A tribal chief is the leader of a tribal society or chiefdom. Tribal societies with social stratification under a single leader emerged in the Neolithic period out of earlier tribal structures with little stratification, they remained prevalent throughout the Iron Age. In the case of indigenous tribal societies existing within larger colonial and post-colonial states, tribal chiefs may represent their tribe or ethnicity in a form of self-government; the most common types are the chairman of a council and/or a broader popular assembly in "parliamentary" cultures, the war chief, the hereditary chief, the politically dominant medicineman. The term is distinct from chiefs at lower levels, such as village chief or clan chief; the descriptive "tribal" requires an ethno-cultural identity as well as some political expression. In certain situations, in a colonial context, the most powerful member of either a confederation or a federation of such tribal, clan or village chiefs would be referred to as a paramount chief.
This term has fallen out of use and such personages are now called kings. A woman who holds a chieftaincy in her own right or who derives one from her marriage to a male chief has been referred to alternatively as a chieftainess, a chieftess or in the case of the former, a chief. Anthropologist Elman Service distinguishes two stages of tribal societies: simple societies organized by limited instances of social rank and prestige, more stratified societies led by chieftains or tribal kings. Tribal societies represent an intermediate stage between the band society of the Paleolithic stage and civilization with centralized, super-regional government based in cities. Stratified tribal societies led by tribal kings thus flourished from the Neolithic stage into the Iron Age, albeit in competition with civilisations and empires beginning in the Bronze Age. An important source of information for tribal societies of the Iron Age is Greco-Roman ethnography, which describes tribal societies surrounding the urban, imperialist civilisation of the Hellenistic and Roman periods.
After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, tribal kingdoms were again established over much of Europe in the wake of the Migration period. By the High Middle Ages, these had again coalesced into super-regional monarchies. Tribal societies remained prevalent in much of the New World. Exceptions to tribal societies outside of Europe and Asia were Paleolithic or Mesolithic band societies in Oceania and in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. Europeans forced centralized governments onto these societies during colonialism, but in some instances tribes have retained or regained partial self-government. Lonco among the Mapuche Morubixaba — tribal Cacique of the Tupi people Oubutu Rajiv Tyee, a tribal chief of the Chinookan peoples in the Pacific Northwest of the present-day United States Cacique, a term used among the Taino Nation of the Caribbean islands adopted by the Spanish to refer to all heads of chiefdoms whom they encountered: Cuauhtémoc, Tecun Uman, Atlacatl, Nicarao, Tupac Amaru II Sachem, term of chiefdom of the Algonquian nations of present-day New England in the United States Afro Bolivian king Eze Gbong Gwon Jos Kgosi Mogho Naba Nkosi Oba and Oloye.
Obai Omanhene Orkoiyot Sarkin Obong Tor Tiv of the Tiv people of Central Nigeria Aliʻi and Aliʻi nui were the chiefs and high chiefs of the islands of Hawaii Islands Ariki,'ariki henua Grade-taking systems of northern Vanuatu Ibedul Meena means Chief of tribals in South Asia. Iroijlaplap Matai, in the Samoan fa'amatai system Nahnmwarki, Lepen Palikir Rangatira, a chief of Māori in New Zealand Ratu, Fijian Chief, Malay for Queen Datu and Filipino Chief Arabs, in particular peninsular Arabs and nomadic Bedouins, are organized in tribes, many of whom have official representatives in governments. Tribal chiefs are known as Sheikhs, though this term is sometimes applied as an honorific title to spiritual leaders of Sufism; the Afro-Bolivian people, a recognized ethnic constituency of Bolivia, are led by a king whose title is recognized by the Bolivian government. In Botswana, the reigning chiefs of the various tribes are empowered to serve as advisers to the government as members of the Ntlo ya Dikgosi, the national House of Chiefs.
