United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
Cheviot Hills, Los Angeles
Cheviot Hills is a neighborhood of single-family homes on the Westside of the city of Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1924, the neighborhood has been the filming location of countless movies and television shows due to its convenient location between Fox Studios and Sony Studios; the neighborhood has long been home to many actors, television personalities, studio executives. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, Cheviot Hills' street and other borders are Rancho Park Golf Course and Hillcrest Country Club to the northwest. Using these boundaries, Cheviot Hills is flanked on the north by West Los Angeles and Century City, on the east by Beverlywood and Castle Heights, on the south by Palms, on the west by Rancho Park; the Mapping L. A. boundaries are broader. Although the CHHOA covers areas beyond the original Cheviot Hills tract, such as Monte-Mar Vista and most of Tract 13945, Mapping L. A.'s boundaries include all or parts other neighborhoods, such as Castle Heights and California Country Club Estates, which have their own homeowners' associations.
The 2000 U. S. census counted 6,945 residents in the 1.54-square-mile Cheviot Hills neighborhood—an average of 4,520 people per square mile, among the lowest densities for the city. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 7,303; the median age for residents was older than the city at large. The neighborhood was considered "not diverse" ethnically, with a high percentage of white people; the breakdown was whites, 78.8%. Japan and Mexico were the most common places of birth for the 20.8% of the residents who were born abroad—considered a low figure for Los Angeles. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $111,813, a high figure for Los Angeles, the percentage of households earning $125,000 and up was considered high for the county; the average household size of 2.2 people was low for the county. Renters occupied 35.7% of the housing stock and house- or apartment owners held 64.3%. The percentages of veterans who served during World War II or the Korean War were among the county's highest.
All of today's Cheviot Hills was within the Spanish land grant known as Rancho Rincon de los Bueyes. Undeveloped until the 1920s, initial construction in the residential section west of Motor Avenue dates to the 1920s. From the 1920s to 1953, the streetcar line known as the Santa Monica Air Line of the Pacific Electric Railway ran along the southern edge of Cheviot Hills and provided passenger service between Cheviot Hills, downtown Los Angeles, downtown Santa Monica. Much of the neighborhood east of Motor Avenue and south of Forrester Drive was built on the site of the former California Country Club, the residences date to the early 1950s; the neighborhood features several homes by prominent architects, such as the Strauss-Lewis House by Raphael Soriano and the Harry Culver Estate, designed by Wallace Neff. The neighborhood was middle class, with 1926 prices for homes starting at $50,000, or around $663,000 today. However, prices have increased in recent years and now rival those of neighboring Beverly Hills, Bel Air, Holmby Hills, resulting in a surge of new development at the cost of many of the neighborhood's original 1920s homes.
Cheviot Hills was named Redfin's "hottest" neighborhood in the country for real estate for 2014, the "hottest" neighborhood in Los Angeles for 2015. In 2015 CityLab named Cheviot Hills as the 24th most expensive neighborhood in the United States to rent in. Developed between 1926 and 1940, Monte Mar Vista is the most affluent part of Cheviot Hills; the neighborhood was developed by W. R. McConnell, Fred W. Forrester, John P. Haynes and consists of sixteen blocks along the northern side of Cheviot Hills bound by the Hillcrest Country Club, Cheviot Hills Park, Rancho Park Golf Course to the north and east and Lorenzo and Club Drive to the south. In 1928, the development was taken over by Ole Hanson and the Frank Meline Company, who continued to develop the neighborhood; because of the area's location, many properties enjoy expansive views that overlook the Hillcrest Country Club and Rancho Park Golf Course as well as views of Century City, the Hollywood Hills, the Hollywood Sign. Many of the lots are large covering several parcels, homes were designed by prominent architects including John L. DeLario, Roland E. Coartes, Wallace Neff, Eugene R. Ward.
