 and was the precursor for the Federation Queen Anne house that were to become so popular. Caerleon was followed soon after by West Maling, in the suburb of Penshurst, New South Wales and these houses, although built around the same time, had distinct styles, West Maling displaying a strong Tudor influence that was not present in Annesbury. The style soon became popular, appealing predominantly to reasonably well-off people with an Establishment leaning. The style as it developed in Australia was highly eclectic, blending Queen Anne elements with various Australian influences, Old English characteristics like ribbed chimneys and gabled roofs were combined with Australian elements like encircling verandahs, designed to keep the sun out. One outstanding example of this approach is Urrbrae House, in the Adelaide suburb of Urrbrae, South Australia
Palace of Westminster
The Palace of Westminster is the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Commonly known as the Houses of Parliament after its occupants, the Palace lies on the bank of the River Thames in the City of Westminster. The palace is owned by the monarch in right of the Crown and for ceremonial purposes, the building is managed by committees appointed by both houses, which report to the Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Speaker. The first royal palace was built on the site in the 11th century, part of the New Palaces area of 3.24 hectares was reclaimed from the Thames, which is the setting of its nearly 300-metre long façade, called the River Front. Barry was assisted by Augustus Pugin, an authority on Gothic architecture and style. The Palace is one of the centres of political life in the United Kingdom, Westminster has become a metonym for the UK Parliament, the Palace of Westminster has been a Grade I listed building since 1970 and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1987.
The Palace of Westminster site was important during the Middle Ages. Known in medieval times as Thorney Island, the site may have been first-used for a residence by Canute the Great during his reign from 1016 to 1035. St Edward the Confessor, the penultimate Anglo-Saxon monarch of England, Thorney Island and the surrounding area soon became known as Westminster. Neither the buildings used by the Anglo-Saxons nor those used by William I survive, the oldest existing part of the Palace dates from the reign of William Is successor, King William II. The Palace of Westminster was the principal residence in the late Medieval period. The predecessor of Parliament, the Curia Regis, met in Westminster Hall, simon de Montforts parliament, the first to include representatives of the major towns, met at the Palace in 1265. The Model Parliament, the first official Parliament of England, met there in 1295, in 1512, during the early years of the reign of King Henry VIII, fire destroyed the royal residential area of the palace.
In 1534, Henry VIII acquired York Place from Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, renaming it the Palace of Whitehall, Henry used it as his principal residence. Although Westminster officially remained a royal palace, it was used by the two Houses of Parliament and by the various law courts. Because it was originally a residence, the Palace included no purpose-built chambers for the two Houses. Important state ceremonies were held in the Painted Chamber which had originally built in the 13th century as the main bedchamber for King Henry III. The House of Commons, which did not have a chamber of its own, the Commons acquired a permanent home at the Palace in St Stephens Chapel, the former chapel of the royal palace, during the reign of Edward VI