The Vilayet of Adana (Ottoman Turkish: ولايت اطنه, Vilâyet-i Adana. It was established in May 1869. Adana Vilayet bordered with Konya Vilayet, Ankara Vilayet and Sivas Vilayet, Haleb Vilayet. Adana Vilayet corresponds to the modern region of Çukurova in Turkey. At the beginning of the 20th century it had an area of 14,494 square miles, while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 gave the population as 402,439; the accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered. It was described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as rich in unexploited mineral wealth in the mountainous districts, fertile in the coast-plain, which produced cotton, cereals and fruit. In 1920, the region was noted for its forested western region, which had little agricultural production; the Cilicia region was noted for its agricultural production, including wheat, oats, seeds, opium and cotton. Cotton production became more popular before World War I.
In 1912, the region produced 35,000 tons of cottonseed. Pyrite was mined in the region in the early 20th century. Sanjaks of the Vilayet and their kazas: Sanjak of Adana Sanjak of Mersin Sanjak of Cebel-i Bereket Sanjak of Kozan Sanjak of İçel Adana massacre Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Adana". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
The Vilayet of Aidin or Aydin known as Vilayet of Smyrna or Izmir after its administrative centre, was a first-level administrative division of the Ottoman Empire in the south-west of Asia Minor, including the ancient regions of Lydia, Ionia and western Lycia. It was described by the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica as the "richest and most productive province of Asiatic Turkey". At the beginning of the 20th century it had an area of 17,370 square miles, while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 gave the population as 1,390,783; the stated accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered. As of 1920, the vilayet had an "exceptionally large" Christian population; the British described Aidin Vilayet as having a "remarkable variety of agriculture", as of 1920. They produced grains and cotton in Aydın and Nazilli; the region produced opium and valonia oak. Fruit was one of the most popular exports, with grapes being popular.
Before World War I, fig production was up, with an expansive increase in production and exportation via railway. Grapes were used to produce raisins and licorice was produced in the region, it was noted as growing wild along the Büyük Menderes River. It was exported to the United States and United Kingdom. Aidin, as of 1920, was considered to be the world's supply center for emery in the areas between Tire and Söke. In the early 20th century, Aidin was noted for large deposits of chromium near Mount Olympus and in the southwestern region of the vilayet. Antimony and mercury were found in the area. Carpet was manufactured in Vilayet in Smyrna, but with carpet being made throughout the region, including in Kula, Uşak, Gördes and Isparta. After World War I, sales declined, Britain remained a major importer of Turkish carpets from Aidin. Carpets were produced by women; as of 1920, the region was noted as having 6,000 square kilometers of forest. The west and southwest had the most thickly forested areas.
The British described Makri as being "rich in excellent timber." Cedars were found with oak and pine throughout the vilayet. In the early 20th-century, deforestation had begun via private companies of the vilayet. Sawmills had been erected, with Makri having its own steam-run sawmill. Most trees were felled by hand at this time. Tavas had a timber economy during this period. Before 1914, the vilayet was subdivided into: Smyrna Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Smyrna, Karaburun, Kuşadası, Çeşme, Ödemiş, Urla, Foça, Bayındır, Bergama and Tire. Sarukhan Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Manisa, Alaşehir, Akhisar, Salihli, Gördes, Demirci, Eşme, Kırkağaç, Soma and Kasaba. Aidin Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Aydın, Bozdoğan, Söke and Çine. Menteshe Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Muğla, Makri, Bodrum, Köyceğiz and Marmaris. Denizli Sanjak, subdivided into the kazas of Denizli, Tavas, Çal, Sarayköy and Garbikaraağaç. In 1893, there were in total 39 Kaza. According to the Ottoman census of that year, in the 35 kazas Muslims were the majority.
