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In photography and optics, vignetting is a reduction of an image's brightness or saturation toward the periphery compared to the image center. The word vignette, from the same root as vine referred to a decorative border in a book; the word came to be used for a photographic portrait, clear at the center and fades off toward the edges. A similar effect is visible in photographs of projected images or videos off a projection screen, resulting in a so-called "hotspot" effect. Vignetting is an unintended and undesired effect caused by camera settings or lens limitations. However, it is sometimes deliberately introduced for creative effect, such as to draw attention to the center of the frame. A photographer may deliberately choose a lens, known to produce vignetting to obtain the effect, or it may be introduced with the use of special filters or post-processing procedures; when using superzoom lenses, vignetting may occur all along the zoom range, depending on the aperture and the focal length.

However, it may not always be visible, except at the widest end. In these cases, vignetting may cause an exposure value difference of up to 0.75EV. There are several causes of vignetting. Sidney F. Ray distinguishes the following types: Mechanical vignetting Optical vignetting Natural vignettingA fourth cause is unique to digital imaging: Pixel vignettingA fifth cause is unique to analog imaging: Photographic film vignetting Mechanical vignetting occurs when light beams emanating from object points located off-axis are blocked by external objects such as thick or stacked filters, secondary lenses, improper lens hoods; this has the effect of changing the entrance pupil shape as a function of angle. Darkening can be gradual or abrupt – the smaller the aperture, the more abrupt the vignetting as a function of angle; when some points on an image receives no light at all due to mechanical vignetting this results in a restriction of the field of view – parts of the image are completely black. This type of vignetting is caused by the physical dimensions of a multiple element lens.

Rear elements are shaded by elements in front of them, which reduces the effective lens opening for off-axis incident light. The result is a gradual decrease in light intensity towards the image periphery. Optical vignetting is sensitive to the lens aperture and can be cured by a reduction in aperture of 2–3 stops. Unlike the previous types, natural vignetting is not due to the blocking of light rays; the falloff is "cosine fourth" law of illumination falloff. Here, the light falloff is proportional to the fourth power of the cosine of the angle at which the light impinges on the film or sensor array. Wideangle rangefinder designs and the lens designs used in compact cameras are prone to natural vignetting. Telephoto lenses, retrofocus wideangle lenses used on SLR cameras, telecentric designs in general are less troubled by natural vignetting. A gradual grey filter or postprocessing techniques may be used to compensate for natural vignetting, as it cannot be cured by stopping down the lens; some modern lenses are designed so that the light strikes the image parallel or nearly so, eliminating or reducing vignetting.

Pixel vignetting only affects digital cameras and is caused by angle-dependence of the digital sensors. Light incident on the sensor at normal incident produces a stronger signal than light hitting it at an oblique angle. Most digital cameras use built-in image processing to compensate for optical vignetting and pixel vignetting when converting raw sensor data to standard image formats such as JPEG or TIFF; the use of offset microlenses over the image sensor can reduce the effect of pixel vignetting. For artistic effect, vignetting is sometimes applied to an otherwise un-vignetted photograph and can be achieved by burning the outer edges of the photograph or using digital imaging techniques, such as masking darkened edges; the Lens Correction filter in Photoshop can achieve the same effect. In digital imaging, this technique is used to create a low fidelity appearance in the picture. Dodging and burning Feathering Flat-field correction Metering mode Vignette Van Walree's webpage on vignetting uses some unorthodox terminology, but illustrates well the physics and optics of mechanical and optical vignetting.

Peter B. Catrysse, Xinqiao Liu, Abbas El Gamal: QE Reduction due to Pixel Vignetting in CMOS Image Sensors. 3965. Yuanjie Zheng, Stephen Lin, Sing Bing Kang, Single-Image Vignetting Correction. 2010. "Radiometric Calibration for AgCam" Remote Sens. 2, no. 2: 464-477

Lorenzo de' Medici

Lorenzo de' Medici was an Italian statesman, de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic and the most powerful and enthusiastic patron of Renaissance culture in Italy. Known as Lorenzo the Magnificent by contemporary Florentines, he was a magnate, diplomat and patron of scholars and poets; as a patron, he is best known for his sponsorship of artists such as Michelangelo. He held the balance of power within the Italic League, an alliance of states that stabilized political conditions on the Italian peninsula for decades, his life coincided with the mature phase of the Italian Renaissance and the Golden Age of Florence; the Peace of Lodi of 1454 that he helped maintain among the various Italian states collapsed with his death. He is buried in the Medici Chapel in Florence. Lorenzo's grandfather, Cosimo de' Medici, was the first member of the Medici family to lead the Republic of Florence and run the Medici Bank simultaneously; as one of the wealthiest men in Europe, Cosimo spent a large portion of his fortune on government and philanthropy, for example as a patron of the arts and financier of public works.

