Vigna mungo, the black gram, urad bean, minapa pappu, mungo bean or black matpe bean is a bean grown in the Indian subcontinent. Like its relative, the mung bean, it has been reclassified from the Phaseolus to the Vigna genus; the product sold as black lentil is the whole urad bean, whereas the split bean is called white lentil. It should not be confused with the much smaller true black lentil. Black gram originated in India, where it has been in cultivation from ancient times and is one of the most prized pulses of India and Pakistan, it is widely used in Punjabi cuisine and is referred to as maah di daal in the native language by Punjabis. The Coastal Andhra region in Andhra Pradesh is famous for black gram; the Guntur District ranks first in Andhra Pradesh for the production of black gram. Black gram has been introduced to other tropical areas such as the Caribbean, Fiji and Africa by Indian immigrants, it is an erect, suberect or trailing, densely annual bush. The tap root produces a branched root system with rounded nodules.
The pods are cylindrical and up to six cm long. The plant grows 30–100 cm with large hairy leaves and 4–6 cm seed pods. While the urad bean was, along with the mung bean placed in Phaseolus, it has since been transferred to Vigna. Vigna mungo is popular in Northern India used to make dal from the whole or split, dehusked seeds; the bean is eaten whole or, after splitting, made into dal. It is extensively used in South Indian culinary preparations. Black gram is one of the key ingredients in making idli and dosa batter, in which one part of black gram is mixed with three or four parts of idli rice to make the batter. Vada or udid vada contain black gram and are made from soaked batter and deep-fried in cooking oil; the dough is used in making papadum, in which white lentils are used. It is popular in Punjabi cuisine as an ingredient of dal makhani. In Bengal, it is used in biulir dal. In Rajasthan, It is used to prepare dal, consumed with bati. Black gram is nutritious as it contains high levels of protein, calcium, niacin and riboflavin.
Black gram complements the essential amino acids provided in most cereals and plays an important role in the diets of the people of Nepal and India. In medieval times, this bean is said to have been used in making crucibles impermeable; the grounds for such claims have been criticized as tenuous. Vigna mungo is known by various names across Southeast Asia, its name in most languages of India derives from Proto-Dravidian *uẓ-untu-, borrowed into Sanskrit as uḍida: Caribbean Hindustani: उरदी दाल urdi dal Gujarati: અળદ aḷad, અડદ aḍad Hindi: उड़द दाल uṛad dāl, उरद दाल urad dāl Kannada: ಉದ್ದು uddu, ಉದ್ದಿನ ಬೇಳೆ uddina bēḷe Marathi/Konkani: उडीद uḍid Malayalam: ഉഴുന്ന് uẓunu Telugu: మినుములు minumulu and Uddhi Pappu in Rayalaseema Tamil: உளுந்து uḷuntu, ulundu Tulu: urdu bele Urdu: اورد دال urad dālIts name in selected Indic languages, derives from Sanskrit masa Bengali: মাসকালাই ডাল mashkalai ḍal Nepali: मास mās Punjabi: دال ماش dāl māshOther names include: Oriya: ବିରି ଡାଲି biri ḍāli Sinhala: උඳු undu Myanmar: မတ်ပဲ matpe Vietnamese: đậu muồng ăn Pant U-13 JU-2 Type-9 Barkha Gwalior-2Mutant varieties:CO-1 and Sarla.
Spring season varieties:Prabha and AKU-4. First urad bean variety developed in – T9. Kalai ruti Uttapam Chakuli pitha Dahi vada H. K. Bakhru. Foods that Heal; the Natural Way to Good Health. Orient Paperbacks. ISBN 978-81-222-0033-1. M. Nitin, S. Ifthekar, M. Mumtaz. 2012. Hepatoprotective activity of Methanolic extract of blackgram. RGUHS J Pharm Sci 2:62-67. Vigna mungo Hepper
Mixed bathing is the sharing of a pool, beach or other place by swimmers of both sexes. Mixed bathing refers to swimming or other water-based recreational activities in public or semi-public facilities, such as hotel or holiday resort pool, in a non-sex segregated environment. In ancient Rome, mixed bathing at public facilities was prohibited at various periods, while commonplace at others, it is possible that sex segregated bathing was the rule at some facilities but not at others. In many parts of the world, mixed bathing was not allowed and moral campaigners argued that mixed bathing was immoral or immodest. Women's swimsuits were considered inherently immodest. To avoid the exposure of people in swimsuits to people of the opposite sex, many popular beach resorts were equipped with bathing machines. Legal segregation of beaches ended in Britain in 1901, the use of the bathing machines declined rapidly. Another measure in the moral campaign was to ban sea bathing altogether or during daylight hours.
