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Video camera tube

Video camera tubes were devices based on the cathode ray tube that were used to capture television images prior to the introduction of charge-coupled device image sensors in the 1980s. Several different types of tubes were in use from the early 1930s to the 1980s. In these tubes, the cathode ray was scanned across an image of the scene to be broadcast; the resultant current was dependent on the brightness of the image on the target. The size of the striking ray was tiny compared to the size of the target, allowing 483 horizontal scan lines per image in the NTSC format, or 576 lines in PAL. Any vacuum tube which operates using a focused beam of electrons called cathode rays, is known as a cathode ray tube; these are seen as display devices as used in older television receivers and computer displays. The camera pickup tubes described in this article are CRTs, but they display no image. In June 1908, the scientific journal Nature published a letter in which Alan Archibald Campbell-Swinton, fellow of the Royal Society, discussed how a electronic television system could be realized by using cathode ray tubes as both imaging and display devices.

He noted that the "real difficulties lie in devising an efficient transmitter", that it was possible that "no photoelectric phenomenon at present known will provide what is required". A cathode ray tube was demonstrated as a displaying device by the German Professor Max Dieckmann in 1906, his experimental results were published by the journal Scientific American in 1909. Campbell-Swinton expanded on his vision in a presidential address given to the Röntgen Society in November 1911; the photoelectric screen in the proposed transmitting device was a mosaic of isolated rubidium cubes. His concept for a electronic television system was popularized by Hugo Gernsback as the "Campbell-Swinton Electronic Scanning System" in the August 1915 issue of the popular magazine Electrical Experimenter. In a letter to Nature published in October 1926, Campbell-Swinton announced the results of some "not successful experiments" he had conducted with G. M. Minchin and J. C. M. Stanton, they had attempted to generate an electrical signal by projecting an image onto a selenium-coated metal plate, scanned by a cathode ray beam.

These experiments were conducted before March 1914, when Minchin died, but they were repeated by two different teams in 1937, by H. Miller and J. W. Strange from EMI, by H. Iams and A. Rose from RCA. Both teams succeeded in transmitting "very faint" images with the original Campbell-Swinton's selenium-coated plate, but much better images were obtained when the metal plate was covered with zinc sulphide or selenide, or with aluminum or zirconium oxide treated with caesium; these experiments would form the base of the future vidicon. A description of a CRT imaging device appeared in a patent application filed by Edvard-Gustav Schoultz in France in August 1921, published in 1922, although a working device was not demonstrated until some years later. An image dissector is a camera tube that creates an "electron image" of a scene from photocathode emissions which pass through a scanning aperture to an anode, which serves as an electron detector. Among the first to design such a device were German inventors Max Dieckmann and Rudolf Hell, who had titled their 1925 patent application Lichtelektrische Bildzerlegerröhre für Fernseher.

The term may apply to a dissector tube employing magnetic fields to keep the electron image in focus, an element lacking in Dieckmann and Hell's design, in the early dissector tubes built by American inventor Philo Farnsworth. Dieckmann and Hell submitted their application to the German patent office in April 1925, a patent was issued in October 1927, their experiments on the image dissector were announced in the volume 8 of the popular magazine Discovery and in the May 1928 issue of the magazine Popular Radio. However, they never transmitted a well focused image with such a tube. In January 1927, American inventor and television pioneer Philo T. Farnsworth applied for a patent for his Television System that included a device for "the conversion and dissecting of light", its first moving image was transmitted on September 7 of 1927, a patent was issued in 1930. Farnsworth made improvements to the device, among them introducing an electron multiplier made of nickel and deploying a "longitudinal magnetic field" in order to focus the electron image.

The improved device was demonstrated to the press in early September 1928. The introduction of a multipactor in October 1933 and a multi-dynode "electron multiplier" in 1937 made Farnsworth's image dissector the first practical version of a electronic imaging device for television, it had poor light sensitivity, was therefore useful only where illumination was exceptionally high. However, it was ideal for industrial applications, such as monitoring the bright interior of an industrial furnace. Due to their poor light sensitivity, image dissectors were used in television broadcasting, except to scan film and other transparencies. In April 1933, Farnsworth submitted a patent application entitled Image Dissector, but which detailed a CRT-type camera tube; this is among the first patents to propose the use of a "low-velocity" scanning beam and RCA had to buy it in order to sell image orthicon tubes to the general public. However, Farnsworth never transmitted a well focused image with such a tube.