In addition to this, they serve as the ex officio chairs of the tribal kgotlas, meetings of all of the members of the tribes, where political and social matters are discussed. The band is the fundamental unit of governance among the First Nations in Canada. Most bands have elected chiefs, either directly elected by all members of the band, or indirectly by the band council, these chiefs are recognized by the Canadian state under the terms of the Indian Act; as well, there may be traditional hereditary or charismatic chiefs, w
The Taíno were an indigenous people of the Caribbean. At the time of European contact in the late fifteenth century, they were the principal inhabitants of most of Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, The Bahamas and the northern Lesser Antilles; the Taíno were the first New World peoples to be encountered by Christopher Columbus during his 1492 voyage. They spoke an Arawakan language; the ancestors of the Taíno originated in South America, the Taíno culture as documented developed in the Caribbean. Taíno groups were in conflict with the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles. At the time of contact, the Taíno were divided into several groups. Western Taíno groups included the Lucayans of the Bahamas, the Ciboney of central Cuba, the inhabitants of Jamaica; the Classic Taíno lived in Hispaniola and Puerto Rico, while the Eastern Taíno lived in the northern islands of the Lesser Antilles. At the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492, there were five Taíno chiefdoms in Hispaniola, each led by a principal Cacique, to whom tribute was paid.
The Taíno name for Hispaniola was Ayiti, the source of the name Haiti. Cuba was divided into 29 chiefdoms, many of which have given their name to modern cities, including Havana, Batabanó, Camagüey, Bayamo. Taíno communities ranged from small settlements to larger centers of up to 3,000 people, they may have numbered 2 million at the time of contact. The Spanish conquered various Taíno chiefdoms during early sixteenth century. According to The Black Legend and harsh enslavement by the colonists decimated the population. A smallpox epidemic in Hispaniola in 1518–1519 killed 90% of the surviving Taíno; the remaining Taíno were intermarried with Europeans and Africans, were incorporated into the Spanish colonies. The Taíno were considered extinct by the end of the century. However, since about 1840, there have been attempts to create a quasi-indigenous Taíno identity in rural areas of Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico; this trend accelerated among Puerto Rican communities in the mainland United States in the 1960s.
At the 2010 U. S. census, 1,098 people in Puerto Rico identified themselves as "Puerto Rican Indian", 1,410 identified as "Spanish American Indian", 9,399 identified as "Taíno". In total, 35,856 Puerto Ricans considered themselves Native American. A direct translation of the word "Taíno" signified "men of the good". Additionally, the name was used by the indigenous people of Hispaniola to indicate that they were "relatives"; the Taíno people, or Taíno culture, has been classified by some authorities as belonging to the Arawak, as their language was considered to belong to the Arawak language family, the languages of which were present throughout the Caribbean, much of Central and South America. The early ethnohistorian Daniel Garrison Brinton called the Taíno people the "Island Arawak". Contemporary scholars have recognized that the Taíno had developed a distinct language and culture. Taíno and Arawak appellations have been used with numerous and contradictory meanings by writers, historians and anthropologists.
They were used interchangeably. "Island Taíno" has been used to refer to those living in the Windward Islands only, to the northern Caribbean inhabitants only, as well as to the population of the entire Caribbean. Modern historians and anthropologists now hold that the term Taíno should refer to all the Taíno/Arawak nations except for the Caribs, who are not seen to belong to the same people. Linguists continue to debate whether the Carib language is an Arawakan dialect or creole language, or an individual language, with an Arawakan pidgin used for communication purposes. Rouse classifies as Taíno all inhabitants of the Greater Antilles, the Bahamian archipelago, the northern Lesser Antilles, he subdivides the Taíno into three main groups: Classic Taíno from Haiti, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic. Two schools of thought have emerged regarding the origin of the indigenous people of the Caribbean. One group of scholars contends that the ancestors of the Taíno came from the center of the Amazon Basin, are related to the Yanomama.