Lorenzo's father, Piero di Cosimo de' Medici, was at the centre of Florentine civic life, chiefly as an art patron and collector, while Lorenzo's uncle, Giovanni di Cosimo de' Medici, took care of the family's business interests. Lorenzo's mother, Lucrezia Tornabuoni, was a writer of sonnets and a friend to poets and philosophers of the Medici Academy, she became her son's advisor after the deaths of his uncle. Lorenzo, considered the most promising of the five children of Piero and Lucrezia, was tutored by a diplomat and bishop, Gentile de' Becchi, the humanist philosopher Marsilio Ficino, he was trained in Greek by John Argyropoulos. With his brother Giuliano, he participated in jousting, hawking and horse breeding for the Palio, a horse race in Siena. In 1469, aged 19, he won first prize in a jousting tournament sponsored by the Medici; the joust was the subject of a poem written by Luigi Pulci. Niccolò Machiavelli wrote of the occasion sarcastically, that he won "not by way of favour, but by his own valour and skill in arms".

He carried a banner painted by Verrocchio, his horse was named Morello di Vento. Piero sent Lorenzo on many important diplomatic missions when he was still a youth, including trips to Rome to meet the pope and other important religious and political figures. Lorenzo was described as rather plain of appearance and of average height, having a broad frame and short legs, dark hair and eyes, a squashed nose, short-sighted eyes and a harsh voice. Giuliano, on the other hand, was regarded as handsome and a "golden boy", was used as a model by Botticelli in his painting of Mars and Venus. Lorenzo's close friend Niccolo Valori described him as homely, saying, "nature had been a stepmother to him in regards to his personal appearance, although she had acted as a loving mother in all things concocted with the mind, his complexion was dark, although his face was not handsome it was so full of dignity as to compel respect." Lorenzo, groomed for power, assumed a leading role in the state upon the death of his father in 1469.

Drained by his grandfather's building projects and stressed by mismanagement and political expenses, the assets of the Medici Bank contracted during the course of Lorenzo's lifetime. Lorenzo, like his grandfather and son, ruled Florence indirectly through surrogates in the city councils by means of payoffs and strategic marriages. Rival Florentine families harboured resentments over the Medicis' dominance, enemies of the Medici remained a factor in Florentine life long after Lorenzo's passing; the most notable of the rival families was the Pazzi. On Easter Sunday, 26 April 1478, in an incident known as the Pazzi conspiracy, a group headed by Girolamo Riario, Francesco de' Pazzi, Francesco Salviati, attacked Lorenzo and his brother and co-ruler Giuliano in the Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in an attempt to seize control of the Florentine government. Shockingly, Salviati acted with the blessing of his patron Pope Sixtus IV. Giuliano was killed, brutally stabbed to death, but Lorenzo escaped with only a minor wound to the neck, having been defended by the poet Poliziano.

News of the conspiracy spread throughout Florence and was brutally put down by the populace through such measures as the lynching of the archbishop of Pisa and members of the Pazzi family who were involved in the conspiracy. In the aftermath of the Pazzi conspiracy and the punishment of supporters of Pope Sixtus IV, the Medici and Florence earned the wrath of the Holy See, which seized all the Medici assets that Sixtus could find, excommunicated Lorenzo and the entire government of Florence, put the entire Florentine city-state under interdict; when these moves had little effect, Sixtus formed a military alliance with King Ferdinand I of Naples, whose son, Duke of Calabria, led an invasion of the Florentine Republic, still ruled by Lorenzo. Lorenzo rallied the citizens. However, with little support from the traditional Medici allies in Bologna and Milan, the war dragged on, only diplomacy by Lorenzo, who traveled to Naples and became a prisoner of the king for several months resolved the crisis.

That success enabled Lorenzo to secure constitutional changes within the government of the Florentine Republic that further enhanced his own power. Thereafter, like his grandfather Cosimo de' Medici, pursued a policy of maintaining peace, balancin

Geelong Art Gallery

The Geelong Art Gallery known as Geelong Gallery, is a major regional gallery in the city of Geelong in Victoria, Australia. The gallery has 4,000 works of art in its collection; the gallery forms Geelong's Arts Precinct with the adjacent Geelong Performing Arts Centre, Geelong Heritage Centre, Geelong Courthouse centre, the Geelong Library. An art gallery for Geelong was first petitioned for in 1895 by members of the Geelong Progress League. In May 1900 permission was given for the Geelong Art Gallery Association to use three walls in the Geelong Town Hall to hang artwork on. Among the first acquisitions made was Frederick McCubbin's 1890 A bush burial which cost 100 guineas at the time; the gallery was soon moved to the Free Library Building in Moorabool Street. On 31 May 1900, the formal opening of the Geelong Art Gallery took place at the town hall. Mr. S. Austin, M. L. C. Presided and the mayor Alderman Carr made a speech declaring it open to the public. In March 1903, two watercolours of colonial life in Victoria were presented to the Geelong Art Gallery by Mr. G.