The first house designed by Craig Ellwood, Lappin House, is located in this part of Cheviot Hills. Built in 1952 on the site of the former California Country Club, California Country Club Estates is a neighborhood of single-family homes, known locally as New Cheviot, as opposed to the rest of Cheviot Hills, known as Old Cheviot; the neighborhood is located within Cheviot Hills, bound to the north by Club Drive and to the west by Queensbury Drive, but has a separate home owner's association with binding CC&Rs attached to each lot, its borders are marked by signs and central medians. The neighborhood was developed by Sanford Adler, the owner of the Flamingo Las Vegas and El Rancho Hotel and Casino, included homes built by architects such as A. Quincy Jones. Situated within a short drive of both Fox Studios and Sony Pictures Studios, the neighborhood has been the site for the filming of motion
Ladera Heights, California
Ladera Heights is a census-designated place and unincorporated area in Los Angeles County, California. The population was 6,498 at the 2010 census. Culver City lies to its west, the Baldwin Hills neighborhood to its north, the Westchester neighborhood to its south and southwest. Ladera Heights originated in the late 1940s with the development of "Old Ladera". In the 1960s, custom homes were built in "New Ladera". Prominent builders included Gallant. Robert Earl, who designed many of the Valentine homes, went on to build large multimillion-dollar estates throughout Southern California and in other countries. Neighboring Fox Hills contained a beautiful golf course with rolling hills that backed up to Wooster Avenue. Valentine built. Years Donald Trump asked Earl to design estate homes with panoramic views of his Palos Verdes golf course. Baseball player Frank Robinson and other sports players began moving to Ladera Heights in the early 1970s. Many celebrities have lived in Ladera Heights over the years, including Peter Vidmar, Vanessa Williams, Chris Darden, Chris Strait, Lisa Leslie, Olympia Scott, Ken Norton, Arron Afflalo, The Creator, Byron Scott.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.0 square miles, all of it land. Most of the neighborhood is in unincorporated Los Angeles County, with a small section in the City of Los Angeles. Ladera Heights is portioned into three sections, known as "Upper Ladera," "Lower Ladera" and "Old Ladera". Upper Ladera includes all houses north of Slauson in between La Cienega Boulevard and Shenandoah Avenue, while Lower Ladera consists of all houses south of Slauson in between Wooster and La Cienega. Old Ladera is south of Slauson; the Ladera Center, located in Lower Ladera just west of La Cienega Boulevard, hosts a number of local franchise stores and eateries. The 2010 US Census reported that Ladera Heights had a population of 6,498; the population density was 2,191.1 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Ladera Heights was 4,786 African American, 979 White, 20 Native American, 231 Asian, 2 Pacific Islander, 134 from other races, 346 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 355 persons.
The Census reported that 6,486 people lived in households, 8 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 4 were institutionalized. There were 2,751 households, out of which 702 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 1,240 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 462 had a female householder with no husband present, 113 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 93 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 20 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 778 households were made up of individuals and 351 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36. There were 1,815 families; the population was spread out with 1,122 people under the age of 18, 401 people aged 18 to 24, 1,264 people aged 25 to 44, 2,183 people aged 45 to 64, 1,528 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 49.0 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 75.1 males. There were 2,867 housing units at an average density of 966.7 per square mile, of which 2,027 were owner-occupied, 724 were occupied by renters.
The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%. 4,891 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 1,595 people lived in rental housing units. During 2009–2013, Ladera Heights had a median household income of $99,563, with 4.7% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 6,568 people, 2,691 households, 1,883 families residing in the census-designated place; the population density was 2,230.6 people per square mile. There were 2,755 housing units at an average density of 935.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 70.8% African American, 7.0% White, 2.9% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 2,691 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 15.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.89. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 20.7% under the age of 18, 5.4% from 18 to 24, 24.5% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, 19.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 81.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 77.7 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $90,233, the median income for a family was $103,174. Males had a median income of $64,643 versus $52,750 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $47,798. About 1.1% of families and 3.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.5% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. These are the ten neighborhoods in Los Angeles County with the largest percentage of black re
Leimert Park, Los Angeles
Leimert Park is a neighborhood in the South Los Angeles region of Los Angeles, California. Developed in the 1920s as a residential community, it features Spanish Colonial Revival homes and tree-lined streets with a central commercial area and an eponymous park that has remained central to the community, it has become the center of both historical and contemporary African-American art and culture in Los Angeles. Jefferson Park flanks Leimert Park to the north, the Exposition Park neighborhood and Vermont Square are to the east, Hyde Park to the south and View Park-Windsor Hills and Baldwin Hills/Crenshaw to the west. Leimert Park angles to the West Adams district on the northwest. Leimert Park is bounded by Exposition Boulevard on the north, South Van Ness Avenue and Arlington Avenue on the east, West Vernon Avenue on the south, Victoria Avenue and Crenshaw Boulevard on the west. Leimert Park is named for its developer, Walter H. Leimert, who began the subdivision business center project in 1928.