In the kaza of Izmir there was no majority but Muslims were the largest group. In the kaza of Foça, Urla and Çesme, comprising the Karaburun Peninsula, Greeks were the majority. However, according to American pre-Greco-Turkish War estimates, the Greek element was the most numerous in Smyrna Sanjak with 375,000 inhabitants, while other groups included Muslims and Armenians
The Cretan State, was established in 1898, following the intervention by the Great Powers on the island of Crete. In 1897, an insurrection in Crete headed by the Ottoman Empire to declare war on Greece, which led Great Britain, France and Russia to intervene on the grounds that the Ottoman Empire could no longer maintain control, it was the prelude to the island's final annexation to the Kingdom of Greece, which occurred de facto in 1908 and de jure in 1913. The island of Crete, an Ottoman possession since the end of the Cretan War, was inhabited by a Greek-speaking population, whose majority was Christian. During and after the Greek War of Independence, the Christians of the island rebelled several times against external Ottoman rule, pursuing union with Greece; these were brutally subdued, but secured some concessions from the Ottoman government under the pressure of European public opinion. In 1878, the Pact of Halepa established the island as an autonomous state under Ottoman suzerainty, until the Ottomans reneged on that agreement in 1889.
The collapse of the Pact heightened tensions in the island, leading to another rebellion in 1895, which expanded in 1896–1897 to cover most of the island. Six Great Powers sent warships to Crete in February 1897, their naval forces combined to form an "International Squadron" charged with intervening to bring fighting on Crete to a halt. In Greece, nationalist secret societies and a fervently irredentist public opinion forced the Greek government to send military forces to the island. Although the International Squadron halted their activities, the presence of Greek forces on Crete provoked a war with the Ottoman Empire. Although most of Crete came under the control of Cretan insurgent and Greek forces, the unprepared Greek Army was crushed by the Ottomans, who occupied Thessaly; the war was ended by the intervention of the Great Powers, who forced the Greek contingent to withdraw from Crete and the Ottoman Army to stop its advance. In the Treaty of Constantinople the Ottoman Government promised to implement the provisions of the Halepa Pact.
In February 1897, the Great Powers decided to restore order by governing the island temporarily through an "Admirals Council" consisting of admirals from the six powers making up the International Squadron. Through naval bombardments of Cretan insurgent forces, by placing sailors and marines ashore to occupy key cities, by establishing a blockade of Crete and key ports in Greece, the International Squadron brought organized fighting on Crete to an end by the end of March 1897, although the insurrection continued. Soldiers from the armies of five of the powers arrived to occupy key Cretan cities in late March and April 1897. Thereafter, the Admirals Council focused on a negotiated settlement that would bring the insurrection to an end without bringing Ottoman governance of Crete to an end, but this proved impossible, they decided that Crete would become an autonomous state under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire. Germany opposed this idea and withdrew from Crete and the International Squadron in November 1897 and Austria-Hungary followed in March 1898, but the remaining four powers carried on with their plans.
On 6 September 1898, a Turkish mob massacred hundreds of Cretan Greeks and murdered the British Consul, his family, 17 British soldiers, in the city of Candia. As a result, the International Squadron and the occupying forces ashore expelled all Ottoman forces from Crete in November 1898; the autonomous Cretan State, under Ottoman suzerainty, garrisoned by an international military force, with its High Commissioner provided by Greece, was founded when Prince George of Greece and Denmark arrived to take office as the first High Commissioner detaching Crete from the Ottoman Empire, on 21 December 1898. The Admirals Council was dissolved on 26 December 1898; the National Bank of Greece established a bank, the Bank of Crete, which had a 40-year monopoly on note issuance. The Cretan State established a paramilitary force, the Cretan Gendarmerie, modeled on the Italian Carabinieri, to maintain public order; the Cretan Gendarmerie incorporated the four small gendarmerie units the four remaining occupying powers had created before the arrival of Prince George.
On 13 December 1898, George of Greece arrived as High Commissioner for a three-year tenure. On 27 April 1899, an Executive Committee was created, in which a young, Athens-trained lawyer from Chania, Eleftherios Venizelos, participated as Minister of Justice. By 1900, Venizelos and the Prince had developed differences over domestic policies, as well as the issue of Enosis, the union with Greece. Venizelos resigned in early 1901, for the next three years, he and his supporters waged a bitter political struggle with the Prince's faction, leading to a political and administrative deadlock on the island. In March 1905, Venizelos and his supporters gathered in the village of Therisos, in the hills near Chania, constituted a "Revolutionary Assembly", demanded political reforms and declared the "political union of Crete with Greece as a single free constitutional state" in a manifesto delivered to the consuls of the Great Powers; the Cretan Gendarmerie remained loyal to the Prince, but numer
The Tanzimât was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. The Tanzimat era began with the purpose, not of radical transformation, but of modernization, desiring to consolidate the social and political foundations of the Ottoman Empire, it was characterised by various attempts to modernise the Ottoman Empire and to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire and attempted to stem the tide of nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire; the reforms sought to emancipate the empire's non-Muslim subjects and more integrate non-Turks into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the empire. In the midst of being forced to recognize the supremacy of Western power, the Ottoman elite intellectuals attempted to bring reconciliation between the West and the East within the framework of Islam.
