Renting known as hiring or letting, is an agreement where a payment is made for the temporary use of a good, service or property owned by another. A gross lease is when the tenant pays a flat rental amount and the landlord pays for all property charges incurred by the ownership. An example of renting is equipment rental. Renting can be an example of the sharing economy. There are many possible reasons for renting instead of buying, for example: In many jurisdictions rent paid in a trade or business is tax deductible, whereas rent on a dwelling is not tax deductible in most jurisdictions. Financial inadequacy, such as renting a house when one is unable to purchase, i.e "renting by necessity". Reducing financial risk due to depreciation and transaction costs for real estate which might be needed only for a short amount of time; when something is needed only temporarily, as in the case of a special tool, a truck or a skip. When something is needed that may or may not be owned but is not in proximity for use, such as renting an automobile or bicycle when away on a trip.
Needing a cheaper alternative to buying, such as renting a movie: a person is unwilling to pay the full price for a movie, so they rent it for a lesser price, but give up the chance to view it again later. The tenant may want to leave the burden of upkeep of the property to his agents. There is no need to worry about maintenance. Renting keeps off-balance-sheet the debt that would burden the balance sheet of a company in case the property would have been bought. Renting is good for the environment if products are used more efficiently by maximizing utility rather than being disposed and under utilized. Short-term rental of all sorts of products represents an estimated €108 billion annual market in Europe and is expected to grow further as the internet makes it easier to find specific items available for rent. According to a poll by YouGov, 76% of people looking to rent would go to the internet first to find what they need, it has been reported that the financial crisis of 2007–2010 may have contributed to the rapid growth of online rental marketplaces, such as erento, as consumers are more to consider renting instead of buying in times of financial hardship.
Environmental concerns, fast depreciation of goods, a more transient workforce mean that consumers are searching for rentals online. A 2010 US survey found. Net income received, or losses suffered, by an investor from renting of one or two properties is subject to idiosyncratic risk due to the numerous things that can happen to real property and variable behavior of tenants. There is an implied, explicit, or written rental agreement or contract involved to specify the terms of the rental, which are regulated and managed under contract law. Examples include letting out real estate for the purpose of housing tenure, parking space for a vehicle, storage space, whole or portions of properties for business, institutional, or government use, or other reasons; when renting real estate, the person or party who lives in or occupies the real estate is called a tenant, paying rent to the owner of the property called a landlord. The real estate rented may be all or part of any real estate, such as an apartment, building, business office or suite, farm, or an inside or outside space to park a vehicle, or store things all under Real estate law.
The tenancy agreement for real estate is called a lease, involves specific property rights in real property, as opposed to chattels. In India, the rental income on property is taxed under the head "income from house property". A deduction of 30% is allowed from total rent, charged to tax; the time use of a chattel or other so called "personal property" is covered under general contract law, but the term lease nowadays extends to long term rental contracts of more expensive non-Real properties such as automobiles, planes, office equipment and so forth. The distinction in that case is long term versus short term rentals; some non-real properties available for rent or lease are: motion pictures on VHS or DVD, of audio CDs, of computer programs on CD-ROM. Transport equipment, such as an automobile or a bicycle. Ships and boats, in which case rental is known as chartering, the rent is known as hire or freight aircraft, in which case rental is known as chartering, or leasing if the rental is longer term specialized tools, such as a chainsaw, laptop, IT equipment or something more substantial, such as a forklift.
Large equipment such as cranes, oil rigs and submarines. A deckchair or beach chair and umbrella. Furniture items such as Wooden Cot, iron cot, coffee Table, dining table, Mattress. Designer handbags, jewelry and watches. Home Appliances items such as washing machines, Television, Microwave oven, Air-Conditioners In various degrees, renting can involve buying services for various amounts of time, such as staying in a hotel, using a computer in an Internet cafe, or riding in a taxicab; as seen from the examples, some rented goods are used on the spot, but they are taken along.