He had the master plan designed by the Olmsted Brothers landscape architecture firm managed by the sons of Frederick Law Olmsted, the landscape designer known for Central Park in New York City and other major projects. Leimert Park was one of the first comprehensively planned communities in Southern California to be designed for upper and middle-income families, it was considered a model of urban planning for its time: automobile traffic near schools and churches was minimized, utility wires were buried or hidden from view in alleys, densely planted trees lined its streets. Walter Leimert envisioned a self-sufficient commercial district community, with a town square, movie theater and retail shopping. Leimert Park was considered a desirable community, one of the first to have a Home Owners' Association. April 21, 2019 marks the 87th anniversary of the opening of the Vision Theatre; this Mediterranean Revival Style theater is located at the south end of Leimert Park Village at 3341 West Forty-Third Place and Degnan Avenue.
It was designed in 1931 by the architectural firm Morgan, Walls & Clements, opened as a movie theater on April 21, 1932. In 1977 the theater became a Jehovah's Witness Chapel known as the Watchtower. Actress Marla Gibbs bought the theater in 1990 and renamed it the Vision Theatre, intending to make it a venue for African-American movies, live theater, dance productions. In 1992 the LA civil unrest and an economic recession hit the area hard, the property fell into foreclosure; the City of Los Angeles acquired the theater in 1999. The Department of Cultural Affairs manages the theater with the goal of providing a performing arts venue for professional performing arts presentations; the first phase of renovations to the Vision Theatre have been completed, with upgrades to the lobbies, office space, classrooms in 2011. Under construction, Phase II of the renovation began in March 2018; the rehabilitation of the remaining portions of the theater will include the historic refurbishment and expansion of the theater and auditorium, the addition of an orchestra pit and a fly loft.
The grand reopening of the Vision Theatre is planned for 2021. Settled by European Americans, after World War II, some moved to other communities. Japanese Americans integrated Leimert Park in this period; the Crenshaw Square Shopping Centre was designed in the style of Japanese architecture. Tak's Coffee still operates on Crenshaw Boulevard. Elderly Japanese-American residents still live in Leimert Park, some of the Japanese gardens still exist. African Americans began to integrate Leimert Park in the 1950s. Leimert and the neighboring Crenshaw District became one of the largest black middle class neighborhoods in the United States. Leimert Park has been referred to as the center of a contemporary African-American arts scene in Los Angeles, it has been described as "the black Greenwich Village" and in 1998 was seen as "the cultural heartbeat of black Los Angeles." Leimert Park has blues and jazz night clubs, theaters for musicals, dramatic performances, award ceremonies, comedy specials, poetry readings, venues for hip hop.
Project Blowed is the longest-running hip hop open mic in the world, started in 1994 by rapper Aceyalone and friends. It is hosted by Kaos Network, held every Thursday night at 43rd Place and Leimert Boulevard. Leimert Plaza Park is at the district's center park, adjoined by retail shops and the historic Vision Theatre, it is a popular place for live performances and neighborhood gatherings. The cascading fountain has been given landmark status. Tavis Smiley and producer of National Public Radio and the former nationally syndicated talk show Tavis Smiley on PBS, has production studios called The Smiley Group, Inc located within the Leimert Park neighborhood; the Lucy Florence Coffee House and Cultural Center was established in Leimert Park in early 1996. Lucy Florence was located at Degnan Avenue, it was owned by Richard and Ron Harris known as the Aswirl Twins on America's Next Top Model. The coffee house was named after their mother Lucy Florence on her 75th birthday. In January 2012, Lucy Florence coffee shop closed in Leimert Park.
