San Pietro Martire, Vigevano
San Pietro Martire or St Peter Martyr is a Gothic architecture, Roman Catholic church, linked at one time to an adjacent Dominican convent in Vigevano, Province of Pavia, region of Lombardy, Italy. The church was constructed in 1363, attributed to a Bartolino da Novara. In 1446, the Dominican order took possession and under the patronage of Filippo Maria Visconti enlarged the church, converting the old nave into transept; the new church was consecrated in 1480. Further reconstructions occurred in 19th-century; the nave has pilasters leading to gothic tracery. The interior has a number of decaying 16th-century frescoes; the chapels on the right are dedicated to St Cristopher, St Anthony of Padua, St Vincent Ferrer, the Trinity, the Crucifixion. On the left, they are dedicated to St Peter Martyr, St Joseph, St Dominic, St Pius V, the Virgin of the Mercies; the altarpieces in the chapesl are from unknown authors. During the rule of Galeazzo Maria Sforza, patron of this church, the blessed monk Matteo Carrerio came to live in Vigevano, died in October 1470 in the adjacent convent.
His remains were held in the church. The blessed monk is one of the patrons of Vigevano
Lombardy is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of 23,844 square kilometres. About 10 million people, forming one-sixth of Italy's population, live in Lombardy and about a fifth of Italy's GDP is produced in the region, making it the most populous and richest region in the country and one of the richest regions in Europe. Milan, Lombardy's capital, is the largest metropolitan area in Italy; the word Lombardy comes from Lombard, which in turn is derived from Late Latin Longobardus, derived from the Proto-Germanic elements *langaz + *bardaz. Some sources derive the second element instead from Proto-Germanic *bardǭ, *barduz, related to German Barte. During the early Middle Ages "Lombardy" referred to the Kingdom of the Lombards, a kingdom ruled by the Germanic Lombards who had controlled most of Italy since their invasion of Byzantine Italy in 568; as such "Lombardy" and "Italy" were interchangeable. The Kingdom was divided between Longobardia Major in the north and Langobardia Minor in the south, which were until the 8th century separated by the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna and the Papacy.
During the late Middle Ages, after the fall of the northern part of the Kingdom to Charlemagne, the term shifted to mean Northern Italy.. The term was used until around 965 in the form Λογγοβαρδία as the name for the territory covering modern Apulia which the Byzantines had recovered from the Lombard rump Duchy of Benevento. With a surface of 23,861 km2, Lombardy is the fourth-largest region of Italy, it is bordered by Switzerland and by the Italian regions of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Veneto, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont. Three distinct natural zones can be easily distinguished in Lombardy: mountains and plains—the latter being divided in Alta and Bassa; the orography of Lombardy is characterised by the presence of three distinct belts: a northern mountainous belt constituted by the Alpine relief, a central piedmont area of pebbly soils of alluvial origin, the Lombard section of the Padan plain in the southernmost part of the region. The most important mountainous area is an Alpine zone including the Lepontine and Rhaetian Alps, the Bergamo Alps, the Ortler Alps and the Adamello massif.
The plains of Lombardy, formed by alluvial deposits, can be divided into the Alta—an upper, permeable ground zone in the north and a lower zone—and the Bassa—dotted by the so-called line of fontanili, spring waters rising from impermeable ground. Inconsistent with the three distinctions above made is the small subregion of Oltrepò Pavese, formed by the Apennine foothills beyond the Po River; the mighty Po river marks the southern border of the region for a length of about 210 km. In its progress it receives the waters of the Ticino River, which rises in the Bedretto valley and joins the Po near Pavia; the other streams which contribute to the great river are, the Olona, the Lambro, the Adda, the Oglio and the Mincio. The numerous lakes of Lombardy, all of glacial origin, lie in the northern highlands. From west to east these are Lake Maggiore, Lake Lugano, Lake Como, Lake Iseo, Lake Idro Lake Garda, the largest in Italy. South of the Alps lie the hills characterised by a succession of low heights of morainic origin, formed during the last Ice Age and small fertile plateaux, with typical heaths and conifer woods.