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, playback and display of moving visual media. Video was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were replaced by cathode ray tube systems which were replaced by flat panel displays of several types. Video systems vary in display resolution, aspect ratio, refresh rate, color capabilities and other qualities. Analog and digital variants exist and can be carried on a variety of media, including radio broadcast, magnetic tape, optical discs, computer files, network streaming. Video technology was first developed for mechanical television systems, which were replaced by cathode ray tube television systems, but several new technologies for video display devices have since been invented. Video was exclusively a live technology. Charles Ginsburg led an Ampex research team developing one of the first practical video tape recorder. In 1951 the first video tape recorder captured live images from television cameras by converting the camera's electrical impulses and saving the information onto magnetic video tape.
Video recorders were sold for US $50,000 in 1956, videotapes cost US $300 per one-hour reel. However, prices dropped over the years; the use of digital techniques in video created digital video, which allows higher quality and much lower cost than earlier analog technology. After the invention of the DVD in 1997 and Blu-ray Disc in 2006, sales of videotape and recording equipment plummeted. Advances in computer technology allows inexpensive personal computers and smartphones to capture, store and transmit digital video, further reducing the cost of video production, allowing program-makers and broadcasters to move to tapeless production; the advent of digital broadcasting and the subsequent digital television transition is in the process of relegating analog video to the status of a legacy technology in most parts of the world. As of 2015, with the increasing use of high-resolution video cameras with improved dynamic range and color gamuts, high-dynamic-range digital intermediate data formats with improved color depth, modern digital video technology is converging with digital film technology.
Frame rate, the number of still pictures per unit of time of video, ranges from six or eight frames per second for old mechanical cameras to 120 or more frames per second for new professional cameras. PAL standards and SECAM specify 25 frame/s. Film is shot at the slower frame rate of 24 frames per second, which complicates the process of transferring a cinematic motion picture to video; the minimum frame rate to achieve a comfortable illusion of a moving image is about sixteen frames per second. Video can be progressive. In progressive scan systems, each refresh period updates all scan lines in each frame in sequence; when displaying a natively progressive broadcast or recorded signal, the result is optimum spatial resolution of both the stationary and moving parts of the image. Interlacing was invented as a way to reduce flicker in early mechanical and CRT video displays without increasing the number of complete frames per second. Interlacing retains detail while requiring lower bandwidth compared to progressive scanning.
In interlaced video, the horizontal scan lines of each complete frame are treated as if numbered consecutively, captured as two fields: an odd field consisting of the odd-numbered lines and an field consisting of the even-numbered lines. Analog display devices reproduce each frame doubling the frame rate as far as perceptible overall flicker is concerned; when the image capture device acquires the fields one at a time, rather than dividing up a complete frame after it is captured, the frame rate for motion is doubled as well, resulting in smoother, more lifelike reproduction of moving parts of the image when viewed on an interlaced CRT display. NTSC, PAL and SECAM are interlaced formats. Abbreviated video resolution specifications include an i to indicate interlacing. For example, PAL video format is described as 576i50, where 576 indicates the total number of horizontal scan lines, i indicates interlacing, 50 indicates 50 fields per second; when displaying a natively interlaced signal on a progressive scan device, overall spatial resolution is degraded by simple line doubling—artifacts such as flickering or "comb" effects in moving parts of the image which appear unless special signal processing eliminates them.
A procedure known as deinterlacing can optimize the display of an interlaced video signal from an analog, DVD or satellite source on a progressive scan device such as an LCD television, digital video projector or plasma panel. Deinterlacing cannot, produce video quality, equivalent to true progressive scan source material. Aspect ratio describes the proportional relationship between the width and height of video screens and video picture elements. All popular video formats are rectangular, so can be described by a ratio between width and height; the ratio width to height for a traditional television screen is 4:3, or about 1.33:1. High definition televisions use an aspect ratio of 16:9, or about 1.78:1. The aspect ratio of a full 35 mm film frame with soundtrack is 1.375:1. Pixels on computer monitors are square, but pixels used in digital video have non-square aspect ratios, such as those used in the PAL and NTSC variants of the CCIR 601 digital video
High Street is a metonym for the concept of the primary business street of towns or cities in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations. To distinguish it from "centres" of nearby places it is preceded unofficially by the name of its settlement. In a town it implies the focal point for business shops and street stalls in town and city centres; as a generic shorthand presupposed upon linear settlements it may be used to denote more precise concepts such as the urban retail sector, town centre sectors of employment, all small shops and services outlets and wider concepts taking in social concepts. The number of High Streets reached a peak in Victorian England. Since the 20th-century, the prosperity of High Streets has been in decline, forcing many shop closures and prompting the UK Government to consider initiatives to reinvigorate and preserve the High Street. High Street is the most common street name in the UK, which according to a 2009 statistical compilation has 5,410 High Streets, 3,811 Station Roads and 2,702 Main Streets.