Many changes were made to improve civil liberties, but many Muslims saw them as foreign influence on the world of Islam. That perception complicated reformist efforts made by the state. During the Tanzimat period, the government's series of constitutional reforms led to a modern conscripted army, banking system reforms, the decriminalization of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law and guilds with modern factories; the Ottoman Ministry of Post was established in Constantinople on 23 October 1840. The reforms emerged from the minds of reformist sultans like Mahmud II, his son Abdulmejid I and prominent European-educated bureaucrats, who recognised that the old religious and military institutions no longer met the needs of the empire. Most of the symbolic changes, such as uniforms, were aimed at changing the mindset of imperial administrators. Many of the officials affiliated with the government were encouraged to wear a more western style of dress. Many of the reforms were attempts to adopt successful European practices.
The reforms were influenced by the Napoleonic Code and French law under the Second French Empire as a direct result of the increasing number of Ottoman students being educated in France. Changes included the elimination of the devshirme system of conscription in favour of universal conscription. A policy called Ottomanism was meant to unite all the different peoples living in Ottoman territories, "Muslim and non-Muslim and Greek, Armenian and Jewish and Arab"; the policy began with the Edict of Gülhane of 1839, declaring equality before the law for both Muslim and non-Muslim Ottomans. The ambitious project was launched to combat the slow decline of the empire that had seen its borders shrink and its strength weaken in comparison to the European powers. There were both external reasons for the reforms. Internally, the Ottoman Empire hoped that getting rid of the millet system would lead to direct control of all of its citizens by the creation of a more-centralized government and an increase of the legitimacy of Ottoman rule.
Another major hope was that by being more open to various demographics, more people would be attracted into the empire. There was fear of internal strife between Muslims and non-Muslims, allowing more religious freedom to all was supposed to diminish this threat. Giving more rights to the Christians was considered to reduce the danger of outside intervention on their behalf; the Ottomans became worried of an escalating intervention of the European powers in Ottoman affairs, another reason for the reforms. After the Crimean War, caused by Russia's incursion into the Ottoman Empire in the 1850s, Ottoman leaders tried to avoid a repeat, they thought. Although the motives for the implementation of Tanzimât were bureaucratic, it was impulsed by liberal ministers and intellectuals like Kabuli Mehmed Pasha, the secret society of the Young Ottomans, liberal minded like Midhat Pasha, often considered as one of the founders of the Ottoman Parliament. Thanks to the emerging internal and diplomatic crises of 1875–1876, Midhat Pasha introduced the constitution of 1876, ending the Tanzimat.
The Tanzimât reforms began under Sultan Mahmud II. On November 3, 1839, Sultan Abdulmejid I issued a hatt-i sharif or imperial edict called the Edict of Gülhane or Tanzimât Fermânı; this was followed by several statutes enacting its policies. In the edict the Sultan stated that he wished "to bring the benefits of a good administration to the provinces of the Ottoman Empire through new institutions". Among the reforms were: guarantees to ensure the Ottoman subjects perfect security for their lives and property.
Qaim Maqam, Qaimaqam or Kaymakam is the title used for the governor of a provincial district in the Republic of Turkey, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and in Lebanon. The modern Turkish term kaymakam comes from two Arabic words as used in Ottoman Turkish: kâim, meaning "standing". Thus, in Ottoman times, a kâim-makâm was a state officer, considered a representative of, or "standing in place" of the sultan at a local level. According to some, the first kaymakam in history was ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib, supposed to have been appointed by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, as the first rightful caliph. Thus, ‘Alī was considered to be serving "in the place of" Muhammad; the term Qaim Maqam has a specific meaning in Moldavian and Wallachian history, where it refers to a temporary replacement for a Hospodar, in and after Phanariote rule, as well as the delegates of the Oltenian Ban in Craiova after the main office was moved to Bucharest during the same period. In this context, the word may be spelled caimacam, while the Romanian term for the office is căimăcămie.
