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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodists, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.

Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, social reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.

In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.

Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth, the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterized by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.

In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.

The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status o

Oghuz Khagan

Oghuz Khagan or Oghuz Khan is a legendary and semi- mythological khan of the Turkic peoples. Some Turkic cultures use this legend to describe their ethnic origins and the origin of the system of political clans used by Turkmen and other Oghuz Turks; the various versions of the narrative preserved in many different manuscripts has been published in numerous languages as listed below in the references. The narrative is entitled Oghuznama, or narrative of the Oghuz; the legend of Oghuz Khan is one of a number of different origin narratives that circulated among the Turkic peoples of Central Asia. It was first recorded in the 13th century; the anonymous Uyghur vertical script narrative of the 14th century, preserved in Paris, is a manuscript, already being modified to fit with stories of the Mongol Conquest, as Paul Pelliot has shown. But it does not have any suggestions of Oghuz Khan's significance as Islamizer of the Turks, it does not include the figure of Moghul as an ancestor of Oghuz Khan. Abū’l-Ghāzī’s 17th century version called Shajare-i Tarakime follows Rashīd ad-Dīn’s Islamized and Mongolized version of the early 14th century.

But in his account, Oghuz Khan is more integrated into Islamic and Mongol traditional history. The account begins with descent from Adam to Noah, who after the flood sends his three sons to repopulate the earth: Ham was sent to Hindustan, Sam to Iran, Yafes went to the banks of the Itil and Yaik rivers and had eight sons named Turk, Saqlab, Ming, Chin and Tarikh; as he was dying he established Turk as his successor. Turk was succeeded by Tutek, the eldest of his four sons. Four generations after him came two sons and Moghul, who divided his kingdom between them. Moghul Khan begat Qara Khan. For three days he would not nurse and every night he appeared in his mother's dream and told his mother to become a Muslim or he would not suckle her breast, his mother converted, Abū’l-Ghāzī writes that the Turkic peoples of Yafes from the time of Qara Khan had been Muslim but had lost the faith. Oghuz Khan restored Islamic belief. According to a Turkish legend, Oghuz was born in Central Asia as the son of Qara Khan, leader of a Turkic people.

He started talking as soon. He asked for kymyz and meat. After that, he grew up supernaturally fast and in only forty days he became a young adult. At the time of his birth, the lands of the Turkic people were preyed upon by a dragon named Kiyant. Oghuz went to kill the dragon, he set a trap for the dragon by hanging a freshly killed deer in a tree killed the great dragon with a bronze lance and cut off its head with a steel sword. After Oghuz killed Kiyant, he became a people's hero, he formed a special warrior band from the forty sons of forty Turkic begs, thus gathering the clans together. But his Chinese stepmother and half-brother, the heir to the throne, became intimidated by his power and convinced Qara Khan that Oghuz was planning to dethrone him. Qara Khan decided to assassinate Oghuz at a hunting party. Oghuz instead killed his father and became the khan, his stepmother and half-brother fled to Chinese lands. After Oghuz became the khan, he went to the steppes by himself to pray to Tengri.

While praying, he saw a circle of light coming from the sky with a supernaturally beautiful girl standing in the light. Oghuz married her, he had three sons whom he named Güneş, Ay, Yıldız. Oghuz went hunting and saw another mesmerizing girl inside a tree, he married her as well and had three more sons whom he named Gök, Dağ, Deniz. After his sons were born, Oghuz Khan invited all of his begs. At the feast, he gave this order to his lords: "I have become your Khan, he sent letters to the Kings of the Four Directions, saying: "I am the Khan of the Turks. And I will be Khan of the Four Corners of the Earth. I want your obedience." Altun Khan, on the right corner of the earth, submitted his obedience, but Urum, Khan of the left corner, did not. Oghuz marched his army to the west. One night, a large male wolf with grey fur came to his tent in an aura of light, he said, "Oghuz, you want to march against Urum, I want to march before your army." So, the grey sky-wolf guided them. The two armies fought near the river İtil.

Oghuz Khan won the battle. Oghuz and his six sons carried out campaigns in Turkistan, Iran, Egypt and Syria, with the grey wolf as their guide, he became the Khan of the Four Corners of the Earth. In his old age, Oghuz saw a dream, he sent them to the east and the west. His elder sons found a golden bow in the east, his younger sons found three silver arrows in the west. Oghuz Khan broke the golden bow into three pieces and gave each to his three older sons Gün, Ay, Yıldız, he said, "My older sons, take this bow and shoot your arrows to the sky like this bow." He gave the three silver arrows to his three younger sons Gök, Dağ and Deniz and said, "My yo

Origin (data analysis software)

Origin is a proprietary computer program for interactive scientific graphing and data analysis. It is produced by OriginLab Corporation, runs on Microsoft Windows, it has inspired several platform-independent open-source clones like SciDAVis. Graphing support in Origin includes various 2D/3D plot types. Data analyses in Origin include signal processing, curve fitting and peak analysis. Origin's curve fitting is performed by a nonlinear least squares fitter, based on the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm. Origin imports data files in various formats such as ASCII text, Excel, NI TDM, DIADem, NetCDF, SPC, etc, it exports the graph to various image file formats such as JPEG, GIF, EPS, TIFF, etc. There is a built-in query tool for accessing database data via ADO. Origin is a GUI software with a spreadsheet front end. Unlike popular spreadsheets like Excel, Origin's worksheet is column oriented; each column has associated attributes like name and other user definable labels. Instead of cell formula, Origin uses column formula for calculations.

