View camera

In A World History of Photography, Naomi Rosenblum states that a view camera is: "A large-format camera in which the lens forms an inverted image on a ground glass screen directly at the plane of the film. The image viewed is the same as the image on the film, which replaces the viewing screen during exposure."This type of camera was first developed in the era of the daguerreotype and is still in use today, some with various drive mechanisms for movements, more scale markings, and/or more spirit levels. It comprises a flexible bellows that forms a light-tight seal between two adjustable standards, one of which holds a lens, the other a ground glass or a photographic film holder or a digital back. There are three general types, the rail camera, the field camera, others that don't fit into either category; the bellows is a accordion-pleated box. It encloses the space between the lens and film, flexes to accommodate the movements of the standards; the front standard is a frame. At the other end of the bellows, the rear standard is a frame that holds a ground glass plate, used for focusing and composing the image before exposure—and is replaced by a holder containing the light-sensitive film, plate, or image sensor for exposure.

The front and rear standards can move in various ways relative to each other, unlike most other camera types. Whereas most cameras today control only the distance of the plane of focus from the camera, the view camera can provide control over the orientation of the plane of focus, perspective control; the camera is used on a tripod or other support. Several types of view cameras are used for different purposes, provide different degrees of movement and portability, they include: Rail camera - There is the smaller more maneuverable monorail camera and the large stable immovable multi-rail camera known as the process camera. The monorail camera is the most common type of studio view camera, with front and rear standards mounted to a single rail, fixed to a camera support; this design gives the greatest range of movements and flexibility, with both front and rear standards able to tilt, rise and swing in similar proportion. These are made of metal with leather or synthetic bellows, are difficult to pack for travel.

Sinar and Toyo are popular manufacturers of monorail view camera systems. ARCA-Swiss produces monorail cameras for field use in addition to models for the more conventional studio applications. Many manufacturers offer monorail extensions that move the front or rear standards farther away from each other to facilitate focusing on close objects; the stationary process camera is used for copying nearly flat artwork, held to a copyboard located at the far end of the camera rails of horizontally mounted cameras, or at the base of vertical cameras. The work to be copied and the film are held in place by vacuum and copying is at 1:1 magnification, they use various sizes of film depending upon. Field camera - These have the front and rear standard mounted on sliding rails fixed to a hinged flat bed that can be attached to a camera support, such as a tripod; these cameras are made of wood, or sometimes lightweight and strong composites such as carbon fiber. With the bellows retracted, the flat bed folds up, reducing the camera to a small and portable box.

The trade off for this portability is that the standards are not as mobile or as adjustable as on a monorail design. The rear standard in particular may offer no movement; these large format but transportable cameras are popular with landscape photographers. Tachihara and Wisner are examples of modern field cameras at opposite ends of the price scale. Large field cameras use 11×14 film and larger, or panoramic film sizes such as 4×10 or 8×20; these are sometimes called banquet cameras, once were used to photograph large, posed groups of people to mark occasions, such as banquets or weddings. Studio and salon cameras do not fold up for portability. Folding plate cameras with limited movements were used. An example is the Goerz Taro-Tenax 9x12cm. Press cameras that have a ground glass integral to the film-holder mechanism allow critical focus and use of available movements. More expensive examples had a wide array of movements, as well as focusing and composing aids like rangefinders and viewfinders.

They are most made of metal, designed to fold up for portability, used by press photographers before and during the second world war. Some press cameras have more adjustment capabilities, including some ability to tilt the rear standard, can be either hand-held or attached to a tripod for support. Other view cameras - Many unique view cameras have been built and used for special purposes or for general purpose. View cameras use large format sheet film—one sheet per photograph. Standard sizes in inches are: 4×5, 5×7, 4×10, 5×12, 8×10, 11×14, 7×17, 8×20, 12×20, 20×24, larger for process cameras.. A similar, but not identical, range of metric sizes is used in many countries; the most used format is 4×5, followed by 8×10. A few rollfilm cameras have movements. Rollfilm and instant film backs are available to use in place of a sheetfilm holder on a single-film camera. Photographers use view cameras to control convergence of parallel lines. I

HMS Edinburgh (1882)

