President of Chile
The President of Chile known as the President of the Republic of Chile is the head of state and the head of government of Chile. The President is responsible for both state administration. Although its role and significance has changed over the history of Chile, as well as its position and relations with other actors in the national political organization, it is one of the most prominent political figures, it is considered as one of the institutions that make up the "Historic Constitution of Chile", is essential to the country's political stability. Under the current Constitution, the President serves a four-year term, with immediate re-election being prohibited; the shorter period allows for presidential elections to be synchronized. The official seat of the President of Chile is the La Moneda Palace in the capital Santiago; the Constitution of 1980 and its 2005 amendment establishes the requirements for becoming President. The President must be a natural-born citizen of the country, or else born overseas when one of his or her parents or grandparents is a Chilean national.
The President must be at least 35 years old. In addition, all the requirements for becoming a Senator apply; the president must meet all the requirements to qualify as a Chilean citizen with the right to vote: they must have reached the age of eighteen years and have never been sentenced to severe punishment, nor lost the right to vote on grounds of insanity, been tried for a crime attracting severe punishment or for terrorist conduct, or condemned by the Constitutional Court under Article 8 of the Constitution. Article 26 detail the electoral requirements; the President shall be elected by direct ballot, with an absolute majority of the votes validly cast. A two-round system is used. In order to win the election in the first round, the winning candidate's party must receive more than 50 percent of the valid votes leaving out of the count blank and spoiled votes; the election shall be held the third Sunday of November of the year before the end of the administration of the President holding office.
Should there be more than two candidates in the presidential election, none of them obtaining more than half of the votes validly cast, a new election shall be held. The second election, in the manner determined by law, shall be held the fourth Sunday after the first election, limited to the two candidates with the highest relative majorities; the candidate with the majority of valid votes in that round is elected president. Under the 1828 constitution, the President served for four years, without the possibility of immediate reelection for one more term. In 1833, the presidential period was changed to five years, with a possibility of immediate reelection for one more term, limited to two consecutive terms. By a constitutional reform in 1878, possibility for reelection became disallowed. Under the 1925 constitution, the President served for a six-year term, without the possibility of immediate reelection only. In the original text of the 1980 constitution, the President served for an eight-year term without the possibility of immediate reelection.
Some transitory disposals, fixed during the government of the general Augusto Pinochet, allowed the exceptional possibility of his reelection in the 1988 plebiscite. In the transition to democracy the 1989 referendum established a first transitional four-year presidential term, followed by common eight-year terms, without the possibility of immediate reelection. However, in 4 March 1994 the presidential period was reduced to a six-year term, without an immediate reelection. Under the 2005 constitutional reform, the President serves for four years without the possibility of immediate reelection for one more term. A former president may run for office once again after serving their initial term, but only in an election following their successor, as it is not allowed to run for consecutive terms. There is no limit to how many times a person can run for candidacy if they have not served as President; the incumbent president, in accordance with the constitution, completes their corresponding term on 11 March of the immediate year after the election.
The President-elect takes office the same day. The presidential sash, used by Bernardo O'Higgins, became a symbol of the authority of the first president with the assumption of office by President José Joaquín Prieto in 1831, it is composed of three stripes with the colors of the Chilean flag, it is sewn by hand and measured 75 cm long and 13 cm wide. From the nineteenth century a single sash was maintained, transferred from president to president until 1915, due to the height differences between the outgoing Ramón Barros Luco and the elected Juan Luis Sanfuentes, so a new sash had to be designed. Since that date, each president has had his or her own presidential sash, used only in official ceremonies; the O'Higgins Pioche, considered the symbol of presidential power and is placed at the lower end of the presidential sash, is a star of five ends of about 7 cm in diameter, enameled in red. It dates back to the medals of the Legion of Merit and remained intact until the coup d'etat of 1973, when it disappeared during the bombing of the La Moneda palace.
During the military regime of Augusto Pinochet a replica of the pioche was created, based on photographs of the original. It is only used together with the presidential sash; the ceremonial presidential vehicle in Chile is a 1966 black Ford Galaxie XL Convertible, given as a gift by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II o
Salvador Guillermo Allende Gossens was a Chilean democratic socialist politician and physician, President of Chile from 1970 until 1973, head of the Popular Unity political coalition government. Allende's involvement in Chilean political life spanned a period of nearly forty years, having covered the posts of senator and cabinet minister; as a life-long committed member of the Socialist Party of Chile, whose foundation he had contributed to, he unsuccessfully ran for the national presidency in the 1952, 1958, 1964 elections. In 1970, he won the presidency in a close three-way race, he was elected in a run-off by Congress. On 11 September 1973, the military moved to oust Allende in a coup d'état supported by the United States Central Intelligence Agency; as troops surrounded La Moneda Palace, he gave his last speech vowing not to resign. That day, Allende committed suicide with an assault rifle, according to an investigation conducted by a Chilean court with the assistance of international experts in 2011.