This is indicated by linguistic and ceramic evidence. They migrated to the Orinoco valley on the north coast. From there they reached the Caribbean by way of what is now Guyana and Venezuela into Trinidad, proceeding along the Lesser Antilles to Cuba and the Bahamian archipelago. Evidence that supports this theory includes the tracing of the ancestral cultures of these people to the Orinoco Valley and their languages to the Amazon Basin; the alternate theory, known as the circum-Caribbean theory, contends that the ancestors of the Taíno diffused from the Colombian Andes. Julian H. Steward, who originated this concept, suggests a migration from the Andes to the Caribbean and a parallel migration into Central America and into the Guianas and the Amazon Basin of South America. Taíno culture as documented is believed to have developed in the Caribbean; the Taíno creation story says that they emerged from caves in a sacred mountain on present-day Hispaniola. In Puerto Rico, 21st century studies have shown a high proportion
Municipalities of Cuba
The provinces of Cuba are divided into 168 municipalities or municipios. They were defined by Cuban Law Number 1304 of July 3, 1976 and reformed in 2010 with the abrogation of the municipality of Varadero and the creation of two new provinces: Artemisa and Mayabeque in place of former La Habana Province; the municipalities are listed below, by province: Source: Population from 2004 Census. Area from 1976 municipal re-distribution. Artemisa Province is sub-divided into 11 municipalities. Artemisa was created in 2011 as a split of the former La Habana province and addition of the three most eastern municipalities of Pinar del Río. Camagüey Province is sub-divided into 13 municipalities. Ciego de Ávila Province is sub-divided into 10 municipalities. Cienfuegos Province is sub-divided into 8 municipalities. Granma Province is sub-divided into 13 municipalities. Guantánamo Province is sub-divided into 10 municipalities. Havana, the national capital, is sub-divided into 15 municipalities. Holguín Province is sub-divided into 14 municipalities.
Labeled as "special municipality", Isla de la Juventud is administered as a single administrative unit with 86,420 inhabitants. Nueva Gerona is the municipal capital. Las Tunas Province is sub-divided into 8 municipalities; as for 2011 Matanzas Province is sub-divided into 13 municipalities, since Varadero municipality was abrogated. Mayabeque Province is sub-divided into 11 municipalities. Mayabeque was created in 2011 as a split of former La Habana province; as for 2011 Pinar del Río Province is sub-divided into 11 municipalities, since the three most eastern municipalities were transferred to Artemisa Province. Sancti Spíritus Province is sub-divided into 8 municipalities. Santiago de Cuba Province is sub-divided into 9 municipalities. Villa Clara Province is sub-divided into 13 municipalities; the maps below show the municipal subdivision of each province, in yellow, within Cuba. Each provincial capital is shown in red.1 Note: Provinces of Cuba List of cities in Cuba List of places in Cuba Statoids
Placetas is a city in the Villa Clara Province in the center of Cuba. The town is known as La Villa de los Laureles because of its wild laurel trees. Placetas is a municipio, one of 13 subdivisions of the Villa Clara Province. Cuba's geographical center, Guaracabulla, is located in this municipality. Placetas was founded on September 9, 1861 due to the sugar production industry. Nowadays, the main produce of the area is tobacco; the main contribution to its foundation came from Jose Martinez-Fortun y Erles, a Spanish Marques and former colonel in the Spanish Army. The town is located on the Carretera Central road; the town's position on this road has allowed it to serve as a stop for many travellers. Placetas has grown over the years, being declared a town in 1881 and a city in 1925. In 1879 it was established as its own municipality. Placetas is known by the great carnavals which take place in July and Christmas and New Year's Eve; until the 1977 administrative reform, Placetas was divided into the following barrios: Cabecera, Hernando, San Andres, Sitio Potrero and Tibisial.
Annual celebrations displaying the local pride of each barrio used to take place until the 1990s, when the government stopped them. Placetas lies southwest of its province, next to the borders with the one of Sancti Spíritus. Nearest towns include Zulueta, Cabaiguán and Fomento, Santa Clara and Camajuaní; the springs of Zaza River, that runs from the outskirts of Placets to the sea, are located near the town. The river Zaza is an environmental preservation area; the municipality borders with Manicaragua, Santa Clara, Camajuaní, Cabaiguán and Fomento. Its territory includes the villages of Báez, Benito Juárez, Carbó Serviá, Falcón, Guaracabulla, Hermanos Ameijeiras, Manzanares, Máximo, Nazareno and Suazo. In 2004, the municipality of Placetas had a population of 71,837. With a total area of 601 km2, it has a population density of 119.5/km2. The city proper has a population of 42,000; the area is a sugar producing region, with three "centrales" sugar producing factories. Placetas has mayor railroad industries that operate from its area.
