Vidyasagar Setu

Vidyasagar Setu known as the Second Hooghly Bridge, is a toll bridge over the Hooghly River in West Bengal, linking the cities of Kolkata and Howrah. With a total length of 823 metres, Vidyasagar Setu is the longest cable–stayed bridge in India, as 3rd Narmada Bridge in Gujarat is an extradosed bridge, it was the second bridge to be built across the Hooghly River. Named after the educationist reformer Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, it cost ₹3.88 billion to build. The project was a joint effort between the public and private sectors, under the control of the Hooghly River Bridge Commissioners Initially, under the toll collection regime of the HRBC, daily traffic was recorded to be a minimum of 28,000 vehicles and a maximum of 39,000 vehicles in 2000, but fell to a maximum of around 30,000 vehicles by December 2002, when the management of the toll plaza was handed over to a private firm. Subsequently, the daily traffic reached a minimum of 45,000 vehicles and a maximum of 61,000 vehicles by early 2008, against a maximum capacity of 85,000 vehicles per day.

The original management of the toll revenue collection by HRBC was criticized for corruption and significant loss of revenue. Population and commercial activity grew after India gained independence in August 1947; the only link across the Hooghly River, the Howrah Bridge, between Howrah and Kolkata, was subject to much traffic congestion, with over 85,000 vehicles every day. This necessitated planning for a new bridge across the river so that it could connect to the major cities of Mumbai and Chennai through the national highways located close to the bridge; the foundation stone for the bridge was laid by Indira Gandhi on 20 May 1972. The bridge took more than 22 years to complete and cost Indian Rupees 3.88 billion, but in seven of those years there was no construction activity. The bridge is named after the 19th-century Bengali educationist reformer Pandit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar. Work on the cable-stayed bridge started with the construction of the well curb on the Calcutta bank end on 3 July 1979.

There are three other bridges on the Hooghly River connecting Kolkata with Howrah district: Vivekananda Setu built in 1932, – the first to be commissioned, which had become old and needed repairs. Kona Expressway and Vidyasagar Setu experienced an exponential rise in the volume of traffic over a couple of years. Over 100,000 vehicles take the expressway to reach Calcutta via Vidyasagar Setu; the bridge was designed by Schlaich Bergermann & Partner, checked by Freeman Fox & Partners and Bharat Bhari Udyog Nigam Limited. Construction was carried out by the consortium of "The Braithwaite Burn and Jessop Construction Company Limited"; the Hooghly River Bridge Commission was responsible for the commissioning operations of the bridge. Construction began on 3 July 1979, the bridge was commissioned on 10 October 1992 by the Hooghly River Bridge Commission. Vidyasagar Setu is a cable-stayed bridge, with 121 cables in a fan arrangement, built using steel pylons 127.62 metres high. With a total length of 823 metres, Vidyasagar Setu is the longest cable–stayed bridge in India.

As the 3rd Narmada Bridge in Gujarat. is an Extradosed bridge. The deck is made of composite steel-reinforced concrete with two carriageways; the total width of the bridge is 35 metres, with 3 lanes in each direction and a 1.2 metres -wide footpath on each side. The deck over the main span is 457.20 metres long. The two side spans are 182.88 metres long. Vidyasagar Setu is a toll bridge, it has capacity to handle more than 85,000 vehicles in a day. The design of the bridge differs from other bridges, which are of live load composite construction; the difference is in the dead load design concept adopted for this bridge and concreting of the side spans done with support provided by the intermediate trestle. The deck is designed with a grid structure of girders. One set of girders are at the end and another set in the middle, which are braced by girders spaced on an average at 4.2 metres centre to centre. A deck crane was used for the construction of the main span of the bridge. A specially designed crane of 45 tonne capacity was used to erect the pylons of the bridge.

The structural steel used in the bridge weighs about 13,200 tonnes. The pylons, which are 128 metres in height, are designed as free standing portals, they are provided with two cross portal members, one at the bottom and another at the top, below the pylon head. The deck is connected to the end piers by bolts embedded in the chambers of the piers. Pylons made of 4 m × 4 m steel boxes of riveted construction were raised on the two side spans of the bridge; the six pylons on the Calcutta side of the bridge were installed using 75 MT and 50 MT cranes, while on the Howrah end, a single 50 MT crane was used. Anchorage of the pylon with the base of piers was effected through Dywidag rods, duly anchored in the piers. Cables were erected from the four pylon heads with the help of 32 MT hoist frames; the hoist frames were mounted on top of each pylon. Shea

Aristotelian theology

Aristotelian theology and the scholastic view of God have been influential in Western intellectual history. In his first philosophy called the Metaphysics, Aristotle discusses the meaning of being as being, he refers to the unmoved movers, assigns one to each movement in the heavens and tasks future astronomers with correlating the estimated 47 to 55 motions of the Eudoxan planetary model with the most current and accurate observations. According to Aristotle, each unmoved mover continuously contemplates its own contemplation, thus captivated, their tireless performance is the result of their own desire. This is one way, they must have no sensory perception whatsoever on account of Aristotle's theory of cognition: were any form of sense perception to intrude upon their thoughts, in that instant they would cease to be themselves, because actual self-reflection is their singular essence, their whole being. Like the heavenly bodies in their unadorned pursuit, so the wise look, with affection, toward the star.

