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Video art

Video art is an art form which relies on using video technology as a visual and audio medium. Video art emerged during the late 1960s as new consumer video technology such as video tape recorders became available outside corporate broadcasting. Video art can take many forms: recordings. Video art is named for the original analog video tape, the most used recording technology in much of the form history into the 1990s. With the advent of digital recording equipment, many artists began to explore digital technology as a new way of expression. One of the key differences between video art and theatrical cinema is that video art does not rely on many of the conventions that define theatrical cinema. Video art may not employ the use of actors, may contain no dialogue, may have no discernible narrative or plot, or adhere to any of the other conventions that define motion pictures as entertainment; this distinction distinguishes video art from cinema's subcategories such as avant garde cinema, short films, or experimental film.

Nam June Paik, a Korean-American artist who studied in Germany, is regarded as a pioneer in video art. In March 1963 Nam June Paik showed at the Galerie Parnass in Wuppertal the Exposition of Music – Electronic Television. In May 1963 Wolf Vostell showed the installation 6 TV Dé-coll/age at the Smolin Gallery in New York and created the video Sun in your head in Cologne. Sun in your head was made on 16mm film and transferred 1967 to videotape. Video art is said to have begun when Paik used his new Sony Portapak to shoot footage of Pope Paul VI's procession through New York City in the autumn of 1965 Later that same day, across town in a Greenwich Village cafe, Paik played the tapes and video art was born. Prior to the introduction of consumer video equipment, moving image production was only available non-commercially via 8mm film and 16mm film. After the Portapak's introduction and its subsequent update every few years, many artists began exploring the new technology. Many of the early prominent video artists were those involved with concurrent movements in conceptual art and experimental film.

These include Americans Vito Acconci, Valie Export, John Baldessari, Peter Campus, Doris Totten Chase, Maureen Connor, Norman Cowie, Dimitri Devyatkin, Frank Gillette, Dan Graham, Gary Hill, Joan Jonas, Bruce Nauman, Nam June Paik, Bill Viola, Shigeko Kubota, Martha Rosler, William Wegman, many others. There were those such as Steina and Woody Vasulka who were interested in the formal qualities of video and employed video synthesizers to create abstract works. Kate Craig, Vera Frenkel and Michael Snow were important to the development of video art in Canada. Much video art in the medium's heyday experimented formally with the limitations of the video format. For example, American artist Peter Campus' Double Vision combined the video signals from two Sony Portapaks through an electronic mixer, resulting in a distorted and radically dissonant image. Another representative piece, Joan Jonas' Vertical Roll, involved recording previously-recorded material of Jonas dancing while playing the videos back on a television, resulting in a layered and complex representation of mediation.

Much video art in the United States was produced out of New York City, with The Kitchen, founded in 1972 by Steina and Woody Vasulka, serving as a nexus for many young artists. An early multi-channel video art work was Wipe Cycle by Frank Gillette. Wipe Cycle was first exhibited at the Howard Wise Gallery in New York in 1969 as part of an exhibition titled "TV as a Creative Medium". An installation of nine television screens, Wipe Cycle combined live images of gallery visitors, found footage from commercial television, shots from pre-recorded tapes; the material was alternated from one monitor to the next in an elaborate choreography. On the West coast, the San Jose State television studios in 1970, Willoughby Sharp began the "Videoviews" series of videotaped dialogues with artists; the "Videoviews" series consists of Sharps’ dialogues with Bruce Nauman, Joseph Beuys, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden, Lowell Darling, Dennis Oppenheim. In 1970, Sharp curated "Body Works", an exhibition of video works by Vito Acconci, Terry Fox, Richard Serra, Keith Sonnier, Dennis Oppenheim and William Wegman, presented at Tom Marioni's Museum of Conceptual Art, San Francisco, California.

