Ice hockey stick
An ice hockey stick is a piece of equipment used in ice hockey to shoot and carry the puck across the ice. Ice hockey sticks are 150–200 cm long, composed of a long, slender shaft with a flat extension at one end called the blade; the blade is the part of the stick used to contact the puck, is 25 to 40 cm long. Stick dimensions can vary as they are built to suit a particular player's size and preference; the blade is positioned at a 135° angle from the axis of the shaft, giving the stick a partly'L-shaped' appearance. The shaft of the stick is rigid, but it has some flexibility to benefit some shots; the blade is curved in one direction, either way, to aid in retaining or lifting the puck off the playing surface. This can be depending on the player's shooting orientation; the goaltender has a modified stick. The lower part of the stick is wider, the angle is smaller, the blade is curved towards the direction of the play. New goaltender sticks are made of the same composite technology as used in regular sticks.
The oldest known hockey stick dates to the mid-1830s. In 2006, a stick made in the 1850s, at the time the oldest known, was sold at auction for $2.2 million. The Moffatt stick may have been made by Mi'kmaqs. Starting in the 18th century, there are numerous references to the Mi'kmaq people of Nova Scotia playing ice hockey, starting in the 19th century, there are claims that they invented the ice hockey stick. In the mid-19th century, the Starr Manufacturing Company began to sell Mic-Mac hockey sticks nationally and internationally. Through the first decade of the 20th century, it was the best-selling hockey stick in Canada. By 1903, apart from farming, producing them was the primary occupation of the Mi'kmaq on reserves throughout Nova Scotia Shubenacadie, Indian Brook and Millbrook. In 1927 the department of Indian Affairs for Nova Scotia identified that the Mi'kmaq remained the "experts" at making hockey sticks. Mi'kmaq continued to make hockey sticks until the 1930s. Hockey sticks were made from the maple or willow trees, a common choice for golf club shafts and wooden tools.
However, as hornbeam supplies diminished, it became more cost effective to use other hardwoods, such as yellow birch and ash. Ash became the preferred medium, by the 1920s an ash hockey stick crafted from a single piece of wood was the type most used; these early sticks were heavy and not forgiving, although they were durable. There were only a handful of major developments in hockey stick technology between the 1920s and the 2000s. Foremost among these was creation of the laminated stick in the 1940s, where layers of wood were glued together and sandwiched to create a more flexible and durable design. In the 1960s, companies began adding another lamination of fiberglass or other such synthetic compound as a coating, which further added to the durability and usability of the stick. In the 1960s, players began curving the blade of the stick, which changed the physics affecting players' shots. In the 1970s, cricket and baseball bat manufacturers began experimenting with lightweight steel alloys as a replacement for the traditional willow or ash bat.
Hockey stick designers followed suit in the early 1980s, introducing first a single piece all-aluminium stick. This design was not popular, as the stiff aluminium did not have the proper "feel", so a design featuring an aluminium shaft and a removable, replaceable wooden blade was tried; this became popular in the late 1980s and early 1990s, challenging the prevalence of the traditional wooden stick for the first time. In recent years, the aluminium stick, as well as its wooden counterpart, have been replaced by more advanced composite designs. Common building materials include fiberglass and carbon fiber, some manufacturers have explored using materials such as kevlar. Composite sticks weigh less than their aluminum forebears, they can be manufactured with more consistent physical properties than their wooden counterparts, they are, however more expensive than wooden sticks, are not nearly as durable as the older aluminum sticks. Over the last two decades, there have been tremendous advances in the material technology used to create hockey sticks.
