Video on demand is a video media distribution system that allows users to access video entertainment without a traditional video entertainment device and without the constraints of a typical static broadcasting schedule. In the 20th century, broadcasting in the form of over-the-air programming was the commonest form of media distribution; as Internet and IPTV technologies continued to develop in the 1990s, consumers began to gravitate towards non-traditional modes of content consumption, which culminated in the arrival of VOD on televisions and personal computers. Unlike broadcast television, VOD systems required each user to have an Internet connection with considerable bandwidth to access each system's content. In 2000, the Fraunhofer Institute IIS developed the JPEG2000 codec, which enabled the distribution of movies via Digital Cinema Packages; this technology has since expanded its services from feature-film production to include broadcast television and has resulted in lower bandwidth requirements for VOD applications.
Disney, Sony and Warner Bros. subsequently launched the Digital Cinema Initiative, in 2002. Television VOD systems can stream content, either through a traditional set-top box or through remote devices such as computers and smartphones. VOD users can permanently download content to a device such as a computer, digital video recorder or a portable media player for continued viewing; the majority of cable and telephone company-based television providers offer VOD streaming, whereby a user selects a video program that begins to play or downloading to a digital video recorder rented or purchased from the provider, or to a PC or to a portable device for delayed viewing. Internet television has emerged as an popular medium of VOD provision. Desktop client applications such as the Apple iTunes online content store and Smart TV apps such as Amazon Prime Video allow temporary rentals and purchases of video entertainment content. Other internet-based VOD systems provide users with access to bundles of video entertainment content rather than individual movies and shows.
The most common of these systems, Netflix and Disney+, use a subscription model that requires users to pay a monthly fee for access to bundle of movies, television shows, original series. In contrast, YouTube, another internet-based VOD system, uses an advertising-funded model in which users can access most of YouTube's video content free of charge but must pay a subscription fee for premium content; some airlines offer VOD services as in-flight entertainment to passengers through video screens embedded in seats or externally provided portable media players. Downloading and streaming VOD systems provide the user with all of the features of portable media players and DVD players; some VOD systems store and stream programs from hard disk drives and use a memory buffer to allow the user to fast forward and rewind videos. It is possible to put video servers on local area networks. Cable companies have rolled out their own versions of VOD services through apps, allowing television access wherever there is a device, internet capable.
Cable media companies have combined VOD with live streaming services. The recent launches of apps from cable companies are attempts to compete with Subscription Video on Demand services because they lack live news and sports content. Streaming video servers can serve a wide community via a WAN but responsiveness may be reduced. Download VOD services are practical in homes equipped with DSL connections. Servers for traditional cable and telco VOD services are placed at the cable head-end, serving a particular market and cable hubs in larger markets. In the telco world, they are placed in either the central office or a newly created location called a Video Head-End Office. VOD services first appeared in the early 1990s; until it was not thought possible that a television program could be squeezed into the limited telecommunication bandwidth of a copper telephone cable to provide a VOD service of acceptable quality as the required bandwidth of a digital television signal is around 200 Mbps, 2,000 times greater than the bandwidth of a speech signal over a copper telephone wire.
VOD services were only made possible as a result of two major technological developments. DCT is a lossy compression technique, first proposed by Nasir Ahmed in 1972, was adapted into a motion-compensated DCT algorithm for video coding standards such as the H.26x formats from 1988 onwards and the MPEG formats from 1991 onwards. Motion-compensated DCT video compression reduced the amount of bandwidth required for a television signal, while at the same time ADSL increased the bandwidth of data that could be sent over a copper telephone wire. ADSL increased the bandwidth of a telephone line from around 100 kbps to 2 Mbps, while DCT compression reduced the required bandwidth of a television signal from around 200 Mbps down to 2 Mpps; the combination of DCT and ADSL technologies made it possible to implement VOD services at around 2 Mbps bandwidth in the 1990s. A VOD service was proposed as early as 1986 in Japan, where there were plans to develop an "Integrated Network System" service, it was not possible, however, to implement such a VOD service until the adoption of DCT and ADSL technologies in the early 1990s.
The first VOD systems used tapes. GTE started as a trial in 1990 with AT&T providing all components. By 1992, VOD servers were supplying encoded digital video from disks and DRAM. In the US, the 1982 anti-trus
Rodrigo Germán Aliendro is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Argentine Primera División side Colón. Aliendro made his debut for Chacarita Juniors in a Copa Argentina tie against San Lorenzo on 15 March 2012, his league debut came in Primera B Nacional five days versus Instituto, another appearance came against Gimnasia in a season that ended in relegation for them. Thirteen appearances and one goal followed in three seasons in the Primera B Metropolitana, ten of those appearances were in Chacarita's promotion-winning campaign of 2014. In the second of those three seasons, Aliendro left to sign for Ituzaingó of Primera D Metropolitana on loan, he scored three goals in thirty-two games for Ituzaingó. In 2016, Aliendro joined Argentine Primera División side Atlético Tucumán on loan, he made his top-flight debut on 14 Boca Juniors. A few weeks previous, Aliendro made his continental debut in the 2017 Copa Libertadores against El Nacional. Atlético Tucumán signed Aliendro permanently on 6 July 2017.
In June 2019, it was confirmed. As of 24 May 2018. Rodrigo Aliendro at Soccerway
Ramatu Baba was a Ghanaian politician in the first republic. She was the first female district commissioner in Ghana and the only female to have been district commissioner for the Yendi district, she was the member of parliament for the Yendi constituency from 1965 to 1966. Ramatu Baba was the daughter of the chief butcher of Yendi, she was educated in Achimota School in Accra. She took up a job in the Social Welfare department at Tamale after school, she left civil service to work as a regional woman organizer for the United Ghana Farmers' Council, a group under the Convention People's Party. She spent 3 years touring the entire region and her job extended to teaching the male farmers as well as the female farmers, she was appointed District Commissioner for the Yendi district at the age of twenty-seven. She served Yendi as a District Commissioner until 1965 when she became the member of parliament for the Yendi constituency, she remained MP until February 1966. In 2003, she appeared before the National Reconciliation Commission requesting that her two houses and a car that were seized after the first republic government was overthrown be returned to her.
She explained that the Azu Crabbe commission had exonerated her however the military government went on to confiscate her assets. She further added that she sent a letter to the PNDC government about her plight and she was directed to the Confiscated Assets Committee; the head/chairperson of the commission Mrs. Betty Mould-Iddrisu helped her acquire her buildings in Tamale which were being occupied by others; the buildings were taken back as the residents of the building reported the case to the Confiscated Assets Committee. She had two sons. List of MPs elected in the 1965 Ghanaian parliamentary election