Australian bathers were only permitted to swim during daylight hours after 1903. Before mixed bathing became culturally accepted from the late-19th century, public bathing, when permitted or practiced at all, was segregated on the basis of gender, using either separate facilities or using some form of divide or by allocation of times for use by men and women. By the 1920s, the public in many Western countries began to flout the ban on mixed bathing in public places such as beaches, the prohibitions began being repealed; the main objection to the prohibition to mixed bathing was that it prevented families and couples from enjoying the beach together. Following the repeal of bans on mixed bathing, beaches became a popular meeting place and place of recreation for young people, not for swimming, it took longer for pools, including public pools. For example, when Tooting Bec Lido, an open-air pool in South London, opened in 1906, it was segregated by the sexes, with women and girls permitted to use the pool on one morning a week.
Mixed bathing was not introduced until 1931, only at specified times. At the same time, an "aerator", or fountain, was added to help pump the water round the pool and keep it clean; the main reason given for this act of modernisation was because more women would be swimming there and higher standards of hygiene were needed. Dulwich Public Baths in South London allowed mixed bathing in 1946. London's Hampstead Heath has three open-air public swimming ponds; the popularity of the swimming pool at the City Baths in Melbourne, Australia increased with the introduction of mixed bathing in 1947. Until YMCA began to admit females in the early 1960s, young men who used their swimming pools were required to swim in the nude; this was regarded as a sanitary measure. When girls were admitted, the wearing of swimsuits became mandatory. In some English schools, Manchester Grammar School for example, nude swimming was compulsory until the 1970s. Swimsuits became mandatory; this was the case for some American high schools.
And junior high schools. And in some summer camps. Although mixed bathing is commonplace today, it was not always the case, it continues to be illegal or contentious in some parts of the world. In Muslim countries which are re-imposing sharia law, mixed bathing is being banned. For example, after Hamas took over the Gaza Strip, it closed down the Crazy Water Park, one of the Gaza Strip's most popular entertainment sites, for allowing mixed bathing. Strict Orthodox Jews and fundamentalist Christians in the Southern United States do not engage in mixed bathing. Many countries have anti-sex discrimination legislation which extend to the provision of sporting and recreational facilities, including private facilities. However, there are provisions for exemptions being granted, exemptions have been granted in some cases for women-only bathing on the basis, for example, of religious and cultural sensitivities. In Japan, nude mixed bathing was the norm at public baths until the Meiji Restoration when sex segregation was enforced at sentō-type baths.
In prefectures that permit mixed bathing, some rural onsen-type mixed baths require participants to be nude. Communal shower
The Ligi Ndogo Soccer Club Academy known as Ligi Ndogo, is the youth team of Ligi Ndogo Sports Club, acts as a feeder program for the senior team. The current academy director and under-17 head coach is Ibrahim Mbikalo; the academy fields teams from under-9 to under-19 level that participate in various national and international competitions, but accommodates boys and girls from the age of four upwards. Notable former graduates of the academy include Swedish international John Guidetti and Kenyan international Ayub Masika; the academy was established on 1 January 2002 by current club chairman Chris Karani Nyamu. The academy's first season began in February 2002, as just a place for neighbourhood children to go and play some football. Upon discovering that many of the children had talent, the administration formed the various age groups found in the academy today and formed a "Planets" team, which consisted of the best players from these age groups, to represent the club at national and international tournaments.
In 2005, the senior football team was formed with the initiative of current academy director and former senior team coach, Ibrahim Mbikalo and Amimo at the insistence of players Karim Rersa, Mohamed Junaid and Azim Butt. On arrival from a tour of the United Kingdom, the team members found themselves overage and with no category to fill in since the youth academy could only accommodate those below fourteen years of age. Under the guidance of Mbikalo, Ligi Ndogo gained their first honours by winning the Private Secondary Schools' League in 2005, played in the Kiko Cup towards the end of the year, crashing out through a 3–2 loss to Kibera Combined on spot kicks; the academy's program is divided into three seasons each calendar year: January–April, May–August and September–December, with a typical season lasting 10 to 12 weeks. Apart from being a football school with several semi-professional coaches on the payroll, the academy fielded an internal league season at each age level with regular matches, training sessions and tournaments.