The optical system of the image dissector focuses an ima

(19308) 1996 TO66

1996 TO66 is a trans-Neptunian object, discovered in 1996 by Chadwick Trujillo, David Jewitt and Jane Luu. Until 20000 Varuna was discovered, it was the second-largest known object in the Kuiper belt, after Pluto. Based on their common pattern of IR water-ice absorptions, neutral visible spectrum and the clustering of their orbital elements, the other KBOs 1995 SM55, 2002 TX300, 2003 OP32 and 2005 RR43 all appear to be collisional fragments broken off of the dwarf planet Haumea; the eccentricity of 1996 TO66 varies between ca. 0.110 and 0.125 every 2 million years, with additional variations on the order of ± 0.01 on much shorter time scales. It is in an intermittent 19:11 resonance with Neptune; the resonance breaks every 2 million years when the eccentricity is highest and the orbit is closest to Neptune. First Rotation Period of a Kuiper Belt Object Measured – ESO, 5 November 1998 1996 TO66 at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Bonnie Zindel

Bonnie Zindel is an American psychotherapist, published Young-adult Fiction Novelist and Creative Literary Editor of Psychoanalytic Perspectives published by Routledge, Taylor & Francis. She is the author of the Young Adult novels Dr. Adriana Earthlight, Student Shrink, Hollywood Dream Machine, A Star for the Latecomer published by HarperCollins and Viking Press. A Star for the Latecomer was co-written with Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright, Paul Zindel and was selected as a Best Young Adult Book, American Library Association, 1971; the novels have earned a place in'80's Teen Book Pop Culture. Her play I Am A Zoo was produced by the Jewish Repretory Theater in New York City and is included in New Jewish Voices: Plays Produced by the Jewish Repertory Theatre edited by Edward M. Cohen. A production of her short play Lemons in the Morning co-written with Paul Zindel was performed at the Back Alley Theatre in an evening called 24 Hours - AM; the play starred Alan Oppenheimer. Zindel received the distinguished National Institute for Psycotherapies Honorary Award for creative contributions to the field.

She started the Creative Literary Section in Psychoanalytic Perspectives, the first psychoanalytic journal to offer a Creative Literary section devoted to short stories, creative non-fiction and poetry. These pages are dedicated to recognizing pieces tied both and loosely to themes inherent in psychoanalysis and have included original works by well known psychoanalysts Robert Stolorow and Thomas Ogden, as well as, actress Rebecca De Mornay, her work on psychoanalysis and creative writing workshops have been featured in the New York Times' Style Section. She contributed a chapter on Emmanuel Ghent for Clinical Implications of the Psychoanalyst’s Life Experience: When the Personal Becomes Professional, a book in which leaders in the fields of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy, including Princess Diana's therapist Susie Orbach, address the phenomena of the psychoanalyst’s personal life and psychology. Psychologist Zindel was interviewed and is quoted in Jon Krampner biography of Academy Award-nominated actress Kim Stanley titled Female Brando: The Legend of Kim Stanley.

Zindel was married to Paul Zindel from 1973, divorcing him in 1998. They had two children. Zindel received her Masters in Social Work from the Columbia University School of Social Work. A Star For the Latecomer Dr. Adriana Earthlight Hollywood Dream Machine A Bird That Thunders: My Analysis with Emmanuel Ghent, published in "Clinical Implications of the Psychoanalyst's Life Experience"

List of St. Lawrence University people

The following is a list of notable people associated with St. Lawrence University, located in the American city of Canton, New York. William A. Barclay, New York State Assemblyman Michael Botticelli, Acting Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy Gregory W. Carman, former United States Representative from New York, U. S. Court of International Trade judge Katherine Clark, current member of the United States House of Representatives from Massachusetts Susan Collins, current United States Senator of Maine John J. Delaney, former member of the United States House of Representatives and Deputy Commissioner of Public Markets Domenick L. Gabrielli, New York Supreme Court and New York Court of Appeals Joseph Lekuton, elected to the Kenyan Parliament in 2006 Judy Wakhungu, Kenyan ambassador to France George R. Malby, former United States Representative from New York Peter McDonough, member of the New Jersey Senate Luther F. McKinney, former United States Representative from New Hampshire and United States Ambassador to Colombia Peter Michael Pitfield, Canadian politician.

K Gannon, wrote "I'll Be Home for Christmas" and the school's alma mater Eliza Putnam Heaton, editor Elizabeth Inness-Brown novelist and professor at Saint Michael's College Maurice Kenny, Mohawk poet Martha MacCallum, anchor with Fox News Channel. Mike Barnett, former NHL player agent Jim Berkman, all-time winningest coach in NCAA men's lacrosse history. Now player development coordinator for the Dallas Stars Dan Rusanowsky, radio play-by-play announcer with the NHL's San Jose Sharks Hal Schumacher, signed as a pitcher with the New York Giants while still a student Randy Sexton, current Assistant General Manager for the NHL's Buffalo Sabres and GM of affiliate Rochester Americans Ray Shero, current GM of the New Jersey Devils hockey team Greg Sutton, goalkeeper in Major League Soccer Bill Torrey, member of Hockey Hall of Fame. Four Stanley Cups as GM of the New York Islanders John Zeiler, former professional ice hockey player for the Los Angeles Kings Wayne Morgan, Head basketball Coach Iowa State University, Long Beach State University A.