The smallest High Street in Britain is located in the small market town of Holsworthy in Devon. The street itself consists of only three shops. In Middle English the word "high" denoted a meaning of excellence or superior rank. "High" applied to roads as they improved: "highway" was a new term taken up by the church and their vestries to during the 17th century as a term for all public roads between settlements. From the 19th-century, which saw a proliferation in the number of public roads, in countries using the term motorway, the term highway fell out of common speech and was supplanted by the legal definition, denoting any public road, as in the Highway Code, thus the term "High Street" assumed a different meaning. In Britain, the term, ` High Street', has both a specific meaning. People refer to shopping on the high street when they mean the main retail precinct, but refer to shopping on the High Street when they mean a specific street carrying the name of High Street or one of its variants.
Many British colonies, including Canada and New Zealand, adopted the term to refer to the main retail shopping precinct in a given city or town. In Britain, some 3,000 streets called "High Street" and about 2,300 streets with variations on the name have been identified, giving a grand total of 5,300. Of these, more than 600 High Streets are located in London's boroughs. Following the Great Fire of London, the city of London was rebuilt. New planning laws, governing rebuilding, designated four types of street based on the size of their carriageways and the types of buildings. Shops were permitted in the principal street or'high street', but not in the by-lanes or back streets; this may have been based on the need for high visibility in order to regulate retail trade, as well as to avoid congestion in the narrow lanes and back streets. Accordingly, from the 17th-century, the term "High Street" assumed a narrower meaning and came to describe thoroughfares with significant retail in large villages and towns.
In the late 17th and 18th-centuries, the number of High Streets increased markedly. The 19th-century was a "golden era" for High Street shops; the rise of the middle class in Victorian England contributed to a more favourable attitude to shopping and consumption. Shopping centres became the places to see and be seen - places for recreational shopping and promenading. By the 20th century, the viability of high streets began to decline. In the second half of the 20th-century, traditional British High Street precincts came under pressure from out-of-town shopping malls, with the balance shifting towards the latter. In the late 20th-century and mortar retailers confronted another major threat - from online retailers operating in a global marketplace. To confront this threat, High Street precincts have been forced to evolve - some have become smaller as shops shut their doors, others have become more like social spaces with a concentration of retail services including cafes and entertainment venues while yet others have positioned themselves as more up-market shopping precincts with a preponderance of stores selling luxury branded goods.
In the United Kingdom geographic concentration of goods and services has reduced the share of the economy contributed to by workers in the high street. High street refers to only a part of commerce; the town centre in many British towns combines a group of outdoor shopping streets, with an adjacent indoor shopping centre. High Streets through the centuries Initiatives to preserve the traditional British High Street are evident. Research into the customer's shopping preferences and patterns reveals that the continued vitality of towns is predicated on a number of different variables. Research has highlighted the ongoing challenges faced by towns and cities and suggested that "he town centre serves not only social, utilitarian or hedonic shopping purposes but supports out-of-hours entertainment and leisure services; the way that consumers perceive and use town centres has fundamentally changed." In order to address the issues threatening the sustainability of towns it is important to consider consumer behaviour and customer experience.
This is in line with research that proposes that for high street retail to thriv
Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming and financial services; the company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets, a leading player in the film and television entertainment industry. Sony was ranked 97th on the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, engaged in business through its four operating components: electronics, motion pictures and financial services; these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures, Sony Mobile, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Sony Financial Holdings, others.
Sony is among the semiconductor sales leaders and since 2015, the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, TCL and Hisense. The company's current slogan is Be Moved, their former slogans were The One and Only, It's like.no.other and make.believe. Sony has a weak tie to the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group corporate group, the successor to the Mitsui group. Sony began in the wake of World War II. In 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo; the company started with a total of eight employees. In May 1946, Ibuka was joined by Akio Morita to establish a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo; the company built Japan's first tape recorder, called the Type-G. In 1958, the company changed its name to "Sony"; when Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves, they considered using their initials, TTK. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TTK.