Upon registration, players are evaluated and placed in teams which are categorized based on age and skill level: "Atoms" – ages 4 to 7 "Juniors" – ages 8 to 9 "Lower Mids" – ages 10 to 12 "Upper Mids" – ages 13 to 14These categories are further divided into teams named after the planets of the solar system. The atoms have five teams: Mercury, Mars and Suns; the juniors have Neptune, Mars and Pluto while the Mids have Jupiter and Neptune. A formal program is offered where parents can get involved as referees, team parents, team sponsors and cheerleaders; as the Football Kenya Federation does not organize national youth leagues in Kenya, teams from the academy compete in the Keele International Cup, won before by the academy's various teams, as well as various tournaments within the country. Players from the academy have attracted attention from professional football clubs such as Crystal Palace and Liverpool. John Guidetti is a notable former player at the academy, having joined the under-13 team in 2003.
After leaving in 2005 to return to IF Brommapojkarna, he signed a three-year-deal with Manchester City as a 16-year-old in 2008. A. ^ Current club as of 7 October 2015. Kenya Private Secondary Schools League: 2005 The Academy at Ligi Ndogo's official website
A geographer is a scientist whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society. The Greek prefix "geo" means "earth" and the Greek suffix, "graphy," meaning "description," so a geographer is someone who studies the earth; the word "geography" is a Middle French word, believed to have been first used in 1540. Although geographers are known as people who make maps, map making is the field of study of cartography, a subset of geography. Geographers do not study only the details of the natural environment or human society, but they study the reciprocal relationship between these two. For example, they study how the natural environment contributes to human society and how human society affects the natural environment. In particular, physical geographers study the natural environment while human geographers study human society. Modern geographers are the primary practitioners of the GIS, who are employed by local and federal government agencies as well as in the private sector by environmental and engineering firms.
The paintings by Johannes Vermeer titled The Geographer and The Astronomer are both thought to represent the growing influence and rise in prominence of scientific enquiry in Europe at the time of their painting in 1668–69. There are three major fields of study, which are further subdivided: Physical geography: including geomorphology, glaciology, climatology, pedology, oceanography and environmental geography. Human geography: including Urban geography, cultural geography, economic geography, political geography, historical geography, marketing geography, health geography, social geography. Regional geography: including atmosphere and lithosphereThe National Geographic Society identifies five broad key themes for geographers: location place human-environment interaction movement regions Steven Seegel. Map Men: Transnational Lives and Deaths of Geographers in the Making of East Central Europe. University of Chicago Press, 2018. ISBN 978-0-226-43849-8. Media related to Geographers at Wikimedia Commons
Univision Canada is a Canadian Spanish language specialty channel owned by TLN Media Group, in partnership with Univision Communications, the leading Spanish-language media company in the United States. Univision Canada broadcasts a variety of programming, including news, talk shows and more. In September 2006, Telelatino Network was granted approval from the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission to launch a television channel called Spanish Entertainment TV 1, described as "a national, ethnic Category 2 specialty programming service devoted to the Spanish-speaking community with a particular emphasis on programming of interest to female and youth audiences."The channel launched on October 23, 2007 as TLN en Español. On January 28, 2014, Corus announced that they would rebrand the network Univision Canada after reaching a brand licensing agreement with their long term partner, Univision Communications, outside of fringe reception of Seattle Univision affiliate KUNS-TV into the Vancouver market and Cleveland, Ohio owned and operated station WQHS-DT into parts of the London, Ontario market, has no presence of their main American network into Canada.
The channel switched over to Univision Canada on May 5, 2014. On May 31, 2016, Univision Canada launched on Cogeco. Univision Canada airs programming from Univision, the most popular Spanish-language television network in the United States, it airs programming from UniMás and Univision Deportes Network. Unlike Univision in the United States, Univision Canada does not air programming from Televisa. Televisa competes with Univision Canada with Las Estrellas; the service produces and airs select documentary films and live entertainment specials created for the Spanish-language community in Canada, as well as the community newsmagazine series Nash. Aqui y Ahora Despierta America El Gordo y la Flaca Latin Angels Noticiero Univision Primer Impacto Contacto Deportivo Cine en Familia Official website
Lowes Loch, The Lochs or Loch of Hill is now a small natural freshwater loch in the North Ayrshire Council Areas, lying in a glacial kettle hole, once of greater extent, lying below Brownmuir and Lochland Hills on the Threepwood Road, near Beith, in the Parish of Beith. The loch may once have had a small island within it. Marked on Ordnance Survey maps as'The Lochs', it was locally known as the Lowes Loch and lies on the old'Lowes Lands'. Four lochs may have once been present, a small one in front of Lows Cottage, a second along to the west of the surviving loch, a smaller fourth one, now drained by a deep ditch, sitting next to the older of the two Lochlands Farms ruins; the name'Lowe' is said to have derived been from the Celtic for'Hill' and Lochlands Hill was once known as Lowes Hill. Before the Cadgerford Burn was deepened the lochs level would have been higher and may have once drained to the west and east. Lows Cottage This building was a retting or rhetting cottage becoming a small farm with a byre attached.