A minor mountainous area, the Oltrepò Pavese, lies south of the Po, in the Apennines range. In the plains, intensively cultivated for centuries, little of the original environment remains; the most commons trees are elm, sycamore, poplar and hornbeam. In the area of the foothills lakes, grow olive trees and larches, as well as varieties of subtropical flora such as magnolias, acacias. Numerous species of endemic flora in the Prealpine area include some kinds of saxifrage, the Lombard garlic, groundsels bellflowers and the cottony bellflowers; the highlands are characterised by the typical vegetation of the whole range of the Italian Alps. At a lower levels oak woods or broadleafed trees grow. Shrubs such as rhododendron, dwarf pine and juniper are native to the summital zone. Lombardy counts many protected areas: the most important are the Stelvio National Park, with alpine wildlife: red deer, roe deer, chamois, foxes and golden eagles. L
A polyptych is a painting, divided into sections, or panels. A "diptych" is a two-part work of art. Polyptychs display one "central" or "main" panel, the largest of the attachments, while the other panels are called "side" panels, or "wings". Sometimes, as evident in the Ghent and Isenheim works, the hinged panels can be varied in arrangement to show different "views" or "openings" in the piece. Polyptychs were most created by early Renaissance painters, the majority of whom designed their works to be altarpieces in churches and cathedrals; the polyptych form of art was quite popular among ukiyo-e printmakers of Edo period Japan. Some medieval manuscripts are polyptychs Carolingian works, in which the columns on the page are framed with borders that resemble polyptych paintings. Altar displays may form polyptychs; the Stefaneschi Polyptych, c. 1320, by Giotto The Ghent Altarpiece, completed in 1432 by Hubert van Eyck and Jan van Eyck The Last Judgement 1435 by Stefan Lochner Polyptych of the Misericordia by Piero della Francesca Polyptych-of-Saint-Augustine by Piero della Francesca Beaune Altarpiece by Rogier van der Weyden Saint Augustine Polyptych by Perugino The Saint Vincent Panels by Nuno Gonçalves The Monte San Martino Altarpiece, by Carlo Crivelli St. Dominic Polyptych by Lorenzo Lotto The Isenheim Altarpiece by 1512–1516 Matthias Grünewald Cohen's Masterpiece from Bioshock is a quadriptych Media related to polyptychs at Wikimedia Commons
Azzone Visconti was lord of Milan from 1329 until his death. He is considered the founder of the state of Milan, which became a duchy. Born in Ferrara, he was the sole legitimate son of Galeazzo I Beatrice d'Este. In 1322 he was lord of Piacenza. In 1325, Azzone commanded troops at the battles of Altopascio and Zappolino, both victories over the Guelphs. In 1328, his father Galeazzo and all of the other leading members of the Visconti family were arrested under suspicion of assassinating Galeazzo's younger brother Stefano, their territories were confiscated by the Emperor, local families took control of many cities that had long been tied to the Viscontis. Milan itself was ruled by a new Imperial appointee and a council, hostile to the Viscontis. Therefore, when Galeazzo died that year, Visconti power was at a low point. Azzone became involved in a struggle with his uncle Marco for control of Milan. In 1329, with the support of another uncle, Giovanni, he bought the title of imperial vicar of Milan from the emperor Louis IV for 60,000 florins.
Azzone paid the feeble Louis being unable to force the payment. In the same years, Marco was killed and Azzone was named as one of the assassins, but he was never condemned; this maneuver drew the ire of Pope John XXII, who excommunicated Azzone, placed the city of Milan under interdict, threatened an invasion by his French allies. Under this pressure, Azzone was forced to submit to the Pope and renounce his Imperial vicariate, although he did retain political power within Milan, on 15 March 1330 he was appointed perpetual lord of Milan. In 1331, he married daughter of Louis II of Vaud; that same year, Charles of Bohemia, the son of King John of Bohemia and future emperor as Charles IV, was nearly poisoned to death at a banquet in Pavia. Azzone was again suspected. In the August of the same year he allied with Theodore I, Marquess of Montferrat, against King Robert of Anjou, in order to capture his possessions in north-western Italy. In 1332 he conquered Bergamo and Pizzighettone, continuing in 1335 with Lodi and other Lombardy lands who had ceded themselves to the Papal States, as well as Vercelli and Cremona.
Lodrisio Visconti, who had escaped, set a company of mercenary troops with the help of the Scaligers of Verona, who sought vengeance for Azzone's support to Venice during the war with Verona. The latter was however defeated by the Milanese troops in the battle of Parabiago, to which Azzone, suffering of gout, did not partake. Lodrisio was imprisoned in the castle of San Colombano al Lambro, he died in 1339 of a gout attack, was buried in the church of San Gottardo, which he had commissioned some years before. He was succeeded as lord of Milan by Giovanni and another uncle, Luchino. Besides his political and military career, he is remembered for his great construction works in Milan and other cities of Lombardy. House of Visconti
Arduin of Ivrea
Arduin was an Italian nobleman, Margrave of Ivrea and King of Italy. Arduin was born in 955 in Pombia during a period in which the Kingdom of Italy was struggling to maintain its independence from the ambitions of the Holy Roman Empire. Italy was conquered in 961 by Emperor Otto I, the Italian King Berengar II was deposed. Arduin, Berengar's grand-nephew, was only a boy. In 1002, after the death of Emperor Otto III, the Italian nobles elected Arduin as King of Italy in the Basilica of San Michele Maggiore in Pavia, making him the first independent Italian king since Berengar's deposition 41 years earlier. Arduin was supported by the Archbishop of Milan; the new German king Henry II opposed Arduin. In 1004, Henry invaded Italy, defeated Arduin, was crowned King of Italy in Pavia. Henry II invaded Italy again in 1014 and was proclaimed Emperor in Rome, at which point Arduin was forced to relinquish his crown, he died soon after at Fruttuaria Abbey. In the year 961 the Emperor Otto I deposed Berengar II, King of Italy, took the title for himself, unifying the crowns of Italy and Germany.