The vast majority of sticks are made with one of the following materials: Wood Aluminium Fiberglass Graphite Kevlar Iron and Carbon Carbon blades Wooden sticks are constructed by laminating multiple types of wood into a high quality plywood coating the stick and blade with thin plastic or fiberglass. Some manufacturers use fiberglass as a laminate between wood layers. Today in the NHL, only a handful of players still use wooden sticks; the main advantage that wooden sticks enjoy today is their low cost and strong base. Few wooden sticks cost more than $40 per copy, compared to $200+ for some composite varieties; this makes them a popular choice by amateur players. Wooden sticks enjoy a reputation of having a good "feel" compared to aluminium or titanium; the main disadvantage that wooden sticks suffer from is their relative irregularity and poor durability. Wood has a tendency to warp, over time its flex and stiffness properties will change. Additionally, being a natural material, wood creates variations in production (even be
Richmond, population 3,232, is a town nestled amidst rolling farmlands on the Saint-François River between Sherbrooke and Drummondville, in the heart of Estrie in Quebec, Canada. Settled by colonists from New England and the Richelieu River valley circa 1798, Richmond is considered to be one of the oldest settlements in the former region of the Eastern Townships. Richmond grew in importance during the 1800s; the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad opened between Montreal and Portland, Maine, on April 4, 1853 and was purchased four months and absorbed into the Grand Trunk Railway's system. Two years the GTR opened a line from the mainline in Richmond northeast to Lévis to connect Montreal with Quebec City; the line was extended further east to Rivière-du-Loup and a connection with the Intercolonial Railway, which operated trains on the GTR through Richmond to Montreal until 1897. The town itself was first called Richmond in 1820. By the 1860s Richmond was an important centre, with a college, literary institute and a public library.
Richmond's importance has waned since the 1930s, however, as the railways have come to play a lesser role in the economy. The GTR was absorbed into the Canadian National Railways and the line to Levis was abandoned in favour of more direct lines from Montreal to Quebec City. In 1989, CNR sold the entire railway line from Montreal to Portland, via Richmond, to a short line operator. Richmond as it exists today was created on December 29, 1999 following the merger of the "old" town of Richmond on the right bank of the Saint-François and the village of Melbourne, located on the other side; the name Richmond is in memory of Charles Lennox, 4th Duke of Richmond and Lennox, Governor General of Upper Canada from 1818 to 1819. The origin of the name Melbourne is uncertain, but the village is believed to have been named for Melbourne, Derbyshire or Melbourne, Hampshire. Richmond has a humid continental climate typical of southern Quebec. Precipitation is high year-round, resulting in warm and rainy summers as well as cold and snowy winters.
There is a significant temperature difference between seasons as typical of the North American interior, with 25.8 °C as July high and −4.9 °C as the high for January. Mother tongue Joseph Bédard was a merchant and political figure in Quebec. Walter George Mitchell was politician. Peter Samuel George Mackenzie and politician, Minister of Finance in the Quebec government Mack Sennett, Hollywood director/pioneer Yvon Vallières and teacher Frederick Simpson Coburn, Québécois artist/illustrator/painter Sylvain Lefebvre Joueur de Hockey Professionel, et entraineur Professionel dans la LNH Jean Airoldi, fashion designer The reverse side of the 1954-series Canadian $2 bill featured a view of the village of Melbourne. Richmond plays host to the second largest St. Patrick's Day Parade in the province of Quebec, behind only Montreal. List of cities in Quebec
Grand Trunk Railway
The Grand Trunk Railway was a railway system that operated in the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario and in the American states of Connecticut, Michigan, New Hampshire, Vermont. The railway was operated from headquarters in Montreal, with corporate headquarters in London, England, it cost an estimated $160 million to build. The Grand Trunk, its subsidiaries, the Canadian Government Railways were precursors of today's Canadian National Railways. GTR's main line ran from Portland, Maine to Montreal, from Montreal to Sarnia, where it joined its western subsidiary; the GTR had four important subsidiaries during its lifetime: Central Vermont Railway which operated in Quebec, New Hampshire and Connecticut. Grand Trunk Eastern Railroad which operated in Quebec, New Hampshire, Maine. Grand Trunk Pacific Railway which operated in Northwestern Ontario, Saskatchewan and British Columbia. Grand Trunk Western Railroad which operated in Michigan and Illinois. A fourth subsidiary was the never-completed Southern New England Railway, chartered in 1910, which would have run from a connection with the Central Vermont at Palmer, Massachusetts, to the deep-water, all-weather port of Providence, Rhode Island.
A new line to Providence would have allowed for more extensive port facilities than were possible for the Central Vermont at New London, Connecticut. Construction began in 1910 and continued in fits and starts for more than 20 years until abandoned in the early 1930s because of the Great Depression; the loss of the SNER's strongest proponent, Grand Trunk Railway president Charles Melville Hays, on the Titanic in 1912 may have been the major reason that this new route to the sea was never completed. Another important factor was the unrelenting opposition of the New Haven Railroad, which fiercely protected its virtual monopoly control of rail traffic in southern New England; the company was incorporated on November 10, 1852, as the Grand Trunk Railway Company of Canada to build a railway line between Montreal and Toronto. The charter was soon extended east to Portland and west to Sarnia, Canada West. In 1853 the GTR purchased the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railway from Montreal to the Canada East – Vermont border, the parent company Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad through to the harbour facilities at Portland.