Another famous jazz venue is 5th Street Dick's Coffee and Jazz Emporium, founded by Richard Fulton in 1992. Fulton died on March 18, 2000, it continues to be a mainstay for jazz music lovers, professional chess players and famous co
Federal Housing Administration
The Federal Housing Administration is a United States government agency created in part by the National Housing Act of 1934. The FHA sets standards for construction and underwriting and insures loans made by banks and other private lenders for home building; the goals of this organization are to improve housing standards and conditions, provide an adequate home financing system through insurance of mortgage loans, to stabilize the mortgage market. The Commissioner of the FHA is Brian Montgomery, it is different from the Federal Housing Finance Agency, which supervises government-sponsored enterprises. During the Great Depression many banks failed, causing a drastic decrease in home loans and ownership. At that time, most home mortgages were short-term, with no amortization, balloon instruments at loan-to-value ratios below sixty percent; the banking crisis of the 1930s forced all lenders to retrieve due mortgages. Many homes were foreclosed, causing the housing market to plummet. Banks collected the loan collateral but the low property values resulted in a relative lack of assets.
In 1934 the federal banking system was restructured. The National Housing Act of 1934 created the Federal Housing Administration, its intention was to regulate the terms of mortgages that it insured. These new lending practices increased the number of people who could afford a down payment on a house and monthly debt service payments on a mortgage, thereby increasing the size of the market for single-family homes; the FHA calculated appraisal value based on eight criteria and directed its agents to lend more for higher appraised projects, up to a maximum cap. The two most important were "Relative Economic Stability", which constituted 40% of appraisal value, "protection from adverse influences", which made up another 20%. In 1935, Colonial Village in Arlington, was the first large-scale, rental housing project erected in the United States, Federal Housing Administration-insured. During World War II, the FHA financed a number of worker's housing projects including the Kensington Gardens Apartment Complex in Buffalo, New York.
In 1965 the Federal Housing Administration became part of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Following the subprime mortgage crisis, FHA, along with Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, became a large source of mortgage financing in the United States; the share of home purchases financed with FHA mortgages went from 2 percent to over one-third of mortgages in the United States, as conventional mortgage lending dried up in the credit crunch. Without the subprime market, many of the riskiest borrowers ended up borrowing from the Federal Housing Administration, the FHA could suffer substantial losses. Joshua Zumbrun and Maurna Desmond of Forbes have written that eventual government losses from the FHA could reach $100 billion; the troubled loans are now weighing on the agency's capital reserve fund, which by early 2012 had fallen below its congressionally mandated minimum of 2%, in contrast to more than 6% two years earlier. By November 2012, the FHA was bankrupt. Since 1934, the FHA and HUD have insured over 34 million home mortgages and 47,205 multifamily project mortgages.
The FHA has 4.8 million insured single family mortgages and 13,000 insured multifamily projects in its portfolio. Mortgage insurance protects lenders from mortgage defaulting. If a property purchaser borrows more than 80% of the property's value, the lender will require that the borrower purchase private mortgage insurance to cover the lender's risk. If the lender is FHA approved and the mortgage is within FHA limits, the FHA provides mortgage insurance that may be more affordable for higher-risk borrowers Lenders can obtain FHA mortgage insurance for 96.5% of the appraised value of the home or building. FHA loans are insured through a combination of an upfront mortgage insurance premium and annual mutual mortgage insurance premiums; the UFMIP is a lump sum ranging from 1 – 2.25% of loan value, paid by the borrower either in cash at closing or financed via the loan. MMI, although annual, is included in monthly mortgage payments and ranges from 0 – 1.35% of loan value. If a borrower has poor to moderate credit history, MMI is much less expensive with an FHA insured loan than with a conventional loan regardless of LTV – sometimes as little as one-ninth as much depending on the borrower's credit score, LTV, loan size, approval status.