M. Hitchcock. One depicts William Buckley'the wild white man'; the other watercolour is of the interior of the first newspaper office in Melbourne. The current Geelong Gallery was opened in 1915, was erected as a memorial to the late George M. Hitchcock, it is located on the south side of Johnstone Park, between the Town Hall and the former fire station site, now occupied by the Geelong Library and Heritage Centre. The initial building consisted of a portico and vestibule facing the park, the G. M. Hitchcock Gallery; the first additions to the gallery occurred in 1928 when the Henry P. Douglas Gallery was opened, followed by the H. F. Richardson Gallery in 1937; the main entrance to the gallery was moved to Little Malop Street with the opening of the J. H. McPhillimy Gallery by then-Prime Minister Joseph Lyons in 1938. Further expansion followed in 1956 and 1971; the Gallery has a collection of over 6,000 Australian and International items including works on paper, decorative arts and sculpture. Individual collection items can be viewed on the Geelong Gallery collection website.

There are a number of notable artworks in the collection: View of Geelong, by Eugene von Guerard A bush burial, by Frederick McCubbin The pier head, by Stanhope Forbes, considered "one of the greatest British impressionist paintings in Australia" Beg, Peter.. Geelong - The First 150 Years. Globe Press. ISBN0-9592863-5-7 Geelong Gallery: About the Gallery. Official Site

Pokémon Trading Card Game (video game)

Pokémon Trading Card Game is a video game adaptation of the original tabletop trading card game of the same name, which in turn was based on the Pokémon role-playing video game series. Developed by Hudson Soft and Creatures, published by Nintendo, it was released in Japan on December 18, 1998, with an English version appearing in North America in April 10, 2000, in Europe the following December; the title features digital versions of cards from the first three sets of the trading card game released in English by Wizards of the Coast between 1998 and 1999, as well as exclusive cards not available outside of the game. A second Game Boy Color game, Pokémon Card GB2: Great Rocket-Dan Sanjō!, was released in Japan on March 28, 2001. The sequel was not released in North Europe. Pokémon Trading Card Game is a video game simulation of the original tabletop collectible card game with role-playing elements similar to the main Pokémon RPG-series. Players control a young boy and must travel around the game world interacting with non-player characters and challenging them to card battles using 60-card decks.

During gameplay, the player must defeat eight Club Masters, each with a different deck representing one of the game's elemental card types. The player faces four Grand Masters, defeating them earns the player the right to inherit four powerful Legendary Cards. A total of 226 cards exist within the game, which include cards from the first three sets of the real-life game, as well as exclusive cards not available outside of the game; the player is given the opportunity to choose one of three starter decks at the start of their journey, each containing Pokémon cards revolving around the three possible starting creatures from Pokémon Red and Blue. As players defeat opponents, they are rewarded with booster packs containing a random assortment of additional cards they may use in their deck, with up to four separate decks able to be saved at a time. Up to two players may interact with each other using the Game Boy's infrared linking capability to battle or trade cards; as players trade with one another, they are given access to a special feature called "Card Pop!", which allows them to obtain cards that would otherwise be inaccessible in the main game.

This feature is not accessible in the 3DS version. Pokémon Trading Card Game was co-developed by Hudson Creatures. Creatures' official website describes their work on the game as "planning and game design, card design". Tsunekazu Ishihara, founder of Creatures and designer of the card game, is credited as one of the game's producers. Curiously, Hudson is not credited anywhere on cartridge, or title screen. However, the ending credits list them as the game's developer; the game was released in Japan on December 18, 1998 under the title Pokémon Card GB one month before the tabletop version debuted in English. In September 1999, Nintendo of America announced that they would be releasing an English version in North America with the proposed title of Pokémon Card. Though planned for release the following winter, the game, now known under its finalized title of Pokémon Trading Card Game, was pushed back to April 2000, which IGN attributed to the company wanting to focus their efforts on the upcoming Pokémon Stadium for the Nintendo 64.

The following February, the game made an appearance at the 2000 Toy Fair in New York City as part of Nintendo's "Pokémon 2000" interactive line-up along with Pokémon Gold and Silver. An exclusive tabletop version promotional card from Wizards of the Coast featuring Meowth was included with the game. Although Pokémon Trading Card Game features most cards from the first three sets of the collectible card game, two real-life cards are absent from the Game Boy Color version: Electrode from the base set, Ditto from the Fossil; the cards were excluded as it was difficult to translate their tabletop effects to the video game engine, but they are replaced by game-exclusive cards of the same Pokémon. The game features cameos from President and CEO of The Pokémon Company Tsunekazu Ishihara as "Mr. Ishihara", musician Tomoaki Imakuni under his stage name Imakuni?. Pokémon Trading Card Game sold 607,193 copies in Japan by the end of 1999, becoming the 20th most-bought console game of that year in the region.