A line was built to Lévis, via Richmond from Montreal in 1855, part of the much-talked about "Maritime connection" in British North America. In the same year it purchased the Toronto and Guelph Railroad, whose railway was under construction, but the Grand Trunk Railway Company changed the original route of the T&G and extended the line to Sarnia, a hub for Chicago-bound traffic. By July, 1856, the section from Sarnia to Toronto opened, the section from Montreal to Toronto opened in October of that year. By 1859 a ferry service was established across the St. Clair River to Fort Gratiot; the Grand Trunk was one of the main factors. The original colonial economy structured along the water route from the Maritimes up the St. Lawrence River and the lower Great Lakes was expanded by the duplicate route of the Grand Trunk; the explosive growth in trade during the 1850s within the United Province of Canada and further east by water to the Maritimes demanded that a railway link the entire geopolitical region together.
During this time the GTR extended its line to Lévis further east to Rivière-du-Loup. By 1860, the Grand Trunk was on the verge of bankruptcy and in no position to expand further east to Halifax. On the eve of the American Civil War, it stretched from Sarnia in the west to Rivière-du-Loup in the east and Portland in the southeast. Colonists in the United Province of Canada, some who experienced their territory being attacked by the United States only 40 years earlier, were uncomfortably close to the giant Union Army and faced terrorist attacks during the mid-19th century in the form of Fenian raids; such security concerns led to demands for a year-round transportation system that British reinforcements could use should their territory be attacked during winter when the St. Lawrence River was frozen, the only railway for British reinforcements to use would be the Grand Trunk connection at Portland, in the United States. Many citizens thought that the only way to finish the Grand Trunk – and protect the country – would be to unite all the colonies into a federation so that they could share the costs of an expanded railway system.
Thus the British North America Act, 1867 included the provision for an Intercolonial Railway to link with the Grand Trunk at Rivière-du-Loup. The end of the American Civil War saw British North America on the verge of uniting in a single federation, the GTR's financial prospects improved as the railway was well-positioned to take advantage of increased population and economic growth. By 1867, it had become the largest railroad system in the world by accumulating more than 2,055 km of track that connected locations between its ocean port at Portland, its river port at Rivière-du-Loup, the three northern New England states, much of the southern areas of the new provinces of Quebec and Ontario. By 1880, the Grand Trunk Railway system stretched all the way from Portland in the east to Chicago, Illinois, in the west. Several impressive construction feats were associated with the GTR: the first successful bridging of the St. Lawrence River on August 25, 1860, with the opening of the first Victoria Bridge at Montreal (replaced by the present structure
National Historic Sites of Canada
National Historic Sites of Canada are places that have been designated by the federal Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, as being of national historic significance. Parks Canada, a federal agency, manages the National Historic Sites program; as of October 2018, there are 987 National Historic Sites, 171 of which are administered by Parks Canada. The sites are located across all ten provinces and three territories, with two sites located in France. There are related federal designations for National Historic Persons. Sites and Persons are each marked by a federal plaque of the same style, but the markers do not indicate which designation a subject has been given; the Rideau Canal is a National Historic Site. Emerging Canadian nationalist sentiment in the late 19th century and early 20th century led to an increased interest in preserving Canada's historic sites. There were galvanizing precedents in other countries. With the support of notables such as Victor Hugo and Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, the Commission des monuments historique was created in France in 1837.
In the United Kingdom, the National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty was created in 1894 to protect that country's historic and natural heritage. While there was no National Park Service in the United States until 1916, battlefields of the Civil War were designated and managed by the War Department: Chickamauga and Chattanooga, Shiloh, Gettysburg and Chalmette. Domestically, Lord Dufferin, the Governor General from 1872 to 1878, initiated some of the earliest, high-profile efforts to preserve Canada's historic sites, he was instrumental in stopping the demolition of the fortifications of Quebec City, he was the first public official to call for the creation of a park on the lands next to Niagara Falls. The 1908 tricentennial of the founding of Quebec City, the establishment that same year of the National Battlefields Commission to preserve the Plains of Abraham, acted as a catalyst for federal efforts to designate and preserve historic sites across Canada. At the same time, the federal government was looking for ways to extend the National Park system to Eastern Canada.