HMS Edinburgh was an ironclad battleship of the Colossus class which served in the Royal Navy of the Victorian era. She was the sister ship of HMS Colossus, being completed after. Edinburgh was the first British battleship since HMS Warrior, launched in 1860, to carry breech-loading artillery as part of her main armament. Warrior had been equipped with 10 110-pounder Armstrong breech-loading guns, which had not proved satisfactory, to complement her 26 muzzle-loaders. Edinburgh's guns were carried in two turrets positioned near the centre of the ship, the turrets were mounted en echelon, it was expected that, by mounting the turrets in this way, at least one gun from each turret could fire fore and aft along the keel line, all four guns could fire on broadside bearings. In practice it was found that firing too close to the keel line caused unacceptable blast damage to the superstructure, cross-deck firing caused damage to the deck. Before Edinburgh the positioning of the conning tower in British ironclads had produced a variety of solutions.

In this ship the conning tower was positioned forward of the foremast for good all-round vision. The problem was not solved until the political will to build larger ships in turn allowed more space for command facilities, her completion was delayed due to a lengthier than expected development time for her armament. An example of the Mark II twelve-inch breech-loader exploded on board HMS Collingwood while on trial, Edinburgh had to wait, as did other ships, for the Mark IV, she was commissioned at Portsmouth in July 1887 for the 1887 Golden Jubilee Fleet Review, was posted to the Mediterranean, where she was commanded by Commander Percy Scott until 1890. Her posting to the Mediterranean ended in 1894, she was briefly coastguard ship at Hull, was guard ship at Queensferry until 1897, when she went into reserve. Commander William Graveley van Ingen was appointed in command in November 1899, was succeeded by Commander Francis Charles Bathurst Addington in April 1900, by Commander Cecil Gledstanes Treherne in mid 1901.

She became a flagship on 1 November 1901, when Vice-Admiral Albert Hastings Markham hoisted his flag on becoming Commander-in-Chief, The Nore. She took part in the fleet review held at Spithead on 16 August 1902 for the coronation of King Edward VII. In 1908 she was converted for use as a target ship, being fitted with backed and supported modern armour plates; as a result of these trials, which revealed major shortcomings in British high-explosive shells, the Controller, ordered that the design of these shells should be improved. He was shortly thereafter appointed in command of the British Atlantic Fleet, this instruction was not carried out. At the Battle of Jutland many British armour-piercing shells either did not pierce German armour, or did so but failed to explode, because of this failing. Battleships portal Brown, D. K.. Warrior to Dreadnought: Warship Development, 1860–1905. London: Chatham Pub. ISBN 978-1-86176-022-7. OCLC 37334266. Chesneau, Roger. Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1860–1905.

London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 978-0-85177-133-5. OCLC 5834247. Parkes, Oscar. British Battleships. Cooper. ISBN 978-0-85052-604-2. OCLC 21677208

Both Sides Live

Both Sides Live is a live album by American rock band The Hooters released in 2008. Both Sides Live contains 25 tracks recorded live in Philadelphia, with 13 songs being electric songs recorded at the Electric Factory on November 21 & 23, 2007 during the band's traditional Thanksgiving holiday concerts and 12 acoustic songs recorded on February 28 and March 1, 2008 at keyboard player Rob Hyman's Elm Street Studios in front of a small studio audience. I'm Alive Time Stand Still South Ferry Road All You Zombies The Boys Of Summer Johnny B Where The Wind May Blow Karla With A K 25 Hours A Day Satellite And We Danced Day By Day Free Again Introduction 25 Hours A Day All You Zombies Time Stand Still Johnny B Morning Buzz Satellite The Boys Of Summer Day By Day Ordinary Lives Karla With A K I'm Alive And We Danced Eric Bazilian: lead vocals, mandolins, harmonica, banjo Rob Hyman: lead vocals, accordion David Uosikkinen: drums, percussion John Lilley: guitars, dobro, keyboards Fran Smith Jr.: bass guitar, backing vocals Ann Marie Calhoun: violin, backing vocals Produced by Eric Bazilian and Rob Hyman Engineering: John O.

Senior Recorded at Electric Factory, Philadelphia and Elm Street Studios, Pennsylvania Mastered by George Marino at Sterling Sound