Order "For Merit to the Fatherland"
The Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" is a state decoration of the Russian Federation. It was instituted on March 2, 1994 by Presidential Decree 442; until the re-establishment of the Order of St. Andrew in 1998, it was the highest order of the Russian Federation, though it is still the highest civilian decoration of the state; the Order of St. Andrew decoration is given to military personnel only; the order's status was modified on January 6, 1999 by Presidential Decree 19 and again on September 7, 2010 by Presidential Decree 1099. The Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" is a mixed civilian and military order created in four classes, it is awarded for outstanding contributions to the state associated with the development of Russian statehood, advances in labour, peace and cooperation between nations, or for significant contributions to the defence of the Fatherland. The highest of the four classes is the lowest being the Order IV class; these classes are awarded sequentially from the IV to the I class.
Persons awarded the Order For Service to the Fatherland IV class should have been awarded another Order of the Russian Federation and the Medal of the Order For Service to the Fatherland I class. For meritorious service to the State, the Order For Service to the Fatherland IV class may be conferred without previous award of the Medal of the Order For Service to the Fatherland I class if awarded the title "Hero of the Russian Federation", "Hero of the Soviet Union" or "Hero of Socialist Labor", as well as if awarded the Order of St. George, the Order of Alexander Nevsky, the Order of Suvorov, the Order of Ushakov, the Order of Zhukov, the Order of Kutuzov, the Order of Nakhimov, the Order For Courage, or who were awarded an honorary title of the Russian Federation. In exceptional cases, the President of the Russian Federation may decide to award the Order For Service to the Fatherland to persons not awarded state awards of the Russian Federation. Soldiers receiving the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland" for distinction in combat will receive the Order with Swords.
Although awarded to foreign dignitaries and heads of state such as to French President Jacques Chirac, the 2010 decree abolished this practice making Russian Federation citizens the only possible recipients. The order has four classes; the collar is the unique insignia of the President of the Russian Federation. The four classes of the Order are individually identified by the size and manner of wearing the two principal insignia of the Order, the cross and the star. Cross: Is a silver-gilt ruby-enamelled cross pattée bearing the gilt state emblem of the Russian Federation on its obverse. On the reverse of the cross is a circular medallion surrounded by the motto "BENEFIT, HONOUR, GLORY". In the center of the medallion, the year of the establishment of the Order "1994". On the reverse of the lower arm of the cross, laurel the serial number of the Order; the cross for the Order I class measures 60mm across and is affixed to a 100mm wide red sash worn over the right shoulder. The cross of the II and III classes measures 50mm across and is worn on a 45mm wide red neck ribbon for the II class, the III class ribbon is 24mm wide.
The cross for the IV class measures 40mm across and hangs from a standard pentagonal mount covered by a red 24mm wide ribbon. Star: The star of the Order is eight pointed. 82mm across and of polished silver. At its center on the obverse if a circular medallion bearing the embossed gilt state emblem of the Russian Federation. Around the medallion, a red enameled band with the motto of the Order "BENEFIT, HONOUR, GLORY"; the reverse has the serial number of the Order engraved on the lower arm. A "cavalier" of an order is an individual who as received a grade of an order, it is synonymous to a "knight" of a western order. A "full cavalier" of an order is an individual who has sequentially earned every class of that order; the individuals listed below are among those who have been so honoured: Awards and decorations of the Russian Federation The Commission on State Awards to the President of the Russian Federation
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a Russian and Soviet politician. The eighth and last leader of the Soviet Union, he was General Secretary of its governing Communist Party from 1985 until 1991, he was the country's head of state from 1988 until 1991, serving as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet from 1988 to 1989, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 1989 to 1990, President of the Soviet Union from 1990 to 1991. Ideologically, he adhered to Marxism-Leninism although by the early 1990s had moved toward social democracy. Of mixed Russian and Ukrainian heritage, Gorbachev was born in Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai to a poor peasant family. Growing up under the rule of Joseph Stalin, in his youth he operated combine harvesters on a collective farm before joining the Communist Party, which governed the Soviet Union as a one-party state according to Marxist-Leninist doctrine. While studying at Moscow State University, he married fellow student Raisa Titarenko in 1953 prior to receiving his law degree in 1955.