In Arabia, four hakims of the emirate of Qatar held the additional Ottoman title of kaymakam in their administrative capacity since 1872 of district administrator since the establishment of Ottoman sovereignty till this was exchanged on 3 November 1916 with a British protectorate. Three ruling native hakims of the emirate of Kuwait, were Kaymakam of a kazas in the same province, 1871 till a British protectorate on 3 November 1914. In the Ottoman Empire, the title of kaymakam was used for the official deputizing for the Grand Vizier during the latter's illness, absence from the capital on campaign, or in the interval between the dismissal of one Grand Vizier and the arrival to the capital of a new appointee; the practice began in the 16th century, or even earlier, continued until the end of the Empire. The kaymakam enjoyed the full plenitude of powers of the Grand Vizier, but was not allowed to intervene in the conduct of the military campaigns. Selected from the ranks of the viziers, the kaymakam played an important role in the politics of the capital and became involved in intrigues against the absent Grand Vizier, trying to replace him.
In the last decades of the Empire, the post of kaymakam was filled by the members of the imperial cabinet, or by the Shaykh al-Islam. The modernization and Westernization reforms instituted in the 19th century added new meanings to the term. With the establishment of the regular Asakir-i Mansure-i Muhammediye troops in 1826, kaymakam became a rank in the Ottoman army, equivalent to a lieutenant colonel, it remained in use throughout the final century of the Empire, continued in use in the Turkish Republic until the 1930s, when it was replaced by the title of yarbay. The overhaul of the administrative system in the Tanzimat reforms soon after saw the use of kaymakam for the governor of a sanjak, while after the establishment of the vilayet system in 1864, a kaymakam became the governor of a kaza; the system was retained by modern Turkey. In Ottoman Egypt, the title of kaymakam was used in its generic sense of "lieutenant" for deputies or agents, but most notably, until the ascendancy of Muhammad Ali of Egypt, for the interim governors of the country, who served between the removal of one governor and the installation of the next one.
In the tumultuous politics of the ruling Mamluk elite, the appointment of a kaymakam "became in the 18th century, a device by which a Mamluk faction would legitimize its ascendancy" before installing one of its own members as governor. After Muhammad Ali consolidated his control of the country and his Westernizing reforms, the title, as in the rest of the Ottoman Empire, acquired a new technical meaning: in the army, it became a rank equivalent to lieutenant-colonel, while in the administration it signified the official in charge of a nahiye, with particular responsibility for the maintenance of the irrigation system; the rank is attested in use with a British officer commanding the Equatorial Battalion in East Africa, 1918: Kaimakam R F White DSO, an officer of the Essex Regiment. Subdivisions of the Ottoman Empire WorldStatesMen.org, see present nations
The Vilayet of Beirut was a first-level administrative division of the Ottoman Empire. It was established from the coastal areas of the Syria Vilayet in 1888 as a recognition of the new-found importance of its then-booming capital, which had experienced remarkable growth in the previous years — by 1907, Beirut handled 11 percent of the Ottoman Empire's international trade, it stretched from just north of Jaffa to the port city of Latakia. It was bounded by the Syria Vilayet to the east, the Aleppo Vilayet to the north, the autonomous Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem to the south and the Mediterranean Sea to the west. At the beginning of the 20th century, it had an area of 11,773 square miles, while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 gave the population as 533,500, it was the 4th most populated region of the Ottoman Empire's 36 provinces. Sanjaks of the vilayet: Latakia Sanjak Tripoli Sanjak Beirut Sanjak Akka Sanjak Nablus Sanjak Mount Lebanon Mutasarrifate Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"Beirut". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Media related to Beirut Vilayet at Wikimedia Commons
The Vilayet of Janina, Yanya or Ioannina was a first-level administrative division of the Ottoman Empire, established in 1867. In the late 19th century it had an area of 18,320 square miles, it was created by merging Pashalik of Yanina and Pashalik of Berat with sanjaks of Janina, Ergiri, Preveze, Tırhala and Kesriye. Kesriye was demoted to kaza and bounded to Monastir Vilayet and Tırhala was given to Greece in 1881. Although part of the local population contributed to the Greek War of Independence the region of Epirus did not became part of the Greek state that time. In 1878 a rebellion broke out, with the revolutionaries Epirotes, taking control of Sarandë and Delvinë. However, it was suppressed by the Ottoman troops. In the following year, the Greek population of Ioannina region authorized a committee in order to present to the European governments their wish for union with Greece. In 1906 the organization Epirote Society was founded by members of the Epirote diaspora, Panagiotis Danglis and Spyros Spyromilios, that aimed at the annexation of the region to Greece by supplying local Greeks with firearms.