The more populated east did not have the same large expanses of undeveloped Crown land that had become parks in the west, so the Dominion Parks Branch looked to historic features to act as focal points for new national parks. In 1914, the Parks Branch undertook a survey of historic sites in Canada, with the objective of creating new recreational areas rather than preserving historic places. Fort Howe in Saint John, New Brunswick was designated a national historic park in 1914, named the "Fort Howe National Park"; the fort was not a site of significant national historic importance, but its designation provided a rationale for the acquisition of land for a park. Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia was designated in 1917. In 1919, William James Roche, the Minister of the Interior, was concerned over the fate of old fur trade posts in Western Canada, he was being lobbied by historical associations across Canada for federal funds to assist with the preservation and commemoration of local landmarks.
At the same time, the Department of Militia and Defence was anxious to transfer old forts, the associated expenses, to the Parks Branch. Roche asked James B. Harkin, the first Commissioner of Dominion Parks, to develop a departmental heritage policy. Harkin believed that the Parks Branch did not have the necessary expertise to manage historic resources. On Harkin's recommendation, the government created the Advisory Board for Historic Site Preservation in 1919 in order to advise the Minister on a new program of National Historic Sites. Brigadier General Ernest Alexander Cruikshank, a noted authority on the War of 1812 and the history of Ontario, was chosen as the Board's first chairman, a post he held for twenty years; the first place designated and plaqued under the new program was the "Cliff Site" in Port Dover, where two priests claimed sovereignty over the Lake Erie region for Louis XIV of France in 1670. Due to a lack of resources, the HSMBC limited itself to recommending sites for designation, the focus of the program was on commemoration rather than on preservation.
Benjamin Sulte, a member of the HSMBC, wrote to Harkin in 1919 about the significant ruins at the Forges du Saint-Maurice, demonstrating his preference for the installation of a plaque over restoration: "All that can be done in our days is to clear away the heap of stones, in order to reach the foundation walls and plant a sign in the centre of the square thus uncovered."In the early years of the program, National Historic Sites were chosen to commemorate battles, important men, the fur trade and political events. Of the 285 National Historic Sites designated by 1943, 105 represented military history, 52 represented the fur trade and exploration, 43 represented famous individuals (almo
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Victoria was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. On 1 May 1876, she adopted the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III. Both the Duke and the King died in 1820, Victoria was raised under close supervision by her mother, Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, she inherited the throne at the age of 18, after her father's three elder brothers had all died, leaving no surviving legitimate children. The United Kingdom was an established constitutional monarchy, in which the sovereign held little direct political power. Victoria attempted to influence government policy and ministerial appointments. Victoria married her first cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha in 1840, their nine children married into royal and noble families across the continent, tying them together and earning her the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe". After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria avoided public appearances.
As a result of her seclusion, republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond Jubilees were times of public celebration, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than that of any of her predecessors and is known as the Victorian era. It was a period of industrial, political and military change within the United Kingdom, was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire, she was the last British monarch of the House of Hanover. Her son and successor, Edward VII, initiated the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the line of his father. Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III; until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children.
In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl and Feodora —by her first marriage to the Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower; the Duke and Duchess of Kent's only child, was born at 4.15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London. Victoria was christened by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace, she was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Emperor Alexander I of Russia, Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother, the Prince Regent. At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: George, the Prince Regent; the Prince Regent had no surviving children, the Duke of York had no children. The Duke of Clarence and the Duke of Kent married on the same day in 1818, but both of Clarence's legitimate daughters died as infants.
The first of these was Princess Charlotte, born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820. A week her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was third in line to the throne after York and Clarence. Clarence's second daughter was Princess Elizabeth of Clarence who lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821 and, while Elizabeth lived, Victoria was fourth in line; the Duke of York died in 1827. When George IV died in 1830, he was succeeded by his next surviving brother, Clarence, as William IV, Victoria became heir presumptive; the Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor. King William distrusted the Duchess's capacity to be regent, in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided. Victoria described her childhood as "rather melancholy".