But this did not erase the influence of Berengar's Anscarid dynasty in northern Italy, as the March of Ivrea was inherited by Berengar's third son Conrad. In the subsequent years, the political situation in Northern Italy was marked by the struggle between the bishops and the secondi milites, the minor nobles, whose only source of livelihood were small, rural fiefs, who were threatened by the expansionism of the bishops. Arduin was named after his maternal grandfather, Arduin Glaber, his father, Count of Pombia, was a nephew of King Berengar II. Arduin married Bertha, said to be the daughter of Otbert II, Margrave of Milan, they had three sons: Arduin and Guibert. From them descended the counts of Ivrea and in turn those of Agliè, Castellamonte and Rivarolo. In 990, Arduin succeeded his kinsman Conrad in the March of Ivrea. Conrad was Berengar II's son and was married to a daughter of Arduin Glaber, it is unclear if Arduin was appointed to Ivrea by the king–emperor Otto III or if he succeeded as Conrad's heir.
The March of Ivrea, since its restructuring under Berengar II in 950, consisted of the counties of Burgaria, Lomello, Pombia and Vercelli, the dioceses of Ivrea, Novara and Vigevano, plus part of the dioceses Pavia and Milan. Arduin became Count of the Sacred Palace of Lateran in Rome in 991. During his rule as Margrave of Ivrea, Arduin backed the claims of the monastic orders and of the secondi milites, a policy that led to clashes with the imperially appointed bishops; the hostility turned into open conflict in the year 997, when the Emperor Otto III granted to Pietro, Bishop of Vercelli, the fief of Caresana. Arduin did not recognise the donation. There were riots in the city of Vercelli between the secondi milites and the bishop's followers, during which the bishop was killed. Arduin intervened in the city; the bishop-count Warmund of Ivrea condemned Arduin for the killing of Pietro, excommunicated him, obtained from the Emperor a proclamation that the city of Ivrea, along with the land for three miles outside the walls, was free from Arduin's rule.
In the year 1000 Arduin was in Rome to explain his position to the newly appointed Pope Sylvester II. Otto III was present in the city, Warmund and Leone, successor of Pietro as the bishop of Vercelli were as well, the pope confirmed Arduin's excommunication and demanded he abdicate to his title in favor of his son. Arduin did not accept the sentence, he returned in his lands, instead of abdicating, expelled Warmund from Ivrea and conquered the cities of Vercelli and Novara, while his followers took control of Como and several cities of the Piedmont. At that point a clash with the Emperor seemed inevitable, but Otto III died near Rome on 23 January 1002 without leaving a direct heir, throwing the empire into a succession crisis. On 15 February, a diet of feudal secondi milites in Pavia acclaimed Arduin King of Italy. According to the chronicler Arnulf of Milan, Arduin was "elected by the Lombards in Pavia and was called'caesar' by all", he made the rounds of the kingdom with the Archbishop of Milan publicly at his side.
However, while Arduin had the loyalty of the minor nobles, that of the bigger landlords, more tied to the imperial power, was much more questionable, opposition to his rule was instigated by the bishops, led by Frederick, Archbishop of Ravenna. In Germany, Henry II was acclaimed king on 7 June 1002, he did not recognize Arduin's coronation. Henry granted the March of Verona to Duke Otto I of Carinthia, sent Otto to Italy to depose Arduin; this was only the beginning. Henry invaded Italy with a large force that left Germany in March 1004 and arrived at Trento on 9 April 1004, he met Arduin outside Verona, where Arduin was disappointed by a poor showing from his erstwhile supporters. Henry entered Pavia, the tradit
The Lomellina is a geographical and historical area in the Pianura Padana of northern Italy, located in south-western Lombardy between the Sesia, Po and Ticino rivers. It is one of three areal divisions of the Province of Pavia. Lomellina includes the most important today being Vigevano and Mortara; the area is renowned for its rice paddies: the crop has been cultivated here since the sixteenth century. In ancient times Lomellina was inhabited by the Ligurian tribes of the Laevi, the Marici and the Libici, they were Romanized. Although crossed by an important road connecting Ticinum to Augusta Taurinorum, the region seems not to have been intensively urbanized under the Romans, with the exception of the area of Vigevano. With the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the arrival of the Lombards, who set their capital in Pavia, Lomellina acquired importance, with a comital dynasty rising in Lomello; the city of Pavia conquered Lomello in 1146, the area was under the Visconti, as part of the Duchy of Milan.
