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Video games in Japan

Video gaming in Japan is a major industry. Japanese game development is identified with the golden age of video games, including Nintendo under Shigeru Miyamoto and Hiroshi Yamauchi, Sega during the same time period, Sony Computer Entertainment when it was based in Tokyo, other companies such as Taito, Capcom, Square Enix, Konami, NEC, SNK, among others. In 1966, Sega introduced an electro-mechanical game called Periscope - a submarine simulator which used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine, it became an instant success in Japan and North America, where it was the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play, which would remain the standard price for arcade games for many years to come. Sega produced gun games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to the ancient zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen; the first of these, the light-gun game Duck Hunt, appeared in 1969. Another Sega 1969 release, Missile, a shooter, featured electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen.

Use of color graphics and individualized antagonists were considered "strong evolutionary concepts" among space ship games. The Namco Galaxian arcade system board introduced multi-colored animated sprites; that same year saw the release of SNK's debut shoot'em up Ozma Wars, notable for being the first action game to feature a supply of energy, resembling a life bar, a mechanic that has now become common in the majority of modern action games. It featured vertically scrolling backgrounds and enemies. Japan's first home video game console was Epoch's TV Tennis Electrotennis, a licensed version of the ping-pong game from the Magnavox Odyssey, it was followed by the first successful Japanese console, Nintendo's Color TV Game, in 1977. Sega's black and white boxing game Heavyweight Champ was released in 1976 as the first video game to feature fist fighting; the first stealth games were Hiroshi Suzuki's Manbiki Shounen and Manbiki Shoujo, Taito's Lupin III, Sega's 005. The 1978 arcade release of Space Invaders would mark the first major mainstream breakthrough for video games in Japan.

Created by Nishikado at Japan's Taito Corporation, Space Invaders pitted the player against multiple enemies descending from the top of the screen at a increasing rate of speed. Space Invaders pitted the player against multiple enemies descending from the top of the screen at a increasing rate of speed; the game used alien creatures inspired by The War of the Worlds because the developers were unable to render the movement of aircraft. As with subsequent shoot'em ups of the time, the game was set in space as the available technology only permitted a black background; the game introduced the idea of giving the player a number of "lives". It popularised a more interactive style of gameplay with the enemies responding to the player-controlled cannon's movement, it was the first video game to popularise the concept of achieving a high score, being the first to save the player's score; the aliens of Space Invaders return fire at the protagonist, making them the first arcade game targets to do so.

It set the template for the shoot'em up genre, has influenced most shooting games released since then. Taito's Space Invaders, in 1978, proved to be the first blockbuster arcade video game, its success marked the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games. Video game arcades sprang up in shopping malls, small "corner arcades" appeared in restaurants, grocery stores and movie theaters all over Japan and other countries during the late 1970s and early 1980s. Space Invaders, Pac-Man and Bosconian were popular. By 1981, the arcade video game industry was worth $8 billion; some games of this era were so popular. The first to do so was Space Invaders; the game was so popular upon its release in 1978 that an urban legend blamed it for a national shortage of 100 yen coins in Japan, leading to a production increase of coins to meet demand for the game. Japanese arcade games during the golden age had hardware unit sales at least in the tens of thousands, including Ms. Pac-Man with over 115,000 units, Donkey Kong with over 60,000, Galaxian with 40,000, Donkey Kong Junior with 35,000, Mr.

Do! with 30,000, From 1980 to 1991, Nintendo produced a line of handheld electronic games called Game & Watch. Created by game designer Gunpei Yokoi, each Game & Watch features a single game to be played on an LCD screen, it was the earliest Nintendo product. Konami's Scramble, released in 1981, is a side-scrolling shooter with forced scrolling, it was the first scrolling shooter to offer distinct levels. Vertical scrolling shooters emerged around the same time. Namco's Xevious, released in 1982, is cited as the first vertical scrolling shooter and, although it was in fact preceded by several other games of that type, it is considered one of the most influential; the first platform game to use scrolling graphics was Jump Bug, a simple platform-shooter game developed by Alpha Denshi. The North American video game industry was