The company used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name, tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Akio Morita discovered that there was an American company using Teletech as a brand name; the name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words: one was the Latin word "sonus", the root of sonic and sound, the other was "sonny", a common slang term used in 1950s America to call a young boy. In 1950s Japan, "sonny boys" was a loan word in Japanese, which connoted smart and presentable young men, which Sony founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka considered themselves to be; the first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name did not change to Sony until January 1958. At the time of the change, it was unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji; the move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, had strong feelings about the name.
They pushed for a name such as Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however. Both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval. According to Schiffer, Sony's TR-63 radio "cracked open the U. S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid-1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5 million units by the end of 1968. Sony co-founder Akio Morita founded Sony Corporation of America in 1960. In the process, he was struck by the mobility of employees between American companies, unheard of in Japan at that time; when he returned to Japan, he encouraged experienced, middle-aged employees of other companies to reevaluate their careers and consider joining Sony. The company filled many positions in this manner, inspired other Japanese companies to do the same. Moreover, Sony played a major role in the development of Japan as a powerful exporter during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.
It helped to improve American perceptions of "made in Japan" products. Known for its production quality, Sony was able to charge above-market prices for its consumer electronics and resisted lowering prices. In 1971, Masaru Ibuka handed the position of president over to his co-founder Akio Morita. Sony began a life insurance company in one of its many peripheral businesses. Amid a global recession in the early 1980s, electronics sales dropped and the company was forced to cut prices. Sony's profits fell sharply. "It's over for Sony," one analyst concluded. "The company's best days are behind it." Around that time, Norio Ohga took up the role of president. He encouraged the development of the Compact Disc in the 1970s and 1980s, of the PlayStation in the early 1990s. Ohga went on to purchase CBS Records in 1988 and Columbia Pictures in 1989 expanding Sony's media presence. Ohga would succeed Morita as chief executive officer in 1989. Under the vision of co-founder Akio Morita and his successors, the company had aggressively expanded in
In economics, a luxury good is a good for which demand increases more than proportionally as income rises, so that expenditures on the good become a greater proportion of overall spending. Luxury goods are in contrast to necessity goods, where demand increases proportionally less than income. Luxury goods is used synonymously with superior goods and Veblen goods; the word "luxury" originated from the Latin word “Luxus,” which means indulgence of the senses, regardless of cost. Luxury goods have high income elasticity of demand: as people become wealthier, they will buy proportionately more luxury goods; this means, that should there be a decline in income its demand will drop more than proportionately. Income elasticity of demand is not constant with respect to income, may change sign at different levels of income; that is to say, a luxury good may become a necessity good or an inferior good at different income levels. Some luxury products have been claimed to be examples of Veblen goods, with a positive price elasticity of demand: for example, making a perfume more expensive can increase its perceived value as a luxury good to such an extent that sales can go up, rather than down.
Although the technical term luxury good is independent of the goods' quality, they are considered to be goods at the highest end of the market in terms of quality and price. Classic luxury goods include haute couture clothing and luggage. Many markets have a luxury segment including, for example, yacht, bottled water, tea, watches, clothes and high fidelity. Luxuries may be services; the hiring of full-time or live-in domestic servants is a luxury reflecting disparities of income. Some financial services in some brokerage houses, can be considered luxury services by default because persons in lower-income brackets do not use them. Luxury goods have special luxury packaging to differentiate the products from mainstream competitors; the three dominant trends are the main factors that have accelerated the rapid growth of the industry, including the customer base and variations in the consumptions of different brands. The three dominant trends in the global luxury goods market are globalization and diversification.
Consolidation involves the growth of big companies and ownership of brands across many segments of luxury products. Examples include LVMH, Kering, which dominate the market in areas ranging from luxury drinks to fashion and cosmetics. Global consumer companies, such as Procter & Gamble, are attracted to the industry, due to the difficulty of making a profit in the mass consumer goods market; the customer base for various luxury goods continue to be more culturally diversified, this presents more unseen challenges and new opportunities to companies in this industry. The luxury goods market has been on an upward climb for many years. Apart from the setback caused by the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis, the industry has performed well in 2000. In that year, the world luxury goods market – which includes drinks, cosmetics, watches, luggage, handbags – was worth close to $170 billion and grew 7.9 percent. The United States has been the largest regional market for luxury goods and is estimated to continue to be the leading personal luxury goods market in 2013, with a value of 62.5 billion euros.