Moving to Stavropol, he worked for the Komsomol youth organisation and, after Stalin's death, became a keen proponent of the de-Stalinization reforms of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev. He was appointed the First Party Secretary of the Stavropol Regional Committee in 1970, in which position he oversaw construction of the Great Stavropol Canal. In 1974 he moved to Moscow to become First Secretary to the Supreme Soviet and in 1979 became a candidate member of the party's governing Politburo. Within three years of the death of Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, following the brief regimes of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, the Politburo elected Gorbachev as General Secretary, the de facto head of government, in 1985. Although committed to preserving the Soviet state and to its socialist ideals, Gorbachev believed significant reform was necessary after the 1986 Chernobyl disaster, he withdrew from the Soviet–Afghan War and embarked on summits with United States President Ronald Reagan to limit nuclear weapons and end the Cold War.
Domestically, his policy of glasnost allowed for enhanced freedom of speech and press, while his perestroika sought to decentralise economic decision making to improve efficiency. His democratisation measures and formation of the elected Congress of People's Deputies undermined the one-party state. Gorbachev declined to intervene militarily when various Eastern Bloc countries abandoned Marxist-Leninist governance in 1989-90. Internally, growing nationalist sentiment threatened to break-up the Soviet Union, leading Marxist-Leninist hardliners to launch an unsuccessful August 1991 coup against Gorbachev. Out of office, he launched his Gorbachev Foundation, became a vocal critic of Russian Presidents Boris Yeltsin and Vladimir Putin, campaigned for Russia's social-democratic movement. Considered one of the most significant figures of the second half of the 20th century, Gorbachev remains the subject of controversy; the recipient of a wide range of awards—including the Nobel Peace Prize—he was praised for his pivotal role in ending the Cold War, curtailing human rights abuses in the Soviet Union, tolerating both the fall of Marxist–Leninist administrations in eastern and central Europe and the reunification of Germany.
Conversely, in Russia he is derided for not stopping the Soviet collapse, an event which brought a decline in Russia's global influence and precipitated economic crisis. Gorbachev was born on 2 March 1931 in the village of Privolnoye, Stavropol Krai in the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. At the time, Privolnoye was divided evenly between ethnic Russians and ethnic Ukrainians. Gorbachev's paternal family were ethnic Russians and had moved to the region from Voronezh several generations before, his parents named him Victor, but at the insistence of his mother—a devout Orthodox Christian—he had a secret baptism, where his grandfather christened him Mikhail. His relationship with his father, Sergey Andreyevich Gorbachev, was close, his parents were poor. The Soviet Union was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party, during Gorbachev's childhood was under the leadership of Joseph Stalin. Stalin had initiated a project of mass rural collectivisation which, in keeping with his Marxist-Leninist ideas, he believed would help convert the country into a socialist society.
Gorbachev's maternal grandfather joined the Communist Party and helped form the village's first kolkhoz in 1929, becoming its chair. This farm was twelve miles outside Privolnoye village and when he was three years old, Gorbachev left his parental home and moved into the kolkhoz with his maternal grandparents; the country was experiencing the famine of 1932–33, in which two of Gorbachev's paternal uncles and an aunt died. This was followed by the Great Purge, in which individuals accused of being "enemies of the people"—including those sympathetic to rival interpretations of Marxism like Trotskyism—were arrested and interned in labour camps, if not executed. Both of Gorbachev's grandfathers were arrested—his maternal in 1934 and his paternal in 1937—and both spent time in Gulag labour camps prior to being released. After his December 1938 release, Gorbachev's maternal grandfather discussed having been tortured by the secret pol
Dubrovnik is a Croatian city on the Adriatic Sea. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean Sea, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva County, its total population is 42,615. In 1979, the city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage sites; the prosperity of the city was based on maritime trade. In 1991, after the break-up of Yugoslavia, Dubrovnik was besieged by Serbian and Montenegrin soldiers of the Yugoslav People's Army for seven months and suffered significant damage from shelling. After repair and restoration works in the 1990s and early 2000s, Dubrovnik re-emerged as one of the top tourist destinations in the Mediterranean; the names Dubrovnik and Ragusa co-existed for several centuries. Ragusa, recorded in various forms since at least the 10th century, remained the official name of the Republic of Ragusa until 1808, of the city within the Kingdom of Dalmatia until 1918, while Dubrovnik, first recorded in the late 12th century, was in widespread use by the late 16th or early 17th century.