Recent versions of Origin have introduced and expanded on batch capabilities, with the goal of eliminating the need to program many routine operations. Instead the user relies on customizable graph templates, analysis dialog box Themes which save a particular suite of operations, auto recalculation on changes to data or analysis parameters, Analysis Templates™ which save a collection of operations within the workbook. Origin has a scripting language for controlling the software, which can be extended using a built-in C/C++-based compiled language. Other programming options include an embedded Python environment, an R Console plus support for Rserve. Origin can be used as a COM server for programs which may be written in Visual Basic. NET, C#, LabVIEW, etc. Origin project files can be read by the open-source library liborigin. There is a free component maintained by Originlab that can be used to create OPJ files. A free Viewer application is available. Origin is available in the regular version Origin and the pricier OriginPro.

The latter adds additional data analysis features like surface fitting, short-time Fourier Transform, more advanced statistics. Technical support is available to registered users via e-mail, online chat, telephone. A user forum is available. There are a few version types that have been offered from Origin and OriginPro as personal, academic and student versions. However, the student version is not available for Southeast Asian countries such as Singapore, Thailand and Laos. Origin was first created for use with microcalorimeters manufactured by MicroCal Inc; the software was used to graph the instruments data, perform nonlinear curve fitting and parameter calculation. The software was first published for the public in 1992 by Microcal Software, renamed to OriginLab Corporation, located in Northampton, Massachusetts. 2019/10/25 Origin 2020. Mini toolbar for 2d graphs, 10x faster import of large text file, enhanced database import, 5x faster scatter plot with large data. New graph types such as density dots, color dots and alluvial diagram and doughnut charts, population pyramid, before-after plot and kite diagram and Paste plot and Paste HTML or EMF table, etc.

New Apps such as 2D Peak ANalysis, Piper Diagram, Import NMR Data, Marginal Abatement Cost Curve, Video Data Explorer, Neural Network Fitting, Word Connector and Rock Classification Diagrams, LeCroy Connector. 2019/04/24 Origin 2019b. HTML and Markdown reports. Web Data Connectors for CSV, JSON, Excel, MATLAB. Rug Plots, Split Heatmap Plot. Validation Reports using NIST data. New Apps for Quantile Regression, 2D Correlation, Isosurface Plot, etc.2018/10/26 Origin 2019. Data Highlighter for data exploration, Windows-like search from Start menu, Conditional formatting of data cells, Violin plot, New apps like Stats Advisor, Image Object Counter, Design of Experiments, etc. 2018/4/24 Origin 2018b. Matrices embedded in workbook, Worksheet/matrix data preview, Dynamic graph preview in analysis, Distributed batch processing on multi-core CPU. 2017/11/9 Origin 2018. Cell formula, Bridge chart, changed to a more compact file format. 2016/11/10 Origin 2017. Trellis Plot, Geology fill patterns, JavaScript support from Origin C.

2015/10/23 Origin 2016. First version to support Apps in Origin added R support. 2014/10 Origin 2015 added graph thumbnail previews, project search, heat map, 2D kernel density plot and Python support. 2013/10 Origin 9.1 SR0 added support for Piper diagram, Ternary surface plot etc. 2012/10 Origin 9 with high performance OpenGL 3D Graphing, orthogonal regression for implicit/explicit functions 2011/11 Origin 8.6, first version in 64bit 2011/04 Origin 8.5.1 2010/09 Origin 8.5.0 2009/10 Origin 8.1 2009/08 Origin 8 SR6 2007/12 Origin 8 SR1 2007/10 Origin 8 2006/01 Origin 7.5 SR6 2003/10 Origin 7.5 2002/02 Origin 7.0 2000/09 Origin 6.1 1999/06 Origin 6.0 1997/08 Origin 5.0 1995/02 Origin 4.1 1994/07 Origin 3.5 1993/08 Origin 2.9 1993/?? Origin 2 Similar proprietary software includes: SigmaPlot GraphPad Prism IGOR Pro MagicPlot Plotly – Plotting library and styling interface for R, Python, MATLAB, Perl. JMP QtiPlot STATISTICAOpen-source projects inspired by Origin: SciDAVis, a fork of QtiPlot LabPlot, project merged with SciDAVis Veusz, Qt based, similar to SciDAVis, well maintained SciGraphica, dormant since 2005Other open-source graphing and data analysis software: gnuplot, script-driven plotting R, statistics Fityk, data vizualisation and fitting Matplotlib, a plotting library for the Python (programm