Viking 2

The Viking 2 mission was part of the American Viking program to Mars, consisted of an orbiter and a lander identical to that of the Viking 1 mission. The Viking 2 lander operated on the surface for 1316 days, or 1281 sols, was turned off on April 12, 1980 when its batteries failed; the orbiter worked until July 25, 1978, returning 16,000 images in 706 orbits around Mars. The craft was launched on September 9, 1975. Following launch using a Titan/Centaur launch vehicle and a 333-day cruise to Mars, the Viking 2 Orbiter began returning global images of Mars prior to orbit insertion; the orbiter was inserted into a 1500 x 33,000 km, 24.6 h Mars orbit on August 7, 1976 and trimmed to a 27.3 h site certification orbit with a periapsis of 1499 km and an inclination of 55.2 degrees on 9 August. Imaging of candidate sites was begun and the landing site was selected based on these pictures and the images returned by the Viking 1 Orbiter; the lander separated from the orbiter on September 3, 1976 at 22:37:50 UT and landed at Utopia Planitia.

Normal operations called for the structure connecting the orbiter and lander to be ejected after separation, but because of problems with the separation the bioshield was left attached to the orbiter. The orbit inclination was raised to 75 degrees on 30 September 1976; the orbiter primary mission ended at the beginning of solar conjunction on October 5, 1976. The extended mission commenced on 14 December 1976 after solar conjunction. On 20 December 1976 the periapsis was lowered to the inclination raised to 80 degrees. Operations included close approaches to Deimos in October 1977 and the periapsis was lowered to 300 km and the period changed to 24 hours on 23 October 1977; the orbiter developed a leak in its propulsion system. It was placed in a 302 × 33,176 km orbit and turned off on 25 July 1978 after returning 16,000 images in about 700–706 orbits around Mars; the lander and its aeroshell separated from the orbiter on 3 September 1976, at 19:39:59 UT. At the time of separation, the lander was orbiting at about 4 km/s.

After separation, rockets fired to begin lander deorbit. After a few hours, at about 300 km attitude, the lander was reoriented for entry; the aeroshell with its ablative heat shield slowed the craft. The Viking 2 lander touched down about 200 km west of the crater Mie in Utopia Planitia at 48.269°N 225.990°W / 48.269. 22 kg of propellants were left at landing. Due to radar misidentification of a rock or reflective surface, the thrusters fired an extra time 0.4 second before landing, cracking the surface and raising dust. The lander settled down with one leg on a rock, tilted at 8.2 degrees. The cameras began taking images after landing; the Viking 2 lander was powered by radioisotope generators and operated on the surface until April 12, 1980, when its batteries failed. The soil resembled; the tested soil contained abundant silicon and iron, along with significant amounts of magnesium, sulfur and titanium. Trace elements and yttrium, were detected; the amount of potassium was one fifth of the average for the Earth's crust.

Some chemicals in the soil contained sulfur and chlorine that were like those remaining after the evaporation of sea water. Sulfur was more concentrated in the crust on top of the soil than in the bulk soil beneath; the sulfur may be present as sulfates of sodium, calcium, or iron. A sulfide of iron is possible; the Spirit rover and the Opportunity rover both found sulfates on Mars. Minerals typical weathering products of mafic igneous rocks were found. All samples heated in the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer gave off water. However, the way the samples were handled prohibited an exact measurement of the amount of water. But, it was around 1%. Studies with magnets aboard the landers indicated that the soil is between 3 and 7 percent magnetic materials by weight; the magnetic chemicals could be magnetite and maghemite, which could come from the weathering of basalt rock. Subsequent experiments carried out by the Mars Spirit rover suggest that magnetite could explain the magnetic nature of the dust and soil on Mars.

Viking 2 carried a biology experiment. The Viking 2 biology experiment weighed 15.5 kg and consisted of three subsystems: the Pyrolytic Release experiment, the Labeled Release experiment, the Gas Exchange experiment. In addition, independent of the biology experiments, Viking 2 carried a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer that could measure the composition and abundance of organic compounds in the Martian soil; the results were surprising and interesting: the GCMS gave a negative result. Viking scientist Patricia Straat stated, "Our experiment was a definite positive response for life, but a lot of people have claimed that it was a false positive for a variety of reasons."Most scientists now believe that the data were due to inorganic chemical reactions of the soil. Some scientists still believe. No organic chemicals were found in the soil. Mars has no ozone layer, unlike the Earth, so UV light ste