The name Dubrovnik of the Adriatic city is first recorded in the Charter of Ban Kulin. It is explained as "dubron", a Celtic name for water, akin to the toponyms Douvres and Tauber; the historical name Ragusa is recorded in the Greek form Ῥαούσιν in the 10th century. It was recorded in various forms in the medieval period, Lavusa, Raugia, Rachusa. Various attempts have been made to etymologize the name. Suggestions include derivation from Greek ῥάξ, ῥαγός "grape". A connection to the name of Sicilian Ragusa has been proposed. Putanec gives a review of etymological suggestion, favours an explanation of the name as pre-Greek, from a root cognate to Greek ῥαγή "fissure", with a suffix -ussa found in the Greek name of Brač, Elaphousa; the classical explanation of the name is due to Constantine VII's De Administrando Imperio. According to this account, Ragusa is the foundation of the refugees from Epidaurum, a Greek city situated some 15 km to the south of Ragusa, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions of the 7th century.
The name is explained as a corruption of Lausa, the name of the rocky island on which the city was built. According to Constantine Porphyrogenitus's De Administrando Imperio, Ragusa was founded in the 7th century, named after a "rocky island" called Lausa, by refugees from Epidaurum, a Greek city situated some 15 km to the south, when that city was destroyed in the Slavic incursions. Excavations in 2007 revealed a Byzantine basilica from parts of the city walls; the size of the old basilica indicates that there was quite a large settlement at the time. There is evidence for the presence of a settlement in the pre-Christian era. Antun Ničetić, in his 1996 book Povijest dubrovačke luke, expounds the theory that Dubrovnik was established by Greek sailors, as a station halfway between the two Greek settlements of Budva and Korčula, 95 nautical miles apart from each other. After the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom, the town came under the protection of the Byzantine Empire. Dubrovnik in those medieval centuries had a Roman population.
In 12th and 13th centuries Dubrovnik became a oligarchic republic, benefited by becoming a commercial outpost for the rising and prosperous Serbian state, specially after the signing of a treaty with Stefan the First-Crowned. After the Crusades, Dubrovnik came under the sovereignty of Venice, which would give its institutions to the Dalmatian city. In 1240, Ragusa purchased the island of Lastovo from Stefan Uroš I king of Serbia who had rights over the island as ruler of parts of Hum. After a fire destroyed most of the city in the night of August 16, 1296, a new urban plan was developed. By the Peace Treaty of Zadar in 1358, Dubrovnik achieved relative independence as a vassal-state of the Kingdom of Hungary. Ragusa experienced further expansion when, in 1333, Serbian emperor Stefan Dušan, sold Pelješac and Ston in exchange for cash and an annual tribute, thus the city became Slavic-speaking city at the moment when her connection with the rest of Europe, specially Italy, brought her into the full corrent of the Western Renaissance.
Between the 14th century and 1808, Dubrovnik ruled itself as a free state, although it was a vassal from 1382 to 1804 of the Ottoman Empire and paid an annual tribute to its sultan. The Republic reached its peak in the 15th and 16th centuries, when its thalassocracy rivalled that of the Republic of Venice and other Italian maritime republics. For centuries, Dubrovnik was an ally of Ancona, the other Adriatic maritime republic rival of Venice, itself the Ottoman Empire's chief rival for control of the Adriatic; this alliance enabled the two towns set on opposite sides of the Adriatic to resist attempts by the Venetians to make the Adriatic a "Venetian Bay" controlling directly or indirectly all the Adriatic ports. Ancona and Dubrovnik developed an alternative trade route to the Venetian (Venice-Austria-Germany
Cisco Systems, Inc. is an American multinational technology conglomerate headquartered in San Jose, California, in the center of Silicon Valley. Cisco develops and sells networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products. Through its numerous acquired subsidiaries, such as OpenDNS, WebEx, Jabber and Jasper, Cisco specializes into specific tech markets, such as Internet of Things, domain security and energy management. Cisco stock was added to the Dow Jones Industrial Average on June 8, 2009, is included in the S&P 500 Index, the Russell 1000 Index, NASDAQ-100 Index and the Russell 1000 Growth Stock Index. Cisco Systems was founded in December 1984 by Leonard Bosack and Sandy Lerner, two Stanford University computer scientists, they pioneered the concept of a local area network being used to connect geographically disparate computers over a multiprotocol router system. By the time the company went public in 1990, Cisco had a market capitalization of $224 million.