Conventional mortgage insurance rates increase as credit scores decrease, whereas FHA mortgage insurance rates do not vary with credit score. Conventional mortgage premiums spike if the borrower's credit score is lower than 620. Due to a increased risk, most mortgage insurers will not write policies if the borrower's credit score is less than 575; when insurers do write policies for borrowers with lower credit scores, annual premiums may be as high as 5% of the loan amount. A borrower's down payment may come from a number of sources; the 3.5% requirement can be satisfied with the borrower using their own cash or receiving a gift from a family member, their employer, labor union, or government entity. Since 1998, non-profit organizations have been providing down payment gifts to borrowers who purchase homes where the seller has agreed to reimburse the non-profit organization and pay an additional processing fee. In May 2006, the IRS determined that this is not "charitable activity" and has moved to revoke the non-profit status of organizations providing down payment assistance in
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers, with less than 40 mm of precipitation for at least three summer months. While the climate receives its name from the Mediterranean Basin, these are located on the western coasts of continents, between 30 and 45 degrees north and south of the equator between oceanic climates towards the poles, semi-arid and arid climates towards the equator. In essence, due to the seasonal shift of the subtropical high-pressure belts with the apparent movement of the Sun, a Mediterranean climate is an intermediate type between these other climates, with winters warmer and drier than oceanic climates and summers imitating sunny weather in semi-arid and arid climates; the resulting vegetation of Mediterranean climates are the garrigue or maquis in the Mediterranean Basin, the chaparral in California, the fynbos in South Africa, the mallee in Australia, the matorral in Chile. Areas with this climate are where the so-called "Mediterranean trinity" of agricultural products have traditionally developed: wheat and olive.
Most large, historic cities of the Mediterranean basin lie within Mediterranean climatic zones, including Algiers, Beirut, İzmir, Marseille, Rome and Valencia. Examples of major cities with Mediterranean climates that lie outside of the historic Mediterranean basin include major examples as Adelaide, Cape Town, Dushanbe, Los Angeles, Perth, San Francisco and Victoria. Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates and "cool dry-summer" climates are referred to as "Mediterranean". Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group. Temperate climates or "C" zones have an average temperature above 0 °C, but below 18 °C, in their coolest months; the second letter indicates the precipitation pattern. Köppen has defined a dry summer month as a month with less than 30 mm of precipitation and with less than one-third that of the wettest winter month. Some, use a 40 mm level; the third letter indicates the degree of summer heat: "a" represents an average temperature in the warmest month above 22 °C, while "b" indicates the average temperature in the warmest month below 22 °C.
Under the Köppen classification, dry-summer climates occur on the western sides of continents. Csb zones in the Köppen system include areas not associated with Mediterranean climates but with Oceanic climates, such as much of the Pacific Northwest, much of southern Chile, parts of west-central Argentina, parts of New Zealand. Additional highland areas in the subtropics meet Cs requirements, though they, are not associated with Mediterranean climates, as do a number of oceanic islands such as Madeira, the Juan Fernández Islands, the western part of the Canary Islands, the eastern part of the Azores. Under Trewartha's modified Köppen climate classification, the two major requirements for a Cs climate are revised. Under Trewartha's system, at least eight months must have average temperatures of 10 °C or higher, the average annual precipitation must not exceed 900 mm. Thus, under this system, many Csb zones in the Köppen system become Do, the rare Csc zones become Eo, with only the classic dry-summer to warm winter, low annual rainfall locations included in the Mediterranean type climate.
During summer, regions of Mediterranean climate are influenced by cold ocean currents which keep the weather in the region dry and pleasant. Similar to desert climates, in many Mediterranean climates there is a strong diurnal character to daily temperatures in the warm summer months due to strong heating during the day from sunlight and rapid cooling at night. In winter, Mediterranean climate zones are no longer influenced by the cold ocean currents and therefore warmer water settles near land and causes clouds to form and rainfall becomes much more likely; as a result, areas with this climate receive all of their precipitation during their winter and spring seasons, may go anywhere from 3 to 6 months during the summer without having any significant precipitation. In the lower latitudes, precipitation decreases in both the winter and summer because they are closer to the Horse latitudes, thus bringing smaller amounts of rain. Toward the polar latitudes, total moisture increases; the rainfall tends to be more evenly distributed throughout the year in Southern Europe, while in the Eastern Mediterranean and in Southern California the summer is nearly or dry.
In places where evapotranspiration is higher, steppe climates tend to prevail, but still follow the weather pattern of the Mediterranean climate. The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climates have mild winters and warm summers; however winter and summer temperatures can vary between different regions with a Mediterranean climate. For instance, in the case of winters and Los Angeles experience mild temperatures in the winter, with frost and snowfall unknown, whereas Tashkent has colder winters with annual frosts and snowfall. Or to consider summer, Athens experiences rather high temperatures in that season. In contrast, San Francisco has cool summers with daily highs around 21 °C due to