Many Placetenos have emigrated to other countries and there are around 2300 people from Placetas residing in the United States, most of them in Miami. This contributes to the high amount of comunitarios that travel to Placetas every month from the United States. Nowadays the town houses many aluminum factories and is known around Cuba as the capital of aluminum because of the export business. One of the main streets in Placetas is the Primera del Oeste street, because is the corner where Cuba's central road and the Parque Casallas meet and because it houses the popular Rumbos, one of the many touristic places opened; this street houses the underground commerce and business of the town. It is referred to by Placetenos in reference to 8th St. in Miami. The main Catholic church in the town is called San Atanasio de Placetas, after the town's patron saint; as of 1996, it had one library, a main post office, three middle-high schools, one police station and many recreational areas. Most of the downtown's structures were built before the 1959 government of Fidel Castro, little of the town has been renovated since.
Miguel Díaz-Canel, President of Cuba since 2018. Pepin Garcia, Cuban-American businessman Emilio Mola and instigator of the Spanish Civil War Alberto Rojas Espinoza, colonel of Cuban Liberation Army during Cuba's 1895 War of Independence from Spain and major of the municipality in 1901 and 1912. Municipalities of Cuba List of cities in Cuba Encyclopædia Britannica. Placetas
Sagua La Grande
Sagua la Grande is a municipality and city located on the north coast of the province of Villa Clara in central Cuba, on the Sagua la Grande River. The city is close to limestone cliffs. Many cays of the Sabana-Camaguey Archipelago are located off the northern coast. Sagua la Grande was founded in 1812 and established as a municipality in 1842. By the beginning of the 20th century, the city and its port, were an important commercial center. Presently, its economy is based on the sugar, chemical and food industries. Cattle raising and fishing are other important economic activities. Two city historians are notable. Antonio Miguel Alcover Beltrán left to the inheritance of the events related to the 19th century thanks to his personal interrogations to each one of the authors of history; until the 1977 municipal reform, it was divided into the barrios of Baire, Calabazar de Sagua, Este, General Nodarse, Isabela de Sagua, Malpáez, Oeste and Sitiecito. Located northwest of its province, close to the Atlantic Coast, Sagua borders with the municipalities of Quemado de Güines, Santo Domingo and Encrucijada.
It counts the villages of Isabela de Sagua, La Rosita, Nueva Isabela, Playa Uvero and Viana. Isabela, located by the coast, is a port town. In 2004, the municipality of Sagua la Grande had a population of 56,097. With a total area of 661 km2, it has a population density of 84.9/km2. The city's wide streets and little traffic give it a calm atmosphere. In recent decades there has been a lack of new construction; the older buildings, left over from colonial times, are in a state of decay. One of the most beautiful buildings in this city, El Casino Español built in 1908, was the meeting place for the Sociedad Sagüera; the historical center of the city retains the neoclassic essence of its constructions and the layout of its streets. The historical center of Sagua La Grande was declared National Monument on December 6, 2011, due to its architectural values and its preservation state. Sagua is crossed in the middle by the national highway "Circuito Norte", that runs through the southern part of its municipality.
It is served, along with the municipal villages of Isabela and Nueva Isabela, by the railway line Santa Clara-Cifuentes-Sagua-Isabela, by the branch line Sagua-Corralillo. Mel Martinez, former U. S. Senator José Luis Robau, Patriot Wifredo Lam, Painter Antonio Machín, Singer Alberto Morales Ajubel, Cuban-Spanish Illustrator and painter Ramón Solís, Flutist Joaquín Albarrán, Doctor José "Pepe" Núñez, Painter Carlos Alvarez del Castillo, R&TV Announcer. President of the Municipality of Sagua la Grande Pedro Suárez Rojo, Explorer Miriam Cajiga, Republican Party Activist and Vice-President of the Municipality of Sagua La Grande in Exile Esteban Gallard, boxer "Kid Charol" Peter Henry Emerson, photographer Enrique Labrador Ruiz, writer Elizabeth Pérez, Cuban Venezuelan Journalist Emilio Núñez, Patriot Panchito Rodríguez, Doctor Concepcion Campa Huergo, developed the meningitis B vaccine. Rodrigo Prats, Music Composer Julian de Palenzuela, Baron de Casablanca Edelmira Sampedro y Robato, Countess of Covadonga Enrique Sacerio-Garí, Professor, Activist Oscar B.