Barton Hepburn, United States Comptroller of the Currency. You

Second lieutenant

Second lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to NATO OF-1a rank. The rank of second lieutenant existed in the military forces of the Australian colonies and Australian Army until 1986. In the colonial forces, which followed the practices of the British military, the rank of second lieutenant began to replace ranks such as ensign and cornet from 1871. New appointments to the rank of second lieutenant ceased in the Regular Army in 1986. Prior to this change, the rank had been reserved for new graduates from the Officer Cadet School, Portsea which closed in 1985.. The rank of second lieutenant is only appointed to officers in special appointments such as training institutions, university regiments and while under probation during training. Trainees undertaking Special Service Officer training are appointed at higher rank than General Service Officer trainees who start off at the rank of officer cadet or staff cadet. Ranks equivalent to second lieutenant are acting sub-lieutenant in the Royal Australian Navy and pilot officer in the Royal Australian Air Force.

The Canadian Forces adopted the rank with insignia of a single gold ring around the service dress uniform cuff for both army and air personnel upon unification in 1968 until the late 2000s. For a time, naval personnel used this rank but reverted to the Royal Canadian Navy rank of acting sub-lieutenant, though the CF green uniform was retained until the mid-1980s; the Canadian Army insignia for second lieutenant is a pip and the Royal Canadian Air Force insignia for lieutenant is one thick braid. The equivalent rank for the Royal Canadian Navy is acting sub-lieutenant. Known as an Ensign in the Foot Guards units. A second-lieutenant is equivalent to a junior commissioned officer. During classes at officer training schools such as Saint Cyr the cadets rise through the non-commissioned ranks of private, corporal and reach the rank of aspirant, the first officer rank. After additional training at specialised schools they get the bar of second-lieutenant; the insignia consists of a metal-colored bar in accordance with the color of the ceremonial uniform buttons and hat symbol.

For example, for the infantry, gold being the metal of the ceremonial dress buttons, the symbol on the képi being a golden grenade with two crossed rifles, therefore the insignia of a sous-lieutenant is a gold-colored bar. For cavalry or forest rangers, ceremonial dress buttons were silver, as was the hunting horn on the forest commissioned officer's képi, therefore the insignia of a sous-lieutenant is a silver-colored bar; the insignia consists of a single silver star. Officers holding this rank should be addressed as "Kyrie Anthypolochage" by their subordinates, or "Anthypolochage + family name" by their superior officers. In Indonesia, "second lieutenant" is known as letnan dua, the most junior ranked officer in the Indonesian Military. Cadets who graduate from the Indonesian Military Academy achieve this rank as young officers. Senior non-commissioned officers promoted to becoming commissioned officers go to the officer's candidate school in Bandung to achieve the second lieutenant rank.

The lieutenant rank has two levels, which are first lieutenant. Lieutenants in Indonesia command a platoon level of troops and are referred to as "danton" abbreviated from komandan pleton in Indonesian. Since 1951 in the Israel Defense Forces (סגן-משנה (סג"מ segen mishne has been equivalent to a second lieutenant. From 1948 – 1951 the corresponding rank was that of a segen, which since 1951 has been equivalent to lieutenant. Segen mishne means "junior lieutenant" and segen translates as "assistant", it is the rank of a platoon commander. Note that the IDF uses this rank across all three of its services. Like many other Commonwealth countries, the rank structures of the New Zealand Defence Force follow British traditions. Hence the New Zealand Army maintains a rank of second lieutenant and the Royal New Zealand Air Force has its exact equivalent, pilot officer. However, the Royal New Zealand Navy breaks with British tradition and uses the name ensign for its most junior commissioned officer rank.

The equivalent rank in Norway is "fenrik". This is the first rank. Fenriks are former experienced sergeants but to become a fenrik one has to go through officer's training and education. Fenriks fill roles as second in command within a platoon. Fenriks are in some cases executive officers. Most fenriks have finished the War Academy as well, are trained officers. To qualify for the military academy, Fenriks are required to do minimum 6 months service in international missions, before or after graduation; the Pakistan Army follows the British pattern of ranks. A second lieutenant is represented by one metal pip on each shoulder in case of "khaki uniform" and one four quadric printed star on the chest in case of camouflage combat dress; however a second lieutenant in the Pakistan Army is promoted to lieutenant 6 months after commissioning. In Si

Caixa Rural Galega

Caixa Rural Galega, Sociedad Cooperativa de Crédito Limitada Gallega is a Galician cooperative bank founded in 1966 in Lugo, where it keeps its headquarters. It is owned by about 15.000 members and is considered the only galician financial institution, wholly locally owned since all other banks and savings banks were sold or merged in the last decade: Caixa Galicia and Banco Etcheverría, Banco Pastor or Banco Gallego. In total, it has 46 branches with 33 in the Province of Lugo, 6 in the Province of Ourense, 3 in the Province of A Coruña and 4 in the Province of Pontevedra, it made a 3 million profit like in pre-crisis values. It takes part of Caja Rural group, which includes the Banco Cooperativo Español, the Rural Grupo Asegurador, the Gescooperativo and the Rural Servicios Informáticos. It's a large group of cooperative banks along Spain and allows its members to offer all types of financial and insurance products and deal with technological services like home banking or mobile payments.

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