In the Metaphysics, Aristotle discusses potentiality. The former is perfection, fullness of being; the former is the latter the determinable principle. The unmoved movers are actual, Actus Purus, because they are unchanging, immaterial substance. All material beings have some potentiality; the Physics introduces matter and form and the four causes—material, formal and final. For example, to explain a statue, one can offer: The material cause, that out of which the statue is made, is the marble or bronze; the formal cause, that according to which the statue is made, is the shape that the sculptor has learned to sculpt. The efficient cause, or agent, is the sculptor; the final cause, is that for the statue. Contrary to the so-called "traditional" view of prime matter, Aristotle asserts that there can be no pure potentiality without any actuality whatsoever. All material substances have unactualized potentials. Aristotle argues that, although motion is eternal, there cannot be an infinite series of movers and of things moved.

Therefore, there must be some, who are not the first in such a series, that inspire the eternal motion without themselves being moved "as the soul is moved by beauty". Because the planetary spheres each move unfalteringly for all eternity in uniform circular motion with a given rotational period relative to the supreme diurnal motion of the sphere of fixed stars, they must each love and desire to mimic different unmoved movers corresponding to the given periods; because they eternally inspire uniform motion in the celestial spheres, the unmoved movers must themselves be eternal and unchanging. Because they are eternal, they have had an infinite amount of time in which to actualize any potentialities and therefore cannot be a composition of matter and form, or potentiality and actuality, they must always be actual, thus immaterial, because at all times in history they have existed an infinite amount of time, things that do not come to fruition given unlimited opportunities to do so cannot do so.

The life of the unmoved mover is self-contemplative thought. According to Aristotle, the gods cannot be distracted from this eternal self-contemplation because, in that instant, they would cease to exist. John Burnet noted The Neoplatonists were quite justified in regarding themselves as the spiritual heirs of Pythagoras, and this tendency was at work all along. Aristotle might seem to be an exception. In days, Apollonios of Tyana showed in practice what this sort of thing must lead to; the theurgy and thaumaturgy of the late Greek schools were only the fruit of the seed sown by the generation which preceded the Persian War. Aristotle's principles of being influenced Anselm's view of God, whom he called "that than which nothing greater can be conceived." Anselm thought that God did not feel emotions such as anger or love, but appeared to do so through our imperfect understanding. The incongruity of judging "being" against something that might not exist, may have led Anselm to his famous ontological argument for God's existence.

Many medieval philosophers made use of the idea of approaching a knowledge of God through negative attributes. For example, we should not say that God exists in the usual sense of the term, all we can safely say is that God is not nonexistent. We should not say that God is wise. We should not say that God is One, but we can stat

Sun Ship (building)

The Sun Ship is a large integrated office/retail building designed by architect Rolf Disch and located in Freiburg directly next to the Solar Settlement by the same designer. It uses 60,000 sq. ft. for retail and residential space. As a whole this building produces more energy than it consumes per year and utilizes the most up-to-date building technology; some aspects that make this building particular are its vacuum insulated walls, ventilation with 95% heat recovery, triple paned windows and its energy façade. It is the first positive energy office building worldwide; the office spaces are flanked on both the East and West sides with windows, which maximizes natural lighting and employee views while it minimizes the energy used for artificial lighting. The Sun Ship includes a supermarket, convenience store and bakery-café on the first floor and work spaces on the 2-4 floors and 9 penthouses on its roof. In addition to the office and retail space, there are two conference rooms. PlusEnergy is a term coined by Rolf Disch that indicates a structure’s extreme energy efficiency so that it holds a positive energy balance producing more energy than it uses.

With the completion of his private residence, the Heliotrope, in 1994, Disch had created the first PlusEnergy house. His next goal in its development was thus the mass application of the concept to residential and retail space; as the concept further developed and gained financial backing as well, Disch built several more projects with PlusEnergy certifications. “PlusEnergy is a fundamental environmental imperative,” Disch claims. Disch believes that passive building is not enough because passive homes still emit CO2 into the atmosphere. Believing community planning goes hand in hand with sustainable development, Disch dedicates much of his design and planning to the symbiosis of his projects' surroundings. A solar community generates an enormous public image. Disch says he attracts great tenants, innovative undertakings and creative work places through his design. Disch always aims to create a community with combined uses for an ecological urban planning concept like traffic management – with wide, attractive walkways, bike routes and connections to public transportation.

At the Solar Settlement for example and owners incorporate bike- and carsharing and the neighborhood has an extensive car-free zone with many public transportation connections. Disch has incorporated community solutions for energy. For example, a biomass co-generation unit is expedient, which meets the additional heating demands for his PlusEnergy homes. 2008 German Sustainability Award2007-08 Japanese PEN-Magazine Creativity Award2006 Germany's most beautiful housing community2005 Wuppertal Energy and Environment Prize2003 Global Energy Award2002 European Solar Prize Solar Settlement and Sun Ship Video Rolf Disch Solar Architecture PlusEnergy Solar Settlement and Sun Ship Video Official website of the Heliotrop brief description with pictures Article in Chinese with some pictures of the house