Her mother was protective, Victoria was raised isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the Duchess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, rumoured to be the Duchess's lover. The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable, was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them; the Duchess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children. Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash, her lessons included French, German and Latin, but she spoke only English at home. In 1830, the Duchess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way. Similar journeys to oth
Conservative Party of Canada
The Conservative Party of Canada, colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-of-centre federal political party in Canada. It was formed in 2003 from the merger of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada and the Canadian Alliance, it traces its history to the original Conservative Party of Canada, formed after Confederation in 1867 and changed its name to Progressive Conservative Party in 1942. In Canadian politics, the party sits to the right of the Liberal Party of Canada. Like their federal Liberal rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", welcoming a broad variety of members; the party's leader is Andrew Scheer. From Confederation till 1942, the Conservative Party of Canada participated in numerous governments. Before 1942, the predecessors to the Conservatives had multiple names, but by 1942, the main right-wing Canadian force became known as the Progressive Conservatives. In 1957, John Diefenbaker became the first Prime Minister from the Progressive Conservative Party, remained in office until 1963.
Another Progressive Conservative government was elected after the results of the 1979 federal election, with Joe Clark becoming Prime Minister. Clark served from 1979 to 1980, when he was defeated by the Liberal Party after the 1980 federal election. In 1984, the Progressive Conservatives won with Brian Mulroney becoming Prime Minister. Mulroney was Prime Minister from 1984 to 1993, his government was marked by free trade agreements and economic liberalization; the party suffered a near complete loss after the 1993 federal election, thanks to a splintering of the right-wing. A similar result occurred in 1997, in 2000, when the Reform Party became the Canadian Alliance. In 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservatives merged, forming the Conservative Party of Canada; the unified Conservative Party favours lower taxes, small government, more decentralization of federal government powers to the provinces modeled after the Meech Lake Accord and a tougher stand on "law and order" issues.
The party won two minority governments after the 2006 federal election, a majority government in the 2011 federal election before being defeated in the 2015 federal election by a majority Liberal government. John Lynch-Staunton served as interim leader of the newly created Conservative Party of Canada from 8 December 2003 until 20 March 2004, when the party elected Stephen Harper as its first leader. Andrew Scheer was elected leader on 27 May 2017; the Deputy Leader is appointed by the Leader. The National Council is the party's national governing body, elected by the Conservative Party membership at its bi-annual meetings. A National Councillor is elected for a two-year term and cannot serve for more than three consecutive terms. Composition of the National Council is based on the following criteria: four members from a province with more than 100 seats in the House of Commons three members from a province with 52–100 seats two from any province with 26–50 seats one member from each province with 4–25 seats one member from each territory the Party leader The Chair of the Conservative Fund Canada the Executive Director.
At present, the National Council has four members from Ontario. The party president is elected by National Council following their election. Since 2016, the President of the Conservative Party has been Scott Lamb, a councillor representing British Columbia; the party President is the conduit between the National Council. Don Plett interim until 2005 John Walsh Scott Lamb The Executive Director answers to the party President, is responsible for the day-to-day management and operations of the party. From February 2009 to December 2013, the Executive Director was Dan Hilton. Dimitri Soudas was named the new Executive Director in December 2013. On 30 March 2014, Soudas was told to resign or be fired from the position after interfering with the nomination contest taking place in his fiancée's riding. In July 2014, Dustin Van Vugt was brought in as the Deputy Executive Director – a position created for him; some media agencies, such as the CBC, suggested that this was a way for Thompson to begin handing over the work for the top job to Van Vugt, until his promotion to Executive Director could be formally ratified by the party's National Council.
In October 2014, Van Vugt's position was unanimously ratified by the party's National Council, Thompson became the Chief Operations Officer. The Director of Political Operations reports to the Executive Director, is one of the most important positions within the party; the person filling this role has direct access to the party leader, due to their responsibilities for organizing the party's work on the ground and in preparing for the next election. With Stephen Harper as Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader, the Director of Political Operations has moved from party positions to the Prime Minister's and other Minister's Offices, back to the party's headquarters, depending on the identified needs. Doug Finley was the Director of Political Operations until 2009, when Finley was appointed to the Senate and Jenni Byrne Finley's Deputy, became the Director. In August 2013, Byrne left the job to become the co-Deputy Chief of Staff in the Prime Minister's O