In Europe, Valie Export's groundbreaking video piece, "Facing a Family" was one of the first instances of television intervention and broadcasting video art. The video broadcast on the Austrian television program "Kontakte" February 2, 1971, shows a bourgeois Austrian family watching TV while eating dinner, creating a mirroring effect for many members of the audience who were doing the same thing. Export believed the television could complicate the relationship between subject and television. In the United Kingdom David Hall's "TV Interruptions" were transmitted intentionally unannounced and uncredited on Scottish TV, the first artist interventions on British television; as the prices of editing software decreased, the access the general public had to utilize these technologies increased. Video editing software became so available that it changed the way digital media artists and video artists interacted with the mediums. Different themes emerged and were ex

Citizenship Clause

The Citizenship Clause is the first sentence of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, adopted on July 9, 1868, which states: "All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside."This clause reversed a portion of the Dred Scott v. Sandford decision, which had declared that African Americans were not and could not become citizens of the United States or enjoy any of the privileges and immunities of citizenship; the concepts of state and national citizenship were mentioned in the original U. S. Constitution adopted in 1789. Prior to the Civil War, only some persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, were citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside, according to the various applicable state and federal laws and court decisions; the Civil Rights Act of 1866 granted U. S. citizenship to all persons born in the United States "not subject to any foreign power".

The 39th Congress proposed the principle underlying the Citizenship Clause due to concerns expressed about the constitutionality of the Civil Rights Act during floor debates in Congress. The framers of the Fourteenth Amendment sought to entrench the principle in the Constitution in order to prevent its being struck down by the Supreme Court or repealed by a future Congress. Section 1, Clause 1, of the Fourteenth Amendment, reads: All persons born or naturalized in the United States, subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside; the reference to naturalization in the Citizenship Clause is to the process by which immigrants are granted United States citizenship. Congress has power in relation to naturalization under the Naturalization Clause in Article I, Section 8, Clause 4 of the Constitution; the text of the Citizenship Clause was first offered in the Senate as an amendment to Section 1 of the joint resolution as passed by the House.

There are varying interpretations of the original intent of Congress, based on statements made during the congressional debate over the amendment. While the Citizenship Clause was intended to define as citizens those so defined in the Civil Rights Act, debated and passed in the same session of Congress only several months earlier, the clause's author, Senator Jacob M. Howard of Michigan, phrased it a little differently. In particular, the two exceptions to citizenship by birth for everyone born in the United States mentioned in the Act, that they had to be "not subject to any foreign power" and not "Indians not taxed", were combined into a single qualification, that they be "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States, while Howard and others, such as Senate Judiciary Committee Chairman Lyman Trumbull of Illinois, the author of the Civil Rights Act, believed that the formulations were equivalent, such as Senator James R. Doolittle from Wisconsin and pushed for an alternative wording.

Howard, when introducing the addition to the Amendment, stated that it was "the law of the land already" and that it excluded only "persons born in the United States who are foreigners, who belong to the families of ambassadors or foreign ministers". Others agreed that the children of ambassadors and foreign ministers were to be excluded. Concerning the children born in the United States to parents who are not U. S. citizens, three senators, including Trumbull, as well as President Andrew Johnson, debated how both the Civil Rights Act and the Citizenship Clause could confer citizenship on them at birth, Trumbull stated that "What do we mean by'subject to the jurisdiction of the United States'? Not owing allegiance to anybody else; that is what it means." Senator Reverdy Johnson of Maryland commented that subject to the jurisdiction thereof in the proposed amendment undoubtedly meant the same thing as "not subject to some foreign power", Trumbull asserted that this was true prior to the passage of the Civil Rights Act, but Senator Edgar Cowan of Pennsylvania disagreed, arguing that this was only true for the children of European immigrants.

Senator John Conness of California expressed support for the Amendment for giving a constitutional basis for birthright citizenship to all children born in the United States to any parentage though he thought it had been guaranteed by the Act, whereas Cowan opposed the Amendment, arguing that it would have the undesirable outcome of extending citizenship to the children of Chinese and Romani immigrants. Most of the debate on this section of the Amendment centered on whether the wording in the Civil Rights Act or Howard's proposal more excluded Indians on reservations and in U. S. territories from citizenship. Doolittle asserted, Senators Johnson of Maryland and Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana concurred, that all Indians were subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, so that the phrase "Indians not taxed" would be preferable, but Trumbull and Howard disputed this, arguing that the U. S. government did not have full jurisdiction over Indian tribes, which governed themselves and made treaties with the United States.