The largest sector in this category was luxury drinks, including premium whisky, Cognac. This sector was the only one; the watches and jewelry section showed the strongest performance, growing in value by 23.3 percent, while the clothing and accessories section grew 11.6 percent between 1996 and 2000, to $32.8 billion. North America is the largest regional market for luxury goods; the largest ten markets for luxury goods account for 83 percent of overall sales, include Japan, United States, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Brazil and Switzerland. In 2012, China surpassed Japan as the world's largest luxury market. China's luxury consumption accounts for over 25% of the global market; the Economist Intelligence Unit published a report on the outlook for luxury goods in Asia which explores the trends and forecasts for the luxury goods market across key markets in Asia. In 2014, the luxury sector is expected to grow over the next 10 years because of 440 million consumers spending a total of 880 billion euros, or $1.2 trillion.
Though verging on the meaningless in modern marketing, "luxury" remains a legitimate and current technical term in art history for objects that are highly decorated to high standards and use expensive materials. The term is used for medieval manuscripts to distinguish between practical working books for normal use, illuminated manuscripts, that were bound in treasure bindings with metalwork and jewels; these are much larger, with less text on each page and many illustrations, if liturgical texts were usually kept on the altar or sacristy rather any library that the church or monastery who owned them may have had. Secular luxury manuscripts were commissioned by the wealthy and differed in the same ways from cheaper books."Luxury" may be used for other applied arts where both utilitarian and luxury versions of the same types of objects were made. This might cover metalwork, glass and armour, a wide range of objects, it is much less used for objects with no function beyond being an artwork: paintings and sculpture though the disparity in cost between an expensive and cheap work may have been as large.
With increasing "democratization" of luxury goods, new product categories have be
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves; the offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, otherwise they turn over the football to the defense. Points are scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal; the team with the most points at the end of a game wins. American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football; the first match of American football was played on November 6, 1869, between two college teams and Princeton, under rules based on the association football rules of the time.
During the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. A set of rule changes drawn up from 1880 onward by Walter Camp, the "Father of American Football", established the snap, the line of scrimmage, eleven-player teams, the concept of downs; the sport is related to Canadian football, which evolved parallel and contemporary to the American game, most of the features that distinguish American football from rugby and soccer are present in Canadian football. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States; the most popular forms of the game are professional and college football, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually all of them men, with a few exceptions. The National Football League, the most popular American football league, has the highest average attendance of any professional sports league in the world.
In the United States, American Football is called "football". The terms "gridiron" or "American football" are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia. American football evolved from the sports of rugby football. Rugby football, like American football, is a sport where two competing teams vie for control of a ball, which can be kicked through a set of goalposts or run into the opponent's goal area to score points. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6, 1869, between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams; the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, head or sides, with the ultimate goal being to advance it into the opponent's goal. Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for several years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school.
Representatives of Yale, Columbia and Rutgers met on October 19, 1873 to create a standard set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified. Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. After playing McGill University using both Canadian and American rules, the Harvard players preferred the Canadian style having only 11 men on the field, running the ball without having to be chased by an opponent, the forward pass and using an oblong instead of a round ball. An 1875 Harvard–Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes; these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to "selling refrigerators to Eskimos." Princeton, Harvard and Columbia agreed to intercollegiate play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879.