Estrone sulfotransferase

Estrone sulfotransferase known as estrogen sulfotransferase, is an enzyme that catalyzes the transformation of an unconjugated estrogen like estrone into a sulfated estrogen like estrone sulfate. It is a steroid sulfotransferase and belongs to the family of transferases, to be specific, the sulfotransferases, which transfer sulfur-containing groups; this enzyme participates in sulfur metabolism. Steroid sulfatase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reverse reaction, the transfer of a sulfate to an unconjugated estrogen. In enzymology, an EST is an enzyme that catalyzes the following chemical reaction: 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate + estrone ⇌ adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate + estrone 3-sulfateThus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and estrone, whereas its two products are adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate and estrone 3-sulfate; the enzyme catalyzes the same reaction for estradiol, with estradiol sulfate as the product. Two enzymes have been identified that together are thought to represent estrone sulfotransferase: SULT1A1 SULT1E1 As of late 2007, 5 structures have been solved for this class of enzymes, with PDB accession codes 1AQU, 1AQY, 1BO6, 1G3M, 1HY3.

The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:estrone 3-sulfotransferase. Other names in common use include 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate-estrone 3-sulfotransferase, estrogen sulfotransferase, estrogen sulphotransferase, oestrogen sulphotransferase, 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate:oestrone sulfotransferase. Steroidogenic enzyme

Stadtarchiv Stralsund

The Stadtarchiv Stralsund is the historical Archive of the Hanseatic City of Stralsund and an important municipal archive in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The Stadtarchiv Stralsund ranks among the important communal archives in Europe, as it covers the city's role in the Hanseatic League and the history of Swedish Pomerania; this municipal archive has been taking custody of records in Stralsund since the Middle Ages. The study facilities for the archives are in the Johanniskloster. Herbert Ewe. Schätze einer Ostseestadt. Herrmann Böhlaus Nachf. Weimar 1980 Herbert Ewe. Stralsunder Bilderhandschrift – Historische Ansichten vorpommerscher Städte. Hinstorff-Verlag, Rostock 1979 Herbert Ewe. Schätze einer Ostseestadt: 7 Jh. im Stralsunder Archiv, Böhlau, 1975 Stadtarchiv Stralsund www.stralsund.de

Thing (assembly)

A thing was a governing assembly in early Germanic society, made up of the free people of the community presided over by lawspeakers. The word appears in Old Norse, Old English, modern Icelandic as þing, in Middle English, Old Saxon, Old Dutch, Old Frisian as thing, in German and Dutch as Ding, in modern Norwegian, Swedish, Faroese and Norn as ting, all from a reconstructed Proto-Germanic neuter *þingą; the meeting-place of a thing was called a "thingstead" or "thingstow". The Anglo-Saxon folkmoot was analogous, the forerunner to the witenagemōt and a precursor of the modern Parliament of the United Kingdom. Today the term lives on in the English term hustings, in the official names of national legislatures and political and judicial institutions of Nordic countries and, in the Manx form tyn, as a term for the three legislative bodies on the Isle of Man; the Old Norse, Old Frisian, Old English þing with the meaning "assembly" is identical in origin to the English word thing, German Ding, Dutch ding, modern Scandinavian ting when meaning "object".

All of these terms derive from Proto-Germanic *þingą meaning "appointed time", some suggest an origin in Proto-Indo-European *ten-, "stretch", as in a "stretch of time for an assembly". The word shift in the meaning of the word thing from "assembly" to "object" is mirrored in the evolution of the Latin causa to modern French chose, Spanish/Italian/Catalan cosa, Portuguese coisa. A word with similar meaning, the cognate to English sake, sak in Norwegian and Swedish, sag in Danish, zaak in Dutch, saak in Afrikaans, Sache in German, still retains the meaning "affair, matter" alongside "thing, object". In English the term is attested from 685 to 686 CE in the older meaning "assembly"; the early sense of "meeting, assembly" did not survive the shift to Middle English. The meaning of personal possessions in the plural, first appears in Middle English around 1300. In the Viking Age, things were the public assemblies of the free men of a country, province, or a hundred, they functioned as both parliaments and courts at different levels of society—local and supra-regional.