By the end of the dot-com bubble in the year 2000, Cisco had a more than $500 billion market capitalization. Cisco Systems was founded in December 1984 by Sandy Lerner, a director of computer facilities for the Stanford University Graduate School of Business. Lerner partnered with her husband, Leonard Bosack, in charge of the Stanford University computer science department's computers. Cisco's initial product has roots in Stanford University's campus technology. In the early 1980's students and staff at Stanford; the Blue Box used software, written at Stanford by research engineer William Yeager. In 1985, Bosack and Stanford employee Kirk Lougheed began a project to formally network Stanford's campus, they adapted Yeager's software into what became the foundation for Cisco IOS, despite Yeager's claims that he had been denied permission to sell the Blue Box commercially. On July 11, 1986, Bosack and Lougheed were forced to resign from Stanford and the university contemplated filing criminal complaints against Cisco and its founders for the theft of its software, hardware designs, other intellectual properties.
In 1987, Stanford licensed two computer boards to Cisco. In addition to Bosack, Lougheed, Greg Satz, Richard Troiano, completed the early Cisco team; the company's first CEO was Bill Graves, who held the position from 1987 to 1988. In 1988, John Morgridge was appointed CEO; the name "Cisco" was derived from the city name San Francisco, why the company's engineers insisted on using the lower case "cisco" in its early years. The logo is intended to depict the two towers of the Golden Gate Bridge. On February 16, 1990, Cisco Systems went public with a market capitalization of $224 million, was listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange. On August 28, 1990, Lerner was fired. Upon hearing the news, her husband Bosack resigned in protest; the couple walked away from Cisco with $170 million, 70% of, committed to their own charity. Although Cisco was not the first company to develop and sell dedicated network nodes, it was one of the first to sell commercially successful routers supporting multiple network protocols.
Classical, CPU-based architecture of early Cisco devices coupled with flexibility of operating system IOS allowed for keeping up with evolving technology needs by means of frequent software upgrades. Some popular models of that time managed to stay in production for a decade unchanged; the company was quick to capture the emerging service provider environment, entering the SP market with product lines such as Cisco 7000 and Cisco 8500. Between 1992 and 1994, Cisco acquired several companies in Ethernet switching, such as Kalpana, Grand Junction and most notably, Mario Mazzola's Crescendo Communications, which together formed the Catalyst business unit. At the time, the company envisioned layer 3 routing and layer 2 switching as complementary functions of different intelligence and architecture—the former was slow and complex, the latter was fast but simple; this philosophy dominated the company's product lines throughout the 1990s. In 1995, John Morgridge was succeeded by John Chambers; the Internet Protocol became adopted in the mid-to-late 1990s.
Cisco introduced products ranging from modem access shelves to core GSR routers, making them a major player in the market. In late March 2000, at the height of the dot-com bubble, Cisco became the most valuable company in the world, with a market capitalization of more than $500 billion; as of July 2014, with a market cap of about US$129 billion, it was still one of the most valuable companies. The perceived complexity of programming routing functions in silicon led to the formation of several startups determined to find new ways to process IP and MPLS packets in hardware and blur boundaries between routing and switching. One of them, Juniper Networks, shipped their first product in 1999 and by 2000 chipped away about 30% from Cisco SP Market share. In response, Cisco developed homegrown ASICs and fast processing cards for GSR routers and Catalyst 6500 switches. In 2004, Cisco started migration to new high-end hardware CRS-1 and software architecture IOS-XR; as part of a rebranding campaign in 2006, Cisco Systems adopted the shortened name "Cisco" and created "The Human Network" advertising campaign.