Yale player Walter Camp, now regarded as the "Father of American Football", secured rule changes in 1880 that reduced the size of each team from 15 to 11 players and instituted the snap to replace the chaotic and inconsistent scrum. The introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt. However, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records; each team held the ball. This "block game" proved unpopular with the spectators and fans of both teams. A rule change was necessary to prevent this strategy from taking hold, a reversion to the scrum was considered. However, Camp proposed a rule in 1882 that limited each team to three downs, or tackles, to adva
Video Cassette Recording
Video Cassette Recording is an early domestic analog recording format designed by Philips. It was the first successful consumer-level home videocassette recorder system. Variants included the VCR-LP and Super Video formats; the VCR format was introduced in 1972, just after the Sony U-matic format in 1971. Although at first glance the two might appear to have been competing formats, they were aimed at different markets. After failing as a consumer format, U-matic was marketed as a professional television production format, whilst VCR was targeted at educational but domestic users. Unlike some other early formats such as Cartrivision, the VCR format does record a high-quality video signal without resorting to Skip field. Home video systems had been available, but they were open-reel systems and were expensive to both buy and operate, they were unreliable and only recorded in black and white such as the EIAJ-1. The VCR system was easy to use and recorded in colour but was still expensive: when it was introduced in 1972 the N1500 recorder cost nearly £600.
By comparison, a small car could be purchased for just over £600. The VCR format used large square cassettes with 2 co-axial reels, one on top of the other, containing half inch wide chrome dioxide magnetic tape. Three playing times were available: 30, 45 and 60 minutes; the 60-minute videocassettes proved unreliable, suffering numerous snags and breakages due to the thin 17μm video tape. Tapes of 45 minutes or less contained 20 μm thickness tape; the mechanically complicated recorders themselves proved somewhat unreliable. One common failing occurred should tape slack develop within the cassette; the cassette would completely jam and require dismantling to clear the problem, the tape would be creased and damaged. The system predated the development of the slant azimuth technique to prevent crosstalk between adjacent video tracks, so it had to use an unrecorded guard band between tracks; this required the system to run at a high tape speed of 11.26 inches per second. The Philips VCR system was groundbreaking and brought together many advances in video recording technology to produce the first practical home video cassette system.
The first Philips N1500 model included all the essential elements of a domestic video cassette recorder: Simple loading of cassette and simple operation by "Piano Key" controls, with full auto-stop at tape ends. A tuner for recording off-air television programmes. A clock with timer for unattended recordings. A modulator to allow connection to a normal television receiver without audio and video input connectors; the Philips VCR system was only marketed in the U. K. mainland Europe and South Africa. In mid-1977, Philips announced they were considering distribution of the format in North America, it was test marketed for several months; because the format was designed only for use with the 625-line 50 Hz PAL system, VCR units had to be modified in order to work with the 60 Hz NTSC system. For mechanical and electronic reasons, the tape speed had to be increased by 20%, which resulted in a 60-minute PAL tape running for 50 minutes in a NTSC machine. DuPont announced a thinner videotape formulation that would allow a 60-minute NTSC VCR tape, but the tape was less reliable than previous formulations.
Philips abandoned any hope of trying to sell their VCR format in North America because of the reliability issues, because of the introduction of VHS that same year. VCR evolved into a related format known as VCR-LP; this exploited slant azimuth to increase the recording time. Although both formats used identical VCR cassettes, the recordings were incompatible between the two systems, few if any dual-format recorders existed. Philips N1700, released in 1977, supported the VCR-LP format. A even longer-playing variant, Super Video was manufactured by Grundig exclusively. SVR was designed to use BASF- and Agfa-manufactured chrome-dioxide tape in cassettes that were identical to the earlier Philips ones, with the exception of a small actuator added to the bottom of the cassette; this meant that only the BASF/Agfa tapes would work in SVR machines, but that such tapes could be used in the older VCR and VCR-LP machines. Just as VCR-LP recordings are incompatible with VCR, so SVR recordings are incompatible with both VCR and VCR-LP.
The only model to be built was the Grundig SVR4004, with a few detail variations such as optional audio/video connectors, plus a rebadged ITT 240. This chart provides an overview of playing times for the most common cassettes released for standard VCR, VCR-LP and SVR. VC cassettes were developed for standard VCR. LVC cassettes are physically identical to VC cassettes. SVC cassettes were developed for SVR. *) LVC 180 was not recommended for use in a standard VCR machine due to a thin tape base.**) VC and LVC cassettes do not work in a SVR machine. However, SVC cassettes may be used in VCR-LP machines; the First Philips machine was model number N1500, after which the format is known. This had "first generation" mechanics including magnetic braking servo systems applied to large mains voltage induction motors; the outer edge of the cabinet was wooden. The power cable was detachable, but used an obscure connector for which replacements are not available; the N1520 was a N1500 without TV tune