Video game developer

A video game developer is a software developer that specializes in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creating video games. A game developer can range from one person who undertakes all tasks to a large business with employee responsibilities split between individual disciplines, such as programming, art, etc. Most game development companies have video game publisher financial and marketing support. Self-funded developers are known as independent or indie developers and make indie games. A developer may develop for a number of systems. Video game developers specialize in certain types of games; some focus on porting games from one system to another, or translating games from one language to another. Less some do software development work in addition to games. Most video game publishers maintain development studios. However, since publishing is still their primary activity they are described as "publishers" rather than "developers". Developers may be private as well. In the video game industry, a first-party developer is part of a company which manufactures a video game console and develops for it.

First-party developers may use the name of the company itself, have a specific division name or have been an independent studio before being acquired by the console manufacturer. Whether by purchasing an independent studio or by founding a new team, the acquisition of a first-party developer involves a huge financial investment on the part of the console manufacturer, wasted if the developer fails to produce a hit game in a timely manner. However, using first-party developers saves the cost of having to make royalty payments on a game's profits. Second-party developer is a colloquial term used by gaming enthusiasts and media to describe game studios who take development contracts from platform holders and produce games exclusive to that platform; as a balance to not being able to release their game for other platforms, second-party developers are offered higher royalty rates than third-party developers. These studios may have exclusive publishing agreements with the platform holder, but maintain independence so upon completion or termination of their contracts are able to continue developing games.

Examples are Remedy Entertainment and Game Freak. Activision in 1979 became the first third-party video game developer, where the term "second-party" referred to the consumers. A third-party developer may publish games, or work for a video game publisher to develop a title. Both publisher and developer have considerable input in the game's content. However, the publisher's wishes override those of the developer; the business arrangement between the developer and publisher is governed by a contract, which specifies a list of milestones intended to be delivered over a period of time. By updating its milestones, the publisher verifies that work is progressing enough to meet its deadline and can direct the developer if the game is not meeting expectations; when each milestone is completed, the publisher pays the developer an advance on royalties. Successful developers may maintain several teams working on different games for different publishers. However, third-party developers tend to be small, close-knit teams.

Third-party game development is a volatile sector, since small developers may be dependent on income from a single publisher. Because of this, many small development companies are short-lived. A common exit strategy for a successful video-game developer is to sell the company to a publisher, becoming an in-house developer. In-house development teams tend to have more freedom in the design and content of a game compared to third-party developers. One reason is that since the developers are employees of the publisher, their interests are aligned with those of the publisher. In recent years, larger publishers have acquired several third-party developers. While these development teams are now technically "in-house", they continue to operate in an autonomous manner. For example, Activision acquired Raven. All these developers continue operating much as they did before acquisition, the primary differences being exclusivity and financial details. Publishers tend to be more forgiving of their own development teams going over budget than third-party developers.

A developer may not be the primary entity creating a piece of software providing an external software tool which helps organize information for the primary software product. Such tools may be Voice over IP, or add-in interface software. Examples o

Municipal Borough of Heywood

The Municipal Borough of Heywood was, from 1881 to 1974, a local government district in the administrative county of Lancashire, with borough status and coterminate with the town of Heywood. The first local government in the area was formed in 1864, when part of the township of Heap adopted the Local Government Act 1858. Heap Middle Division Local Board was formed to govern the town. In 1867 the area of the local board was enlarged by the addition of parts of the townships of Birtle with Bamford, Heap Hopwood, Pilsworth. At the same time it was renamed as Heywood Local Board. In 1880 the inhabitant householders of the area petitioned the privy council for the grant of a charter of incorporation under the Municipal Corporations Act; the request was successful and a charter was granted on 18 February 1881, constituting Heywood a municipal borough. A borough council consisting of a mayor and councillors replaced the local board. Thomas Isherwood was elected first mayor of Heywood; the borough boundaries were altered in 1900 and 1933.

The municipal borough was abolished by the Local Government Act 1972, with its area included in the Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale, one of ten districts in the new county of Greater Manchester. The Mayor Aldermen and Burgesses of Heywood were granted armorial bearings by the College of Arms on 14 May 1881; the blazon was as follows:Or five pellets between two bendlets engrailed the whole between as many mascles sable. The arms were based on those of the Heywood family: Argent, three roundels between two bendlets all gules, Crest: a falcon rising from a tree trunk proper. In the arms of the borough, the colouring was changed form red to gold and black; the heralds introduced mascles or hollow diamond shaped figures. It has been suggested that these were intended to represent the iron industries; the Latin motto of the Heywood family Alte Volo or "I fly high" was adopted. The borough council was composed of a mayor, eighteen councillors and six aldermen; the borough was divided into three wards, with six councillors and two aldermen returned for each ward.

The first town council was controlled by the Liberal Party, with Conservatives forming an opposition group. Although there were annual elections of one third of the councillors, these were uncontested in many years. In 1892 the first Labour members joined the council. From 1905 borough elections were contested; the Liberals retained their majority, with the Conservative and Labour parties represented in the council. A private act of parliament promoted by Heywood Corporation in 1908 increased the number of wards and aldermen; the size of the council was increased to thirty-six, consisting of twenty-four councillors and eight aldermen. No party held a majority on the council for many years. By 1949 the composition was sixteen Conservatives, thirteen Liberals, six Labour and one Independent; the three main parties were to have approximate parity on the council until 1958, when Labour gained control. The Conservatives and Liberals formed an anti-Labour alliance which took control at the 1959 election.

The council alternated between Labour, Conservative/Liberal and Conservative administrations. For the last four years of the council's existence, no party had a majority, with Labour the largest party from 1972


Alipurduar is a city and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is the headquarters of the Alipurduar district. Situated on the east bank of Kaljani River on the foothills of the Himalayas, the city is a gateway to Bhutan and northeastern states of India. In the 2011 census, Alipurduar Urban Agglomeration had a population of 127,342, out of which 64,898 were males and 62,444 were females; the 0–6 years population was 10,545. Effective literacy rate for the 7+ population was 89.16 per cent. As of 2001 census, Alipurduar had a population of 73,047. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Alipurduar has an average literacy rate of 78%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. Alipurduar Mc William School Alipurduay Boys' High School Rabikanta High School Alipurduar Railway Boys School Kendria Vidyalay, Alipurduar Netaji Vidyapith, Bholardabri Jitpur High School Newtown Girls School St. Joseph's High School Balika Siksha Mandir, Alipurduar Sukanta High School Shyama Prasad high School Stepping Stone Model School Techno India Group Public School Little Flower's Eng School Damanpur Hight School Netaji High School Alipurduar College Alipurduar Mahila Mahavidyalaya Vivekananda College, Alipurduar Industrial Training Institute, Alipurduar Alipurduars Alipurduar district Chechakhata Bholardabri Damanpur Birpara Sobhaganj Bairaguri Jitpur Subarnapur Official website of Alipurduar Municipality Official website of Alipurduar district Alipurduar travel guide from Wikivoyage