These efforts were meant to make Cisco a "household" brand—a strategy designed to support the low-end Linksys products and future consumer products. On the more traditional business side, Cisco cont
Lowell House is one of twelve undergraduate residential Houses at Harvard University, located at 10 Holyoke Place facing Mount Auburn Street between Harvard Yard and the Charles River. It is named for the Lowell family, but an ornate ALL woven into the ironwork above the main gate discreetly alludes to Abbott Lawrence Lowell, Harvard's president at the time of construction, its majestic neo-Georgian design, centered on two landscaped courtyards, received the 1938 Harleston Parker Medal and might be considered the model for Harvard houses nearby. Lowell House is close to the Yard, Harvard Square, other Harvard "River" houses, its blue-capped bell tower, visible for many miles, is a local landmark. Lowell was one of the first Houses built in the realization of President Lowell's long-held dream of providing on-campus accommodations for every Harvard College student throughout his career at the College, its first Master, was Mathematics Department chairman Julian Lowell Coolidge, who instituted Monday-night high table.
Historian Elliott Perkins was the first to hold the position of Resident Dean was Master from 1942 to 1963. Classicist Zeph Stewart was the third Master, William and Mary Lee Bossert served from 1975 to 1998. Current co-Masters Diana Eck and Dorothy Austin are thus only the fifth Masters in Lowell's 80 years. Lowell's sister college at Yale University is Pierson College. House traditions include Masters' Tea on Thursday afternoons, a May Day Waltz at dawn on the Weeks Footbridge, high table, the annual Lowell House Opera mounted in the dining hall. Springtime brings the Bacchanalia Formal with a live swing band in the courtyard. For each Arts First event, the first weekend in May, there is a courtyard performance of the 1812 Overture, during which those not part of the official orchestral ensemble are encouraged to assist on kazoos. There is a winter holiday dinner, various sophomore, senior and faculty dinners take place throughout the year. Language tables and special-interest tables are common features of everyday dinners.
Many House events are organized by Lowell's "House Committee" of elected undergraduates from within the House. The committee operates separately from the Harvard Undergraduate Council, to organize student events and manage funding; the HoCo, as with the other student government organizations in the Houses, is funded by the UC. Lowell House was the residence of Silas and Jamal in the 2001 comedy How High; as part of Harvard's House Renewal Project, Lowell House closed for renovation in the summer of 2017. Designed by the firm of Coolidge Shepley Bulfinch and Abbott and constructed in 1930 for $3,620,000, the House was named for the prominent Lowell family identified with Harvard since John Lowell graduated in 1721; the busts of President Abbott Lawrence Lowell and poet James Russell Lowell, are featured in the main courtyard. In the Dining Hall are portraits of his wife Anna Parker Lowell. Prior to the 1996 transition to randomized House assignments, Lowell's central location, picturesque courtyard, elegant dining hall, charming traditions made it a popular housing choice.
The Lowell House arms are those of the Lowell family, blazoned: Shield: sable, a dexter hand couped at the wrist grasping three darts, one in pale and two in saltire, all in argent. The crest is a stag's head cabossed, between the attires; the motto is Occasionem Cognosce (In more prosaic terms, a shield with a black field displays a right hand cut off at the wrist and grasping three arrows, one vertical and two crossed diagonally, in silver. Above is a stag's head mounted behind the ear, between its antlers is a barbed, broad arrowhead in blue; the house colors are white. For three-quarters of a century, Lowell House's bell tower was home to a set of authentic Russian zvon, one of the few complete sets of pre-revolutionary Russian bells surviving anywhere; the eighteen bells were bought in Russia around 1930 by Thomas Whittemore with the financial aid of millionaire Chicago plumbing magnate Charles R. Crane—who paid their value as scrap—just as they were to be melted down by Soviet authorities.