It would go on to sell an additional 1.51 million copies during its first year in North America, received positive reception from critics, earning an 81.25% average score from aggregate review website GameRankings. GameSpot referred to the game as "a faithful and amusing adaptation of the collectible card game" calling the gameplay "addictive", but found it to be overall less satisfying than the original Pokémon role-playing games, stating that its goal of'collecting all 226 pieces of paper' just doesn't satisfy like'catching'em all' can and does." Others, such as IGN called the game "a blast to play" and that it offered the same experience as the tabletop version "without the clutter or cost", yet acknowledged that the video game adaption could not replicate the original given the finite number of cards available. Though the website found its main story to be "simple and basic", gameplay to be luck-based, it declared that "whether you like or hate those darn Pokémon... if Nintendo keeps making Pokémon videogames of this quality, those creatures aren't going away anytime soon."

GamesRadar ranked it the 50th best game available on the Game Boy and/or Game Boy Color. The staff called it an "excellent addition to Pokemon's Game Boy catalog."In a 2009 retrospective of Pokémon spin-offs, IGN retained their high praise for the game, stating "It was kind of ridiculous how aw

Minuscule 437

Minuscule 437, Απρ12, is a Greek minuscule manuscript of the New Testament, on parchment. Palaeographically it has been assigned to the 11th century; the codex contains only the text of the Acts of the Apostles on 257 parchment leaves with a catena. The text is written in 24 lines per page. Aland did not place the Greek text of the codex in any Category. Scrivener dated the manuscript to Gregory dated it to the 11th century; the manuscript was added to the list of the New Testament manuscripts by Scholz. The manuscript was examined by Scholz, it was designated by 74a. C. R. Gregory saw it in 1886, it is housed at the Vatican Library in Rome. List of New Testament minuscules Biblical manuscript Textual criticism Gregory, Caspar René. Textkritik des Neuen Testamentes. 1. Leipzig: J. C Hinrichs. P. 270. "Liste Handschriften". Münster: Institute for New Testament Textual Research. Retrieved 2014-10-19

Wy Yung, Victoria

Wy Yung is a town in Victoria, located on Great Alpine Road, in the Shire of East Gippsland near Bairnsdale. The town was named after the local indigenous meaning for wild duck. White settlers moved to the district in the 1860s and by the next decade there was enough population for two schools and a hotel to be opened in the 1870s, it remained a farming district until the 1970s when demand for urban housing began; the Mitchell River flows into Jones Bay at Eagle Point Bluff. The Mitchell and Nicholson rivers deliver a combined discharge of 1.1 gigalitres per year into the lakes system. The Strategic Management Plan quotes that about 100,000 tonnes of suspended solids are estimated to enter the Gippsland Lakes each year from the catchments of the Mitchell and Nicholson rivers alone. Sediment loads from the western catchments deliver two to three times the nutrient and sediment loads than from the eastern catchments. Comparison of aerial photographs spanning 1935 to 1997 demonstrate that the vast majority of shorelines are eroding at an average of less than 10 cm per year.

The lower reaches of the Latrobe River, Thomson River and Mitchell River flow into the Gippsland Lakes and have extensive floodplains in which there are large wetlands separated by natural levees from the main river channels. The Mitchell river flats were always prone to flooding and 1891 bore witness to the flood, only second in extent to the great floods of 1870; the biggest floods recorded were in 1893–94 with them being 76 mm higher than the 1870 water levels. All floods caused the township great suffering with loss of life and crops; the flooding that occurred in the 1893–94 was notable for the gallantry of Patrick Piggott and George Brooks who both worked to rescue people. However, on their last trip their boat tipped as they moored it and both men were swept into the river and drowned. A witness remonstrated that. Both men are remembered upon a marble tablet installed at the Mechanics' Hall; the Mitchell Delta is represented as a type-L under the Ramsar wetland type classification framework, which means that it is a permanent inland delta.

The Mitchell Delta is a classic form of digitate delta (from Latin digitātus, having finger or toes and is located near the western shoreline of Lake King at Eagle Point Bluff, extending into the lake as silt jetties formed by alluvial deposition of sediment. The Mitchell Delta represents one of the finest examples of this type of landform in the world and is a site deemed of international geomorphological significance and is one of the finest examples of a classic digitate delta in the world; the town has an Australian Rules football team competing in the East Gippsland Football League. One of the founding clubs of the league in 1974, they are known as the Tigers, they have been premiers three times, 1992, 2003, & 2015