On the subject of citizenship for Indians, Trumbull said that "It is only those persons who come within our jurisdiction, who are subject to our laws, that we think of making citizens." Moreover, they objected to the phrase "Indians not taxed" on the basis that it could be construed as making citizenship dependent on wealth and that it

The Best of Nek: L'anno zero

The Best of Nek: L'anno zero is the first greatest hits album by Italian singer-songwriter Nek, released on 10 October 2003. This album includes the best hits of ten years' career of Nek. Album includes two new tracks: "Almeno stavolta" and "L'anno zero". Three tracks, "In te", "Cuori in tempesta" and "Angeli nel ghetto", has been released in new versions. Track "Sei solo tu", like in its studio album Le cose da difendere, has been released without vocal of Laura Pausini. Although the album and single "Almeno stavolta" were released in October of the same year, the national and Latin American tour were held in 2004, after two years of live performance inactivity. Nek called the album "l'anno zero" as it marks the end of a period in his career, not only because he matured and found more than how music can influence people's thinking, but felt dissatisfaction with his on-going commercialization of career, with many and dinamic concerts to reduce the intimate relationship between the artist and the audience.

At the time of the year or two of public inactivity, he traveled all over the world on the Americas. The song "Almeno stavolta" was a popular song, it peaked at number five on the charts and remained in the Top 10 for 12 weeks; the album is positively received. Marisa Brown, of Allmusic, said that it begins with, at the time, "two new tracks, "Almeno Stavolta" and "L'Anno Zero," but moves into a chronological overview of Nek's repertoire, beginning with his first single, "In Te," which he presented at Sanremo in 1993, going all the way to "Cielo e Terra," which appeared on his 2002 album, Le cose da difendere". Brown, who gave the album a four out of five stars rating, concluded that the new "bonus tracks, while both good and much in the vein of what Nek has done and continues to do in the 21st century, might not be enough to warrant a purchase for someone who owns all his other albums", "but for someone who's heard the singles and wants a more comprehensive understanding of the artist, it is a good buy"

UltraViolet (system)

UltraViolet was a cloud-based digital rights locker for films and television programs that allowed consumers to store proofs-of-purchase of licensed content in an account to enable playback on different devices using multiple applications from several different streaming services. UltraViolet allowed users to share access to their library with up to five additional people. UltraViolet was deployed by the Digital Entertainment Content Ecosystem, an alliance of 85 companies that includes film studios, consumer electronics manufacturers, cable television companies, internet service providers, internet hosting vendors, other internet systems and security vendors, with the notable exceptions of Walt Disney Studios, Google and Apple. On January 31, 2019, DECE announced that Ultraviolet would shut down on July 31, 2019; this shutdown came after the launch of Movies Anywhere over a year earlier, along with Fox, Lionsgate and Warner Bros. beginning to drop out of issuing new UV rights for their films during that time period.

To use UltraViolet, consumers needed to create a free UltraViolet account, either through a participating UltraViolet service provider, or through the official UltraViolet website. An UltraViolet account was a digital rights locker where licenses for purchased content were stored and managed irrespective of the point of sale; the Ultraviolet account holder was allowed to share their library with 5 other users, which were called members. Consumers could acquire UltraViolet rights by purchasing a physical disc that included an UltraViolet activation code, by purchasing a movie directly from an electronic retailer, or by using a disc to digital service. Disc to digital services allowed consumers to insert a DVD or Blu-ray into their computer's disc drive, scan it to verify ownership, add it to their UltraViolet collection for a fee. Several retailers including Vudu and CinemaNow offered this service. Flixster had been offering a D2D service as well, but it was suspended once Fandango acquired Flixster in early 2016 and another independent movie streaming service, M-GO.

Consumers could stream or download their UltraViolet content from any participating retailer. Former participating retailers are listed in the table below; the UltraViolet digital locker did not store video files, was not a "cloud storage" platform. Only the rights for purchased content were stored on the service. UltraViolet only managed the licenses for each account, but not the content itself. By creating a digital-rights locker rather than a digital media storage locker, UltraViolet bypassed the cost of storage and bandwidth used when the media is accessed and passed that cost on to various service providers. 5 of the "Big Six" major film studios and "mini-major" Lionsgate were members of DECE, released their content with UltraViolet rights. Other minor film and television studios released their programming and movies with UltraViolet rights, but were not DECE members. Major film studios Sony Pictures Entertainment Universal Studios Paramount Pictures Warner Bros. Entertainment Fox Entertainment Group Minor Film Studios Lionsgate The Weinstein Company Roadshow Entertainment Anchor Bay Television Studios BBC HBODespite Fox merging with Disney in 2019, Walt Disney Studios was never a member of DECE, did not release any of their films with UltraViolet rights.