Cintas, patron of the arts Alfredo Sosabravo, Painter Justo Espinosa Mondéjar, Lawyer Baudilio Espinosa Huet, Actor Jorge Luis "Cuco" López, Actor Conrado Marrero, Baseball Player Manuel Gayol Fernández, Professor, Attorney César Leal, Painter Asenneh Rodríguez, Actress Jorge Mañach Robato, Attorney José Antonio Evora, Journalist Juan de Dios de Oña y Ribalta, Philanthropist Enrique González Mántici, Musician Raúl Villavicencio Finalé, Professor Cayo Bécquer, Singer Michel Martín Pérez, Poet Carlos Rendo, New Jersey lawyer and politician José Guardiola Alfert, Public Notary, Artist Cruz Alvaré, Doctor Arnaldo Miguel Fernández Díaz, Writer, Professor Jorge Laureano Moya Rodríguez, Researcher Yoel Rivero Marín, Radio and television producer Sagua la Grande River List of cities in Cuba Municipalities of Cuba Sagua la Grande Museum Artículos Sagüeros
Ranchuelo is a town and municipality in the Villa Clara Province of Cuba. It was founded in 1734 and has a municipal population of 59,062, of which about 16,804 in the town itself. Named Boca de Ranchuelo, the settlement was founded by Dionisio Consuegra on October 1, 1734. In 1856 it was linked to the national rail network, in 1879 gained the municipal status; the town is divided into the barrios of Poza de la China, Sitio Viejo and Sur. The municipality counts the town proper and the consejos populares of Carlos Caraballo, Castaño, Diez de Octubre, Horqueta-Delicias, Ifraín Alfonso, Osvaldo Herrera, Rancho Grande-Jagua and San Juan de los Yeras. Ranchuelo is 7 km from San Juan de los Yeras, 9 from Esperanza, 16 from Cruces, 28 from Santa Clara, 43 from Cienfuegos and 256 from Havana, it borders with the municipalities of Santo Domingo, Santa Clara, Manicaragua and Lajas. In 2004, the municipality of Ranchuelo had a population of 59,062. With a total area of 556 km2, it has a population density of 106.2/km2.
Ranchuelo is served by the A1 motorway at the homonym exit known as "Ranchuelo-Cienfuegos". It counts a railway station on the Santa Clara-Cienfuegos line, the western terminus of a freight line to Mataguá. Esperanza, the most populated municipal hamlet, is crossed in the middle by the "Carretera Central" state highway. Samuel Feijóo, born in San Juan de los Yeras María Dámasa Jova Baró, writer and feminist Municipalities of Cuba List of cities in Cuba Ranchuelo on EcuRed
Cienfuegos is one of the provinces of Cuba. The capital city of the province is called Cienfuegos and was founded by French settlers in 1819; until 2011 Cienfuegos was the smallest province in Cuba with an economy entirely dedicated to the growing and processing of sugar. Sugar mills and sugarcane plantations dot the landscape. There are waterfalls in the sierra of the province. Scuba diving off Cienfuegos province is popular both with tourists and locals. There are numerous underwater caves, well over 50 dive sites in the province; the provinces of Cienfuegos, Sancti Spíritus, Villa Clara were once all part of the now defunct province of Santa Clara. Source: Population from 2004 Census. Area from 1976 municipal re-distribution. In 2004, the province of Cienfuegos had a population of 398,647. With a total area of 4,180 km2, the province had a population density of 95.37/km2. Cienfuegos