Roman Catholic Diocese of Ciudad Rodrigo

The Diocese of Ciudad Rodrigo is a Roman Catholic diocese in Spain, located in the city of Ciudad Rodrigo in the ecclesiastical province of Valladolid. The origins of the diocese of Ciudad Rodrigo have been studied in depth in two papers by Fidel Fita; the exact date when the town was conquered is unknown, but it was purchased by the citizens of Salamanca about 1135. They controlled it until 1161, when it was annexed to the royal domain by king Ferdinand II, who built a castle for the defence of the frontier and founded the diocese as well as two monasteries; the move provoked hostility: the Salamancans revolted in 1162 and Portugal, threatened by a new royal fortress so near its border, invaded in 1163. When Ferdinand II founded the diocese in 1161, he claimed only to be re-establishing the ancient diocese of Caliabria, the location of, in fact unknown. On 13 February Ferdinand issued a charter for the new diocese, in which he gave the metropolitan Archbishop of Santiago de Compostela full authority to appoint the bishop without reference to the cathedral chapter.

The king did not consult the pope, Alexander III, who showed he was displeased by the fuero in a bull of 1175. By that time it may have been allowed to lapse, since a further royal charter of 20 September 1168 does not mention the special provision of 1161, it is uncertain how the first bishop, came into his office, or when. He is not recorded in any document before 1168 and he was dead by 1172 or 1173. Of the early bishops, only Pedro de Ponte is well known. Martín and Lombardo are known only from the witness lists of royal charters and from Martín's stint as a papal judge-delegate; the Almohads attacked the city in 1174, the same year that a dispute over the boundary between the diocese of Ciudad Rodrigo and that of Salamanca was settled. The diocese was bounded to the north and east by the rivers Huebra and Duero, its southern frontier was desolate and extended to the diocese of Coria. To its west lay Portugal. Domingo Pedro de Ponte Martín Lombardo Miguel Pedro II Leonardo Domingo Martín Pedro III Antonio Alfonso Bernardo Juan I Juan II Alfonso III Rodrigo Gonçalo Gonçalves André Dias de Escobar, O.

S. B. Alfonso V Sante Alfonso Sánchez de Valladolid Alfonso de Palenzuela Alfonso de Paradinas Pedro Beltrán Diego de Muros, O. Merc. Juan Ortega Bravo de la Laguna Diego de Peralta Valeriano Ordóñez Villaquirán Francisco Bobadilla. Francisco Ruiz, O. F. M. Juan Pardo Tavera Pedro Portocarrero Gonzalo Maldonado Pedro Fernández Manrique Pedro Pacheco de Villena Antonio Ramírez de Haro Francisco de Navarra y Hualde Juan Aceres Pedro Ponce de León Diego de Covarubias y Leyva Diego de Simancas Andrés Pérez Pedro Vélez Guevara Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas Pedro Maldonado Martín de Salvatierra Pedro Ponce de Léon Antonio Idiáquez Manrique Jerónimo Ruiz Camargo Francisco de Arriba Agustín Antolínez, O. S. A. Martín Fernández Portocarrero Juan de la Torre Ayala Francisco Diego Alarcón y Covarrubias Juan Pérez Delgado Diego de Tejada y la Guardia Diego Riquelme y Quirós Antonio Rodríguez Castañon Miguel de Cárdenas, O. Carm. Alfonso Bernardo de los Ríos y Guzmán, O. SS. T. Juan de Andaya y Sotomayor Sebastián Catalán José González Blázquez, O. de M. Francisco Manuel de Zúñiga Sotomayor y Mendoza, O.

S. A. José Díez Sa

USS Martha Washington (ID-3019)

USS Martha Washington was a transport for the United States Navy during World War I named for Martha Washington, the first First Lady of the United States. She was ocean liner SS Martha Washington for the Austro-American Line before the war. Before and after her Navy service she was the United States Army transport USAT Martha Washington; the liner was sold to the Italian Cosulich Line in 1922. In 1932, when Cosulich was absorbed into Italia Flotte Riunite, the ship was renamed SS Tel Aviv; the ship was scrapped in 1934. Martha Washington was launched in 1908 by Russell & Co. of Port Glasgow, Scotland for the Austro-American Line. The liner sailed between New York City. On the evening of 20 November 1911, while steaming in the Ionian Sea from Patras and headed for New York, Martha Washington came under fire from an Italian battleship for a period of ten minutes, with shells falling within one ship length of the liner. According to the captain of the liner, the Italians, fighting against Turkey in the Italo-Turkish War, mistook Martha Washington for a Turkish ship.