Crane donated them to Harvard in 1930. Like those seen today on Dunster and Eliot Houses, Lowell's tower was meant to be a clock-tower—Lowell's in particular is reminiscent of Philadelphia's Independence Hall, although it was modeled after a Dutch church. With word of Crane's gift, the planned tower was changed to the blue-capped bell tower seen today; the bells hung in Moscow's Danilov Monastery and were installed with the help, at first, of musician Konstantin Konstantinovich Saradzhev, Vsevolod Andronoff, a former resident of the monastery They range in weight from 22 pounds to 26,700 pounds. The bells are cons
Order of Alexander Nevsky
The Order of Alexander Nevsky is an order of merit of the Russian Federation named in honour of saint Alexander Nevsky and bestowed to civil servants for twenty years or more of meritorious service. It was established by the Soviet Union as a military honour during World War II, more by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of July 7, 1942, its statute was amended by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of February 26, 1947. It bears a similar name to the Imperial Order of St. Alexander Nevsky, established by Empress Catherine I of Russia in 1725, continued to be bestowed by the heads of the House of Romanov after the 1917 Russian Revolution; the Order of Alexander Nevsky was reinstated by the Soviet Union, minus the words "Imperial" and "Saint", for award to officers of the army for personal courage and resolute leadership. The Order was retained by the new Russian Federation following the dissolution of the USSR by Decision of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation 2557-I of March 20, 1992 but was never awarded.
The September 7, 2010 Decree №1099 of the President of the Russian Federation redesigned the badge of the Order closer to pre-1917 imperial model and amended the statute of the Order making it a purely civilian award. The Order of Alexander Nevsky was awarded to Red Army commanders who displayed personal bravery in fighting for their country in World War II, for courage and skilful leadership that ensured the success of an operation; the Order of Alexander Nevsky was awarded in a single class by Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR to divisional, regimental, battalion and platoon commanders for: the initiative of a sudden and swift attack on the enemy inflicting major damage with minimal losses. The Soviet Order of Alexander Nevsky was worn on the right side of the chest and when in the presence of other Orders of the USSR, placed after the Order of Bogdan Khmelnitsky 3rd class; the early Russian Federation Order of Alexander Nevsky was worn on the right side of the chest and when in the presence of other Orders, placed after the Order of Kutuzov 2nd class.
The Soviet and early Russian Federation Order of Alexander Nevsky was a silver, 50 mm wide and high ruby-red enamelled, five-pointed convex star superimposed on a decagon composed of polished diverging rays. The star had gold-plated edges. In the center of the star, a central medallion bearing the left profile relief image of a helmeted Alexander Nevsky and the inscription along the left and right circumference in prominent letters "ALEXANDER NEVSKY"; the central medallion was surrounded by a gilt laurel wreath bisected at its base by a silver shield bearing the hammer and sickle, the shield is superimposed over gilded sword, spear and quiver of arrows. Two gilt pollaxes cross behind the central medallion, their outward facing blades protruding on either side of the five pointed star's top arm and extending past the decagon's outer edge, their base visible just inside of the star's two lower arms; the original Order was suspended by a ring through a suspension loop to an early Soviet rectangular mount covered by a red silk moiré ribbon.
This was changed in 1943 to a threaded nut attachment on the reverse. The Soviet variants of the Order used the likeness of the actor Nikolai Cherkasov as Alexander Nevsky from Eisenstein's 1938 film, as there were no known portraits of Nevsky made in his lifetime; the design of the early Russian Federation variant of the Order differed from the Soviet variant only in the abrogation of the hammer and sickle from the silver shield on the obverse. During World War II the order was granted to more than 42,000 Soviet servicemen and 6 servicewomen, about 70 foreign generals and officers, over 1,470 military units that display the order on their banners. In all, 50,585 were awarded. Marshal of Aviation Ivan Nikitovich Kozhedub Lieutenant Colonel Amet-Khan Sultan Major General Azi Agadovich Aslanov Major General Andrey Nikiforovich Vitruk Air Vice Marshal Donald Clifford Tyndall Bennett, CB, CBE, DSO Major Caesar Lvovich Kunikov Chief Marshal of Aviation Pavel Stepanovich Kutakhov Major General Mikhail Mikhailovich Mesheryakov Aviation Guards Colonel Leonid Alexandrovich Bykovets Lieutenant General Vitaly Ivanovich Popkov Major General Georgi Nefiodovich Zakharov Brigadier General Pierre Pouyade Army General Alexander Terentyevich Altunin Haim Meerovich Levin (awarded twic
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012. From 2008 to 2012, Medvedev served as the third President of Russia. Regarded as more liberal than his predecessor and successor as president, Vladimir Putin, Medvedev's top agenda as president was a wide-ranging modernisation programme, aiming at modernising Russia's economy and society, lessening the country's reliance on oil and gas. During Medvedev's tenure, the New START nuclear arms reduction treaty was signed by Russia and the United States, Russia emerged victorious in the Russo-Georgian War, recovered from the Great Recession. Medvedev initiated a substantial law enforcement reform and launched an anti-corruption campaign, despite having been accused of corruption himself. Dmitry Medvedev was born in the Soviet Union, his father, Anatoly Afanasyevich Medvedev, was a chemical engineer teaching at the Leningrad State Institute of Technology. Dmitry's mother, Yulia Veniaminovna Medvedeva, studied languages at Voronezh University and taught Russian at Herzen State Pedagogical University.