Their purpose was to solve disputes and make political decisions, thing sites were often the place for public religious rites. According to Norway's Law of the Gulathing, only free men of full age could participate in the assembly. According to written sources, women were present at some things despite being left out of the decision making bodies, such as the Icelandic Althing. In the pre-Christian clan-culture of Scandinavia, the members of a clan were obliged to avenge injuries against their dead and mutilated relatives; as a result, feuding is seen as the most common form of conflict resolution used in Viking society. However, things are in a more general sense balancing structures used to reduce tribal feuds and avoid social disorder in North-Germanic cultures, they played an important role in Viking society as forums for conflict resolution, marriage alliances, power display and inheritance settlements. From Sweden and England, it is well known that assemblies were held both at natural and man-made mounds burial mounds.

In Scandinavia, unusually large rune-stones and inscriptions suggesting a local family's attempt to claim supremacy are common features of thing sites. It is common for assembly sites to be located close to communication routes, such as navigable water routes and clear land routes; the thing met at regular intervals, elected chieftains and kings, judged according to the law, memorized and recited by the "lawspeaker". The thing's negotiations were presided over by the chieftain or the king. More and more scholarly discussions center around the things being forerunners to democratic institutions as we know them today; the Icelandic Althing is considered to be the oldest surviving parliament in the world, the Norwegian Gulathing dating back to 900-1300 AD. While the things were not democratic assemblies in the modern sense of an elected body, they were built around ideas of neutrality and representation representing the interests of larger numbers of people. In Norway, the thing was a space where free men and elected officials met and discussed matters of collective interest, such as taxation.

Though some scholars say that the things were dominated by the most influential members of the community, the heads of clans and wealthy families, other scholars describe how every free man could put forward his case for deliberation and share his opinions. History professor Torgrim Titlestad describes how Norway, with the thing sites, displayed an advanced political system over a thousand years ago, one, characterized by high participation and democratic ideologies; these things served as courts of law, if one of the smaller things could not reach agreement, the matter at hand would be brought to one of the bigger things, which encompassed larger areas. The legislature of Norway is still known as the Storting today. Towards the end of the Viking age, royal power became centralized and the kings began to consolidate power a

Hayaghat (Vidhan Sabha constituency)

Hayaghat is an assembly constituency in Darbhanga district in the Indian state of Bihar. As per Delimitation of Parliamentary and Assembly constituencies Order, 2008, No. 84 Hayaghat is composed of the following: Hayaghat community development block. Hayaghat is part of No. 23 Samastipur. Contests in most years were multi cornered but only winners and runners are being mentioned. In the 2015 state assembly elections, Amarnath Gami of Janata dal United won the Hayaghat assembly seat defeating his nearest rival Ramesh Choudhary of LJP. In the 2010 state assembly elections, Amarnath Gami of BJP won the Hayaghat assembly seat defeating his nearest rival Dr. Shahnawaz Ahmad Kaifee of LJP. Hari Nandan Yadav of RJD defeated Uma Kant Chaudhary of JD in October 2005 and February 2005. Umadhar Prasad Singh, defeated Hari Nandan Yadav of RJD in 2000. Hari Nandan Yadav of JD defeated Umadhar Prasad Singh, Independent, in 1995. Kafil Ahmad of JD defeated Umadhar Prasad Singh representing CPI in 1990. Umadhar Prasad Singh, defeated Kafil Ahmad of LD in 1985.

Madan Mohan Chaudhary of Congress defeated Kafil Ahmad of Janata Party in 1980. Anirudh Prasad of JP defeated Kafil Ahmad, Independent, in 1977

Olav Torkelsson

Olav Torkelsson known as Olaf Thorkelsön, was the 31st and last Roman Catholic Bishop of Bergen, from 1523 to 1535, a member of the Riksråd. Olav Torkelsson belonged to a noble family that owned properties on the islands of Finnøy in Rogaland, he was mentioned for the first time in 1511, when he was a priest in Voss in Hordaland and a canon in Bergen, both in Bergenhus len. By 1519, he had gone to Bergen to be an archdeacon, he was still there three years in 1522, when the Bishop of Bergen, Andor Kentilsson, died. The Cathedral Chapter of Bergen asked the King of Denmark and Norway, Christian II, about his preferences for the successor, he replied that he would like to see the Dean of the Chapter, Hans Knudsson, chosen but he allowed the Cathedral Chapter to have the election itself. On 15 April 1523, the canons chose Olav Torkelsson as their next Bishop and he was appointed nine weeks on 1 July, by Pope Adrian VI. Archbishop of Nidaros, Olav Engelbrektsson consecrated Torkelsson as the Bishop of Bergen and the new Bishop automatically became a member of the Riksråd.