On February 25, 2014, Disney launched a competing digital movie locker system called Disney Movies Anywhere that allowed any Disney movie purchased or redeemed at any participating provider to be played using all other DMA providers. DMA providers included iTunes, Google Play, Amazon Video, Microsoft Movies & TV. On October 12, 2017, Disney Movies Anywhere was expanded to include movies from a number of non-Disney studios, thus forming a full-fledged UltraViolet competitor; this service is now called Movies Anywhere to reflect the expanded scope of content. UltraViolet content was available from several movie streaming services.. Some services offered downloads that could be saved to PCs, gaming consoles, or phones for offline viewing. Below is a table of the countries they serve. Content could be streamed over the Internet to an unlimited number of devices, depending on the content license rights held by the streaming provider. Other less notable streaming providers include: Kaleidescape, Verizon Fios On Demand and Nolim Films.

Some Ultraviolet streaming providers offered the capability to download movies and TV shows. They had their own proprietary video formats, they were not cross-platform, they had to be downloaded and played within their own proprietary PC, Mac, iOS, or Android apps. The Ultraviolet Common File Format was planned, but never launched, by DECE to allow downloaded video files to be copied between devices, stored on physical media or online backup services, they were designed to be playable on any UltraViolet authorized device or software player registered to the household Ultraviolet library. A 2015 simplification of the UV ecosystem made the Common File Fo

A.D. Hopkins

A. D. Hopkins is an American novelist and journalist. Hopkins was born in a small town five miles east of the Blue Ridge Mountains. In 1961–62 he attended Florida State University and was influenced by Pulitzer Award–winner Michael Shaara. Hopkins transferred to the University of Richmond, where he edited the student literary magazine The Messenger and studied creative writing under Novelist and Historian Clifford Dowdey. Hopkins graduated from the University of Richmond, Virginia in 1965 with a BA in English and Journalism. Hopkins is married to the former Patricia Sheppard, they have one son, Aaron S, "ASH" Hopkins, of Minnesota. Hopkins is an ordained elder of the Presbyterian Church, USA, a former Boy Scout leader, a former fencing teacher. Hopkins worked for the News & Advance in Lynchburg and other newspapers in Petersburg, Virginia, as well as Greensboro, North Carolina before moving to Las Vegas, Nevada in 1969. While at the Las Vegas Sun, Hopkins did investigative reporting and covered crime, organized labor, the convention industry.

His work appeared in magazines including Relic, True West, Frontier Times, Nevada Magazine, airline in-flight magazines. His best-known magazine piece is an account of nineteenth-century shootists: "Gunfighters of Pioche". In 1973 Hopkins was hired as managing editor of the Valley Times, a North Las Vegas bi-weekly, which soon became a daily—competing against and scooping the city's two longer-established dailies. At the time, neither established daily covered the city's principal industry of gambling, Hopkins began doing so despite the Valley Times’s much smaller circulation and staff; the two larger newspapers followed the smaller paper's lead, gaming remains an important assignment in Las Vegas media. In 1977 Hopkins moved to the Las Vegas Review-Journal; as editor of Nevadan, the Review-Journal's Sunday magazine, he roamed the state interviewing colorful characters and digging into state history in old courthouse records. He was designated the newspaper's special projects editor. In 1991, Hopkins reported that Richard "Richie the Fixer" Perry, a gambler convicted in the Boston College basketball point-shaving scandal, was hanging around the UNLV basketball program.

Close association with any gambler was forbidden by NCAA rules. UNLV questioned the reports until May 26, 1991, when the newspaper published photos of Perry and three team members sharing a spa in Perry's backyard. Although it was never proved that UNLV players had shaved points, the "Hot Tub Photos" led to Coach Jerry Tarkanian’s resignation and Perry's listing in Nevada's "Black Book" of persons who cannot enter any Nevada casino. One of Hopkins's most ambitious projects was creating and running a survey known as the Judicial Evaluation Survey. Nevada judges are elected, but there are so many courts in urban areas that voters know little about the candidates. Working with a committee of lawyers and statisticians, Hopkins wrote questions for objectively evaluating incumbent judges by lawyers who had appeared in their courts. Published prior to filing deadlines since 1992, the resulting ratings give voters reliable information about incumbents and encourage opposition or retirement for mediocre jurists.