In 1707, after the War of Spanish Succession, a part of Lomellina was conquered by the Piedmontese House of Savoy and made an autonomous province. The area of Vigevano and Robbio, called Contado di Vigevano and, autonomous since 1532, was acquired by Piedmont in 1743. In 1859 the administrative reform promoted by Urbano Rattazzi annexed Lomellina to the province of Pavia just conquered from Austria, becoming part of the newly formed Kingdom of Italy. Province of Pavia Pavese Oltrepò Pavese Lomellina official website Lomellina portal
Medieval communes in the European Middle Ages had sworn allegiances of mutual defense among the citizens of a town or city. These took many forms and varied in organization and makeup. Communes are first recorded in the late 11th and early 12th centuries, thereafter becoming a widespread phenomenon, they had greater development in central-northern Italy, where they became city-states based on partial democracy. At the same time in Germany they became free cities, independent from local nobility; the English and French word "commune" appears in Latin records in various forms. They come from plural form of commune, substantive noun from communis; the Proto-Indo-European root is *mey-. When independence of rule was won through violent uprising and overthrow, the commune was called conspiratio. During the 10th century in several parts of Western Europe, peasants began to gravitate towards walled population centers, as advances in agriculture resulted in greater productivity and intense competition.
In central and northern Italy, in Provence and Septimania, most of the old Roman cities had survived—even if grass grew in their streets—largely as administrative centers for a diocese or for the local representative of a distant kingly or imperial power. In the Low Countries, some new towns were founded upon long-distance trade, where the staple was the woolen cloth-making industry; the sites for these ab ovo towns, more than not, were the fortified burghs of counts, bishops or territorial abbots. Such towns were founded in the Rhineland. Other towns were market villages, local centers of exchange; such townspeople needed physical protection from lawless nobles and bandits, part of the motivation for gathering behind communal walls, but strove to establish their liberties, the freedom to conduct and regulate their own affairs and security from arbitrary taxation and harassment from the bishop, abbot, or count in whose jurisdiction these obscure and ignoble social outsiders lay. This was a long process of struggling to obtain charters that guaranteed such basics as the right to hold a market.
Such charters were purchased at exorbitant rates, or granted, not by the local power, but by a king or by the emperor, who came to hope to enlist the towns as allies in order to centralize power. The walled city represented protection from direct assault at the price of corporate interference on the pettiest levels, but once a townsman left the city walls, he was at the mercy of violent and lawless nobles in the countryside; because much of medieval Europe lacked central authority to provide protection, each city had to provide its own protection for citizens - both inside the city walls, outside. Thus towns formed communes which were a legal basis for turning the cities into self-governing corporations. In most cases the development of communes was connected with that of the cities. However, there were rural communes, notably in France and England, that formed to protect the common interests of villagers. At their heart, communes were sworn allegiances of mutual defense; when a commune formed, all participating members gathered and swore an oath in a public ceremony, promising to defend each other in times of trouble, to maintain the peace within the city proper.
The commune movement started in the 10th century, with a few earlier ones like Forlì, gained strength in the 11th century in northern Italy, which had the most urbanized population of Europe at the time. It spread in the early 12th century to France, Germany and elsewhere; the English state was very centralized, so the communal movement manifested itself in parishes, craftsmen's and merchants' guilds and monasteries. State officialdom expanded in England and France from the 12th century onwards, while the Holy Roman Empire was ruled by communal coalitions of cities, farmer republics, prince-bishops and the large domains of the imperial lords. In eastern Europe, the splintering of Kievan Rus' allowed the formation of veche communes like the Novgorod Republic and the Pskov Republic. According to Adalberon, society was composed of the three orders: those who fight, those who pray and those who work. In theory this was a balance between spiritual and secular peers, with the third order providing labour for the other two.
The urban communes were a break in this order. The Church and King both had mixed reactions to communes. On the one hand, they agreed safety and protection from lawless nobles was in everyone's best interest; the communes intention was to keep the peace through the threat of revenge, the Church was sympathetic to the end result of peace. However, the Church had their own ways to enforce peace, such as the Peace and Truce of God movement, for example; some communes disrupted the order of medieval society in that the methods the commune used, eye for an eye, violence begets violence, were not acceptable to Church or King. There was an idea among some. Only the noble lords were allowed by custom to fight, ostensibly the merchant townspeople were workers, not warriors; as such, the nobility and the clergy sometimes accepted communes. One of the most famous cases of a commune being suppressed and the resulting defiant urban revolt occurred in the French town of Laon in 1112; the development of medieval rural communes arose more from a need to collaborate to manage the commons than out of defensive needs.