In the meantime, Christian II had fled from the two kingdoms. In the autumn of 1523, Olaf Torkelsson and the rikshovmester of Norway, Nils Henriksson of Austrått, answered the summons of the Bishop of Stavanger, Hoskuld Hoskuldsson, to attend the meeting in Bergen to deliver the support at the Bergenhus Fortress to Christian's uncle, the new King of Denmark. For their efforts, he appointed Torkelsson and Vincens Lunge to be advisers to the stattholders, as well as the Archbishop of Nidaros Olav Engelbrektsson, for Norway north of Lindesnes. On 5 August 1524, at the meeting of the Riksråd of Norway in Bergen, all the councilors, including Torkelsson, swore their allegiance to King Frederick, two days before his coronation in Copenhagen. To reward the Bishop, the new King added to the Diocese of Bergen the lands of Hardanger and Troms but, in 1528, the Diocese lost Troms and the parish of Gloppen. One of Olav's first acts as the Bishop was to strengthen the finances of his Cathedral Chapter. To do that, he bought the deanery, which paid the annual pension of the Dean, but it was a royal prelature.

So he got into a lengthy dispute with the King and it lasted until 1528, when the Deanery was returned to the King. Torkelsson's support of Frederick I did not keep him out of trouble; the outgoing Governor of the Bergenhus len, Jørgen Hansson, before he followed Christian II to exile in the Netherlands, counted the Bishop as one of the supporters of his King and called him "true and good". But that did not keep the Bishop from being kidnapped in 1525 by Christian II's men in Sandviken, Norway, he was released only after promising his fidelity to their King. That did not please the new Governor of the Bergenhus len, Vincens Lunge, the rikshovmester of Norway, he believed that the Bishop's loyalty was being questioned so he persuaded Olav to promise his allegiance to Frederick once more. Olav was so depressed by this whole experience that he was ready to resign and retire to a monastery, but he remained in Bergen. The relationship between Torkelsson and Lunge went from good to bad after 1526, when Lunge allowed the Lutherans to stay in Bergen.

They made it difficult for Olav to assert his authority over the whole city as its Bishop. The local clergy and monks were not any better; some of them were supporting the teachings of Martin Luther and a few more were making plans to marry. Lunge's personal chaplain, Soren Clemmentson, the latter's own assistants went to every tavern in Bergen with the announcement that the parishioners did not have to donate any more money to the cost of candles for the Mass in the Cathedral; the news pleased many of the people the merchants from the Hanseatic League, who were not pleased with the Bishop's obsession with the finances. They called him "Bishop Butter-barrel". Once in a while, they would march around his residence as they drummed on empty butter barrels and sang pasquinades. In 1527, Olav complained to a fellow bishop about the dissolute lives of the Dominican friars, spending their evenings everywhere but at their monastery, his relationship with Lunge went from bad to worse when Lunge demanded that the Bishop put his journeymen at the disposal of the King.

By the fight was out of the Bishop. He began to spend more time at his Ask estate near Askøy in Hordaland. King Frederick made the conditions in Bergen more difficult for Bishop Olav. In 1528, the King secularized the Nonneseter Monastery in Bergen and gave it to Lunge to be used as a private residence; the King gave letters of protection to two Lutheran preachers for them to start preaching in Bergen in 1529, inflaming the atmosphere so much that one of them had his house blown to the heavens. Bishop Torkelsson told Archbishop Olav Engelbrektsson that he had had to leave the town to avoid the harassment from Lunge and de sect lutheriana. At that time, Bergen was the home of about 3,000 of them were German, they were allowed to have their own church but the Lutherans took over three of the city's 26 churches for their own services. It was Eske Bille's turn. Having just succeeded Lunge as the Governor of the Bergenhus len and the rikshovmester, he wanted to expand and strengthen the defenses of his headquarters, the Bergenhus Fortress, but the Cathedral of Christ Church, the Royal Chapel of the Apostles, the Bishop's Palace, the Dominican convent and other ecclesiastical buildings were all sitting too close to the w