The Review-Journal’s survey has been the prototype for similar surveys in other cities and countries. In 1993 Hopkins wrote that the Nevada Supreme Court had secretly intervened in disciplinary proceedings against a Reno judge. Certain justices involved in the cover-up hired an investigator and gave him authority to discover and punish Hopkins's sources, but the quest was unsuccessful; the judge resigned in return for a federal agreement not to prosecute him, his two most ardent supporters on the Supreme Court chose not to run for re-election. A story by Hopkins published March 24, 2000 proved that errors in calculating "prevailing wages," paid on all public works construction projects in the state, inflated pay rates and cost taxpayers millions per year; the Nevada State Press Association named this project its "Story of the Year." Hopkins has won numerous other awards for news stories. In 1999 Hopkins and the late K. J. Evans co-edited Profiles of the Men and Women Who Shaped Las Vegas; the work consisted of a hundred biographic pieces about people whose actions determined the nature of Las Vegas, from explorer Charles Fremont in the 1840s to casino magnates of the 1990s.

Published in the Review-Journal, the stories were published as a book. In 2001 the newspaper’s parent company, Stephens Media, designated Hopkins founding editor of Cerca, a magazine that focused on outdoor travel attractions in Southern Nevada and nearer parts of other states. Hopkins edited a number of books for Stephens Press, including Author Joan Whitely's history, Young Las Vegas: Before the Future Found Us, published in 2005. In 2010 the Nevada Press Association named Hopkins to the Nevada Newspaper Hall of Fame. After one of his reporters stated that judges were sealing court cases to avoid embarrassing the well-connected, Hopkins was named to a Nevada Supreme Court commission devising statewide rules to limit such abuses. Hopkins retired from the Review-Journal in 2011, his first novel, The Boys Who Woke Up Early, was published in March 2019 by Imbrifex Books. The book has been well received. A. D. Hopkins is journalist; the First 100: Portraits of the Men and Women Who Shaped Las Vegas—Published by Huntington Press The Boys Who Woke Up Early—Published by Imbrifex Books Author Facebook page Debut Novel page

Francisca Fernández-Hall

Francisca Fernández-Hall Zúñiga was a Guatemalan engineer and diplomat. She was the first woman to graduate from the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, the first woman in all of Central America to earn an engineering degree, the first woman to be accepted and to attend the Instituto Militar de Engenharia of Brazil, the first female ambassador for Guatemala. Francisca Fernández-Hall Zúñiga was born in 1921 in Guatemala City, Guatemala, to the writer Francisco Fernández-Hall and Concepción Zúñiga Becker, she was one of five siblings, including Alicia, María Teresa Fernández-Hall de Arévalo, Francisco Fernández-Hall, a journalist, teacher at the Colegio de San José de los Infantes, served as Director of the Museum of History and Fine Arts. Their mother died in 1926 and the children were raised by their father, who never remarried, she earned a Bachelor of Science and Letters and a Master of Education before applying to the engineering faculty at the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, where she was rejected.

She wanted to study law, but could not meet the entrance requirements. She enrolled in the mathematics department and, after scoring a perfect score on an exam three months was admitted to the engineering program, she had the highest grade point average and graduated with her Civil Engineering degree in 1947, the first woman in all of Central America to earn a mathematics degree and graduate as an engineer from the Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala. She won a scholarship to study engineering at the Instituto Militar de Engenharia in Rio de Janeiro, the first woman accepted or to attend, graduating in 1950 with a Construction Engineering degree. While she was working on her engineering degree, Fernández-Hall taught at Colegio Belga and the Instituto Normal Central para Señoritas Belén; when she moved to Brazil to continue her studies, she joined the foreign service and served as Cultural Attache for Guatemala. After graduation, she had a lengthy diplomatic career, representing Guatemala in Greece and Costa Rica.

She was the first female ambassador of Guatemala and was listed as the Chargé d'affaires to Israel in 1956 in the government yearbook. While serving as ambassador in 1959, she helped musician Jorge Sarmientos launch his international career, in 1960 she met Golda Meir. In 1975 Fernández-Hall transferred to Costa Rica, where she served until 1981. While in Israel, she served as Dean of the foreign diplomatic corps. Fernández-Hall was buried in the General Cemetery in Guatemala City. 1947 Premio Unión y Labor Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala 1997 Medal of Honor for Merit Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala Order of the Quetzal 2001 Silver Crest from the National Council of Women of Guatemala