Cartographic evidence Blaeu's map of 1684, pbased on Timothy Pont's map of circa 1604, names a'Loch of Hill' and Roy's map of circa 1747 shows two small lochs, with the outflow of the western loch running down to the Muir Burn and into the Roebank Burn. Thomson's map of 1832 shows a single loch lying below Lows Farm and draining east into the Dusk water. OS maps of the 1850s do not indicate open water and a discreet clump of trees suggests a small island; the abandoned Rakerfield Farm lies above the site on the lower slopes of Brimmer Hill. This farm was occupied by the elderly couple, Mrs & Mrs Blair, at the time of the construction of Kirklee Green reservoir and was purchased upon their death by Ayrshire County Council and the roof removed. Cadgerford Burn The name of the inflow and outflow burn indicates, as stated, a ford on this old road once used by cadgers or carriers on horseback of goods, including items such as Dunlop cheeses; the burn is outflow from Lowes Loch to the Dusk Water. The burn now flows into the Kirkleegreen Reservoir, built after 1858 and by 1891.
The waters of this old reservoir, now an angling loch, run into Cuffhill Reservoir and into the Dusk Water via Threepwood Spout. The ford may have been where a culvert now carries the outflow of the small loch in front of Lows Cottage down towards Lowes Loch. Beith's annual fair, called Tennant's or Saint Tinnan's Day, was held on the Cuff Hill, it was famous for its show, its Cadger's parade and sale of horses. Flax rettingThe lochan in front of Low Cottage was a retting pond and the cottage was built as a retting cottage for the preparation of flax; the loch no longer has any open water. Retting is the process of taking off the outer part of flax by laying flax in water. Thomson's map of 1832 and the OS maps show that the loch flowed via the Cadgerford Burn into the millpond of the old Threepwood Bleach and Dye works below Cuff Hill and thus helped to power the factory's waterwheel. Since at least 1891 the waters of the loch have flowed into the Kirkleegreen and Cuffhill Reservoirs. Davie's o'the Mill is a an old flax mill associated with the retting cottage and the bleach and dye works at Threepwood.
The Davie's o'the Mill ruins lie nearby, once powered by a burn that runs down from the Saint Inan's well site and at one time the westward flow from the Lowes Lochs prior to the canalising of the Cadgerford Burn. A right of way still runs down to the site from near Cauldhame Cottage and a lane runs up to the old mill from near Mill o'Beith and the Warlock Craigie. Lying quite close to Loanhead Quarry the steading is now a ruin. Dugald Semple and the Scottish Apostle of the simple life lived at Davie's o'the Mill from the 1930s until around 1950, when it was a smallholding. Dugald was a hippy before hippies existed, he travelled to healthy living conferences in Norway, USA and elsewhere and died in Edinburgh aged 79. A regular visitor to Ailsa Craig, he was known locally as the'Bird Man' and was an enthusiast for outdoor living, publishing a book entitled A Free Man's Philosophy, he welcomed walkers and cyclists who camped on his land. The small area of open water is dominated by floating pondweeds, has some water lilies Nuphar lutea.
The Common Hawker or Sedge Darner breeds at the site. An extensive woodland of willow and birch extends towards Lowhouse Farmlands. Extensive areas of rushes are present. A small building, marked as a ruin in 1856 and now absent, with its own entrance and sheep fauld, sat within woodland in line with the small loch and substantial drainage ditch feature that runs down to the main loch; the larger Lochlands Farm buildings lay closer to the road a little further back from the Lowes Loch. It has been abandoned since before the 1950s, shown as active in 1914 from the record of the OS map. A photograph of the early 1900s shows a unusual design for a farm building; the OS map shows that this building had an orchard or ornamental garden and was more of a dwelling than a farm, being occupied by a family who owned the Cunningham bus company in Paisley which became part of Western SMT. It was demolished as part of precautions intended to prevent any possible contamination of the reservoir water. In 1956 it is recorded that a Mr.
Newall found a stone slab built into the ruin of Lochlands the more modern building, bearing a carved circle, 15ins in diameter, containing a simple cross with one arm extended to represent the shaft. This ancient stone cross may relate to