The ship was allowed to pass unharmed after the crew used a signal lamp to communicate her identity to the Italians. At the outbreak of World War I, Martha Washington was interned at Hoboken, New Jersey, in 1914. After the United States entered the war, Martha Washington was taken over by the U. S. Army Quartermaster Department on 6 April 1917; the former liner was acquired by the Navy in November 1917. She was commissioned on 2 January 1918 with Commander Chauncey Shackford in command. Two months of round‑the‑clock effort restored the ship to seaworthiness and modified her as a troop transport. Martha Washington sailed on eight wartime voyages carrying troops to France, embarking a total of 24,005 passengers. Sailing as a part of the Cruiser and Transport Force, Martha Washington sailed from New York on 10 February on her first of voyage carrying troops to France with Navy transports Antigone, President Lincoln, Von Steuben, Army transport Finland, under escort of the cruiser Pueblo. Martha Washington arrived back at New York on 14 March.

Leaving New York again on 23 March, she convoyed with El Occidente, Powhatan and cruiser Pueblo, arriving in France on 4 April. Martha Washington and Powhatan returned to the U. S. on 22 April. Martha Washington next departed Newport News on 30 April 1918 with Powhatan. Rendezvousing with the two transports was a convoy sailing from New York consisting of Kroonland, Matsonia and Finland. South Dakota provided the convoy with protection until its arrival in France on 12 May. Martha Washington returned to Virginia on 1 June. Departing Newport News on 10 June, Martha Washington sailed with Aeolus, Powhatan and British troopship Czaritza. Meeting up with Manchuria which sailed from New York, the convoy—escorted by cruisers Seattle and Frederick, destroyer Stevens—reached France on 18 June. Martha Washington returned to the U. S. on 30 June. Departing Newport News once again for France on 10 July, Martha Washington, accompanied by Aeolus and Matsonia, joined with the New York contingent—Navy transports Sierra and Manchuria, steamers Narragansett and Toloa—and arrived in France on 21 July.

Cruiser Seattle and destroyers Stringham, Fairfax and Paul Jones served as escorts on the eastbound crossing. Aeolus and Matsonia joined Martha Washington in arriving in Virginia on 5 August. With Manchuria, Aeolus, Koningen der Nederlanden, steamer Patria, Martha Washington sailed from Newport News for France on 14 August. Louisville and Matsonia, sailing from New York, joined the convoy, escorted by cruisers Rochester and Frederick. Records of this convoy are sketchy, but Henderson and Matsonia are known to have arrived in France on 25 August, the other ships arrived around that same time. Upon Martha Washington 's return to the U. S. she shifted to New York. After embarking 3,029 troops, Martha Washington departed again on 15 September sailing with Henderson, Calamares, Finland and steamer Ulua. Martha Washington 's New York group met up with a Virginia group of Navy transports Aeolus and Koningen der Nederlanden, steamers Patria and Kursk. Escorts—consisting of battleship New Hampshire, cruisers St. Louis and Pueblo, destroyers Stribling and Stringham—helped to ensure the safe arrival of all ships in France on 28 September.

Finland and Pocahontas accompanied Martha Washington on her return journey and arrived at New York on 12 October. Beginning what would be her final wartime crossing, Martha Washington sailed with Aeolus and Italian steamer Duca d'Aosta on 21 October from Newport News. Navy transport Pocahontas and Brazilian steamer Sobral, sailing from New York, escorts New Hampshire, South Dakota and Radford filled out the convoy, which arrived on 4 November. Returning to the U. S. five days after the Armistice, Martha Washington made eight additional voyages—from 26 November 1918 to 11 November 1919—returning 19,687 troops and passengers from foreign ports. During her seventh voyage she disembarked 945 interned German aliens at Rotterdam in the Netherlands. On her final voyage she arrived at Brest on 14 August and received new orders to transport an American relief mission to Turkey and Russia. Under the leadership of Major General James Harbord, U. S. Army, the mission spent the first two weeks in September at Constantinople and after arriving at Batum, Russia, on 18 September, spent the following three weeks there.

In this period of civil turmoil, Martha Washington brought 324 Armenian and Polish refugees to Constantinople. Sailing for the United States on 1