She would work as a tour guide at Pavlovsk Palace. The Medvedevs lived in a 40 m² apartment at 6 Bela Kun Street in the Kupchino Municipal Okrug of Leningrad. Dmitry was his parents' only child; the Medvedevs were regarded as Soviet intelligentsia family of the time. His maternal grandparents were Ukrainians, whose surname was Kovalev Koval. Medvedev traces his family roots to the Belgorod region; as a child, Medvedev was bookish and studious, described by his first grade teacher Vera Smirnova as a "dreadful why-asker". After school, he would spend some time playing with his friends before hurrying home to work on his assignments. In the third grade, Medvedev studied the ten-volume Small Soviet Encyclopedia belonging to his father. In the second and third grades, he showed interest in dinosaurs and memorized primary Earth's geologic development periods, from the Archean up to the Cenozoic. In the fourth and fifth grades, he demonstrated interest in chemistry, conducting elementary experiments, he was involved to some degree with sport.
In grade seven, adolescent curiosity blossomed through Svetlana Linnik, his future wife, studying at the same school in a parallel class. The relationship affected Medvedev's school performance. Medvedev calls the school's final exams in 1982 a "tough period when I had to mobilize my abilities to the utmost for the first time in my life." In the autumn of 1982, 17-year-old Medvedev enrolled at Leningrad State University to study law. Although he considered studying linguistics Medvedev said he never regretted his choice, finding his chosen subject fascinating, stating that he was lucky "to have chosen a field that genuinely interested him and that it was really'his thing". Fellow students described Medvedev as a correct and diplomatic person who in debates presented his arguments without offending. During his student years, Medvedev was a fan of the English rock bands Black Sabbath, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, fond of sports and participated in athletic competitions in rowing and weight-lifting.
He graduated from the Law Department of Leningrad State University in 1987. After graduating, Medvedev considered joining the prosecutor's office to become an investigator however, he took an opportunity to pursue graduate studies as the civil law chair, deciding to accept three budget-funded post-graduate students to work at the chair itself. In 1990, Medvedev defended his dissertation titled, "Problems of Realisation of Civil Juridical Personality of State Enterprise" and received his Candidate of Sciences degree in private law. Anatoly Sobchak, a major democratic politician of the 1980s and 1990s was one of Medvedev's professors at the university. In 1988, Medvedev joined Sobchak's team of democrats and served as the de facto head of Sobchak's successful campaign for a seat in the new Soviet parliament, the Congress of People's Deputies of the USSR. After Sobchak's election campaign Medvedev continued his academic career in the position of docent at his alma mater, now renamed Saint Petersburg State University.
He taught civil and Roman law until 1999. According to one student, Medvedev was a popular teacher. During his tenure Medvedev co-wrote a popular three-volume civil law textbook which over the years has sold a million copies. Medvedev worked at a small law consultancy firm which he had founded with his friends Anton Ivanov and Ilya Yeliseyev, to supplement his academic salary. In 1990, Anatoly Sobchak returned from Moscow to become Chairman of the Leningrad City Council. Sobchak hired Medvedev who had headed his election campaign. One of Sobchak's former students, Vladimir Putin, came on board as an adviser; the next summer Sobchak was elected Mayor of the city, Medvedev became a consultant to City Hall's Committee for Foreign Affairs. It was headed by Putin. In November 1993 Medvedev became the legal affairs director of Ilim Pulp Enterprise, a St. Petersburg-based timber company. Medvedev aided the company in developing a strategy. Medvedev received 20% of the company's stock. In the next seven years Ilim Pulp Enterprise became Russia's largest lumber company with an annual revenue of around $500 million.
Medvedev sold his shares in ILP in 1999. He took his first