The Victorious Youth known as Atleta di Fano, or Lisippo di Fano is a Greek bronze sculpture, made between 300 and 100 BCE, in the collections of the J. Paul Getty Museum, Pacific Palisades, California. On its first rediscovery Bernard Ashmole and other scholars attributed it to Lysippos, a grand name in the history of Greek art; the piece is a Greek bronze sculpture, made between 300 and 100 BCE. The consensus is that the sculpture could date anywhere from the late fourth through the second century BCE. Carbon-14 dating does not further narrow the range; the sculpture was found in the summer of 1964 in the sea off Fano on the Adriatic coast of Italy, snagged in the nets of an Italian fishing trawler, the Ferri Ferruccio. Italian art dealers paid the fishermen $5,600 USD for it; the Getty Museum bought it from German art dealer Herman Heinz Herzer for $4M USD in 1977. The sculpture may have been part of the crowd of sculptures of victorious athletes at Panhellenic Greek sanctuaries like Delphi and Olympia.
His right hand reaches to touch the winner's olive wreath on his head. The powerful head has led viewers to see it as a portrait; the athlete's eyes were once inlaid with bone, his nipples are in contrasting copper. The precise location of the shipwreck, which preserved this object from being melted down like all but a tiny fraction of Greek bronzes, has not been established; the statue has been broken off its former base, breaking away at the ankles. The Italian government made repeated claims for the return of the sculpture, which the Getty Museum rejected as unfounded; the Getty Museum is involved in a controversy regarding proper title to some of the artwork in its collection. The Museum's previous curator of antiquities, Marion True, was indicted in Italy in 2005 along with Robert E. Hecht on criminal charges relating to trafficking in stolen antiquities; the primary evidence in the case came from the 1995 raid of a Geneva, Switzerland warehouse which had contained a fortune in stolen artifacts.
Italian art dealer Giacomo Medici was arrested in 1997. In a letter to the J. Paul Getty Trust on December 18, 2006, True stated that she is being made to "carry the burden" for practices which were known and condoned by the Getty's Board of Directors. True is under investigation by Greek authorities over the acquisition of a 2,500-year-old funerary wreath. On November 20, 2006, the Director of the museum, Michael Brand, announced that twenty-six disputed pieces were to be returned to Italy, but not the Victorious Youth, for which the judicial procedure was still pending at the time. In an interview to the Italian national newspaper Corriere della Sera on December 20, 2006 the Italian Minister of Cultural Heritage declared that Italy would place the museum under a cultural embargo if all the 52 disputed pieces would not return home overseas. On August 1, 2007 an agreement was announced providing that the museum would return 40 pieces to Italy out of the 52 requested, among which the Venus of Morgantina, returned in 2010, but not the Victorious Youth, whose outcome will depend upon the results of the criminal proceedings pending in Italy.
On the same day the public prosecutor of Pesaro formally requested that the statue be confiscated as it was unlawfully exported out of Italy, giving rise to a dispute that came to the Constitutional Court. Lysippos Fano Frel, Jiri, 1978; the Getty Bronze. Antonietta Viacava, L' atleta di Fano, edizioni L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1995, ISBN 88-7062-868-X. Mattusch, Carol C. 1997. The Victorious Youth. Reviewed in Bryn Mawr Classical Review www.lisippo.org - Website of the cultural organisation who want the statue back to Fano, Italy. Www.patrimoniosos.it Victorious Youth NPR, "Italy, Getty Museum at Odds over Disputed Art" 20 December 2006. Jason Felch, "The Amazing Catch They Let Slip Away": 11 May 2006, Neil Brodie, "The Fano Bronze" "The Getty’s mea culpa" by, managing editor of the magazine Archaeology at the UNESCO website Il Getty non restituisce le opere. Rutelli: «Cultural embargoe», by Pierluigi Panza, Corriere della Sera, November 14, 2006 Il Getty Museum non rende le opere richieste, Corriere della Sera, November 23, 2006 Rutelli attacca il Getty.
Dubbi su 250 opere, di Paolo Conti, Corriere della Sera, November 24, 2006 Rutelli-Getty, secondo round - “Non esponete opere rubate”, La Stampa, November 24, 2006 Il Getty pronto a restituire la «Venere» Ma non restituirà il Lisippo. Corriere della Sera, November 26, 2006 "L'Italie joue le bras de fer avec le Getty Museum", di Richard Heuzé, Le Figaro, December 26, 2006 "No Lisippo, no Bernini", La Stampa, July 11, 2007
The major system is a mnemonic technique used to aid in memorizing numbers. The system works by converting numbers into consonant sounds into words by adding vowels; the system works on the principle that images can be remembered more than numbers. One notable explanation of this system was given in Martin Gardner's book The First Scientific American Book of Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions, which has since been republished in The New Martin Gardner Mathematical Library as Hexaflexagons, Probability Paradoxes, the Tower of Hanoi. In this, Gardner incorrectly attributes the system to Lewis Carroll; each numeral is associated with one or more consonants. Vowels and the consonants w, h, y are ignored; these can be used as "fillers" to make sensible words from the resulting consonant sequences. A standard mapping is: The groups of similar sounds and the rules for applying the mappings are always fixed, but other hooks and mappings can be used as long as the person using the system can remember them and apply them consistently.