Janina Vilayet was one of the main centers of the cultural and political life of Albanians who lived in Janina Vilayet and Monastir Vilayet. One of the most important reasons was the influence by Greek education and culture south-Albanian writers received in the famous Greek school of Ioannina, the Zosimaia. Abdyl Frashëri, the first political ideologue of the Albanian National Awakening was one of the six deputies from Janina Vilayet in the first Ottoman Parliament in 1876–1877. Abdyl Frashëri, from Frashër, modern Albania, together with Mehmet Ali Vrioni from Berat, some members of Ioannina's Albanian community, founded the Albanian Committee of Janina in May 1877. Frashëri fought against decisions of the Treaty of San Stefano. However, the League of Prizren, was Muslim Albanian, while the local Orthodox Christians felt more sympathy to the Greek cause. During the Albanian Revolt of 1912 Janina Vilayet was proposed as one of four vilayets consisting Albanian Vilayet; the Ottoman government ended the Albanian revolts by accepting all demands of Albanian rebels on September 4, 1912, which included the formation of the vilayet in 1912.
Following the First Balkan War of 1912–1913 and the Treaty of London the southern part of the vilayet, including Ioannina, was incorporated into Greece. Greece had seized northern Epirus during the Balkan Wars, but the Treaty of Bucharest, which concluded the Second Balkan War, assigned Northern Epirus to Albania. There have been a number of estimates about the ethnicity and the religious affiliation of the local population; the Ottoman Empire classified and counted its citizens according to religion and not ethnicity, which led to inefficient censuses and lack of classification of populations according to their ethnic groups. The vilayet was predominantly inhabited by Albanians and Greeks, while the major religions were Islam and Christian Orthodoxy; the vilayet was Greek the part that would be incorporated to Greece. According to Aram Andonyan and Zavren Biberyan in 1908 of a total population of 648,000, 315,000 inhabitants were Albanians, most of which were Muslims and Orthodox, although some were adherents of Roman Catholicism.
Aromanians and Greeks were about 110,000 respectively. Smaller communities included Bulgarians, Turks and Jews. According to Michail Sakellariou of a total population of 550,000 the Greeks were the most numerous at 300,000, Albanians second at 210,000, there were 25,000 Aromanians and 3,000 Jews; the sanjaks of Janina and Gjirokastër were predominantly Greek, the sanjak of Igoumenitsa had a slight majority of Greeks, that of Berat north was predominantly Albanian. According to Sakellariou, the official Ottoman statistics in the Vilayet of Janina had the tendency to favor the Albanian element at the expense of the Greek one. According to Sir Hamilton Alexander Rosskeen Gibb in 1895 there were c. 224,000 Muslims. The Orthodox population included c. 118,000 Greeks and c. 129,500 Albanians, the Jewish population amounted to 3,500 people. According to Zafer Golen two-thirds of the population were Albanian Muslims, while according to Dimitrios Chasiotis c. 419,500 of the total population were Greeks.
Sanjaks of the Vilayet: Sanjak of Ioannina Sanjak of Ergiri Sanjak of Preveze Sanjak of Berat Pashalik of Yanina Pashalik of Berat Clogg, R.. A Concise History of Greece. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-00479-9. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Iannina". Encyclopædia Britannica. 14. Cambridge University Press. P. 215. Media related to Vilayet of Janina at Wikimedia Commons