Each numeral maps to a set of similar sounds with similar tongue positions. The link is phonetic, to say, it is the consonant sounds that matter, not the spelling. Therefore, a word like action would encode the number 762, not 712. Double letters are disregarded when not pronounced separately, e.g. muddy encodes 31, not 311, but midday encodes 311 while accept encodes 7091 since the ds and cs are pronounced separately. X encodes 70 when pronounced as /ks/ or /gz/ and 76 when pronounced /kʃ/ or /gʒ/. In ghost and enough, gh is being encoded by different numerals. A rhotic accent is assumed, e.g. fear would encode 84 rather than 8. The mapping is compact. Hindquarters, for example, translates unambiguously to 2174140, which amounts to seven digits encoded by eight letters, can be visualized; each numeral maps to a set of similar sounds with similar tongue positions. For most people it would be easier to remember 3.1415927 as: meteor tail pink Short term visual memory of imagined scenes allows large numbers of digits to be memorized with ease, though only for a short time.
Whilst this is unwieldy at first, with practice it can become a effective technique. Longer-term memory may require the formulation of more object-related mnemonics with greater logical connection forming grammatical sentences that apply to the matter rather than just strings of images; the system can be employed with phone numbers. One would make up multiple words, preferably a sentence, or an ordered sequence of images featuring the owner of the number; the Major System can be combined with a peg system for remembering lists, is sometimes used as a method of generating the pegs. It can be combined with other memory techniques such as rhyming, substitute words, or the method of loci. Repetition and concentration using the ordinary memory is still required. An advantage of the major system is that it is possible to use a computer to automatically translate the number into a set of words. One can pick the best of several alternatives; such programs include "Numzi" "Rememberg" "Fonbee", the freeware "2Know", the website "pinfruit".
Some of these example words may belong to more than one word category. A different memory system, the method of loci, was taught to schoolchildren for centuries, at least until 1584, "when Puritan reformers declared it unholy for encouraging bizarre and irreverent images." The same objection can be made with or without the method of loci. Mental images may be easier to remember if they are violent, or obscene. Pierre Hérigone was a French mathematician and astronomer and devised the earliest version of the major system; the major system was further developed by Stanislaus Mink von Wennsshein 300 years ago. It was elaborated upon by other users. In 1730, Richard Grey set forth a complicated system that used both consonants and vowels to represent the digits. In 1808 Gregor von Feinaigle introduced the improvement of representing the digits by consonant sounds. In 1825 Aimé Paris published the first known version of the major system in its modern form. In 1844 Francis Fauvel Gouraud delivered a series of lectures introducing his mnemonic system, based on Aimé Paris' version.
The lectures drew some of the largest crowds assembled to hear lectures of a "scientific" nature up to that time. This series of lectures was published as Phreno-Mnemotechny or The Art of Memory in 1845 and his system received wide acclaim. According to Gouraud, Richard Grey indicated that a discussion on Hebrew linguistics in William Beveridge's Institutionum chronotogicarum libri duo, una cum totidem arithmetices chronologicæ libellis inspired him to create his system of mnemotechniques which evolved in to the major system; the system described in this article would again be popularized by Harry Lorayne, a best selling contemporary author on memory. The name "major system" refers to Major Beniowski, who published a version of the system in his book, The Anti-Absurd or Phrenotypic Englis
Daniel F. Muzyka is a Professor of Management at The University of British Columbia's Sauder School of Business, he is the former Chief Executive Officer of The Conference Board of Canada. He is former Chair of the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, he was the Dean and the RBC Financial Group Professor of Entrepreneurship at the University of British Columbia's Sauder School of Business. Prior to 1999, Muzyka taught and held senior administrative positions at a number of universities and institutions, including the Harvard Business School, INSEAD, Babson College, Northeastern University, Wharton School and Williams College. Muzyka has extensive experience in academics and public policy and has participated on a number of boards of companies, venture capital funds, as well as not-for-profit and government organizations and committees, he worked in industry with General Electric in finance and strategy and was a strategy consultant with Braxton Associates. In addition, he has been a board member and consultant to several other business and not-for-profit organizations, including Vice Chair and a public director of the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada, the Vancouver Board of Trade, Graduate Management Admissions Council, New Ventures B.
C. and the European Venture Capital Association. Muzyka chaired NSERC's Expert Advisory Committee on Innovation. Muzyka serves or has served on various government councils, including task forces in Europe and North America. In British Columbia, he has served on the B. C. Competition Council, the B. C. Premier's Technology Council, among others. Muzyka holds a Doctorate of Business Administration from Harvard University, an MBA with concentration in Strategic Planning from the University of Pennsylvania, a BA with Honours in Physics and Astronomy from Williams College, he has been awarded the National Order of Merit by the Government of France