Following Allende's death, General Augusto Pinochet refused to return authority to a civilian government, Chile was ruled by a military junta, in power up until 1990, ending more than four decades of uninterrupted democratic rule. The military junta that took over dissolved the Congress of Chile, suspended the Constitution, began a persecution of alleged dissidents, in which thousands of civilians were kidnapped and murdered. Allende was born on 26 June 1908 in Valparaíso, he was the son of Laura Gossens Uribe. Allende's family belonged to the Chilean upper middle class and had a long tradition of political involvement in progressive and liberal causes, his grandfather was a prominent physician and a social reformist who founded one of the first secular schools in Chile. Salvador Allende was of Belgian descent. Allende attended high school at the Liceo Eduardo de la Barra in Valparaíso; as a teenager, his main intellectual and political influence came from the shoe-maker Juan De Marchi, an Italian-born anarchist.
Allende was a talented athlete in his youth, being a member of the Everton de Viña del Mar sports club, where he is said to have excelled at the long jump. Allende graduated with a medical degree in 1933 from the University of Chile. During his time at medical school Allende was influenced by Professor Max Westenhofer, a German pathologist who emphasized the social determinants of disease and social medicine. Allende became its chairman, he married Hortensia Bussi with. He was a member of the Lodge Progreso No. 4 in Valparaíso. In 1933, he published his doctoral thesis Higiene Mental y Delincuencia in which he criticized Cesare Lombroso's proposals. In 1938, Allende was in charge of the electoral campaign of the Popular Front headed by Pedro Aguirre Cerda; the Popular Front's slogan was "Bread, a Roof and Work!" After its electoral victory, he became Minister of Health in the Reformist Popular Front government, dominated by the Radicals. While serving in this position, Allende was responsible for the passage of a wide range of progressive social reforms, including safety laws protecting workers in the factories, higher pensions for widows, maternity care, free lunch programmes for schoolchildren.
Upon entering the government, Allende relinquished his congressional seat for Valparaíso, which he had won in 1937. Around that time, he wrote La Realidad Médico Social de Chile. After the Kristallnacht in Nazi Germany, Allende was one of 76 members of the Congress who sent a telegram to Adolf Hitler denouncing the persecution of Jews. Following President Aguirre Cerda's death in 1941, he was again elected deputy while the Popular Front was renamed Democratic Alliance. In 1945, Allende became senator for the Valdivia, Chiloé, Aisén and Magallanes provinces, he became president of the Chilean Senate in 1966. During the Fifties, Allende introduced legislation that established the Chilean national health service, the first program in the Americas to guarantee universal health care, his three unsuccessful bids for the presidency prompted Allende to joke that his epitaph would be "Here lies the next President of Chile." In 1952, as candidate for the Frente de Acción Popular, he obtained only 5.4% of the votes due to a division within socialist ranks over support for Carlos Ibáñez.
In 1958, again as the FRAP candidate, Allende obtained 28.5% of the vote. This time, his defeat was attributed to votes lost to the populist Antonio Zamorano. Declassified documents show that from 1962 through 1964, the CIA spent a total of $2.6 million to finance the campaign of Eduardo Frei and spent $3 million in anti-Allende propaganda "to scare voters away from Allende's FRAP coalition". The CIA considered its role in the victory of Frei a great success, they argued that "the financial and organizational assistance given to Frei, the effort to keep Durán in the race, the propaganda campaign to denigrate Allende—were'indispensable ingredients of Frei's success'", they thought that his chances of winning and the good progress of his campa
A barracks is a building or group of buildings built to house soldiers. The English word comes via French from an old Catalan word "barraca" referring to temporary shelters or huts for various people and animals, but today barracks are permanent buildings for military accommodation; the word may apply to separate housing blocks or to complete complexes, the plural form refers to a single structure and may be singular in construction. The main object of barracks is to separate soldiers from the civilian population and reinforce discipline and esprit de corps, they have been called "discipline factories for soldiers". Like industrial factories, some are considered to be shoddy or dull buildings, although others are known for their magnificent architecture such as Collins Barracks in Dublin and others in Paris, Madrid, Vienna, or London. From the rough barracks of 19th-century conscript armies, filled with hazing and illness and differentiated from the livestock pens that housed the draft animals, to the clean and Internet-connected barracks of modern all-volunteer militaries, the word can have a variety of connotations.
Early barracks such as those of the Roman Praetorian Guard were built to maintain elite forces. There are a number of remains of Roman army barracks in frontier forts such as Vercovicium and Vindolanda. From these and from contemporary Roman sources we can see that the basics of life in a military camp have remained constant for thousands of years. In the Early Modern Period, they formed part of the Military Revolution that scholars believe contributed decisively to the formation of the nation state by increasing the expense of maintaining standing armies. Large, permanent barracks were developed in the 18th century by the two dominant states of the period, France the "caserne" and Spain the "cuartel"; the English term ‘barrack’, on the other hand, derives from the Spanish word for a temporary shelter erected by soldiers on campaign, barraca. Early barracks were multi-story blocks grouped in a quadrangle around a courtyard or parade ground. A good example is Berwick Barracks, among the first in England to be purpose-built and begun in 1717 to the design of the distinguished architect Nicholas Hawksmoor.
During the 18th century, the increasing sophistication of military life led to separate housing for different ranks and married quarters. The pavilion plan concept of hospital design was influential in barrack planning after the Crimean War; the first large-scale training camps were built in the Kingdom of France and the Germany during the early 18th century. The British Army built Aldershot camps from 1854. By the First World War, infantry and cavalry regiments had separate barracks; the first naval barracks were old wooden sailing vessels. These were inadequate for the enormous armies mobilized after 1914. Hut camps were developed using variations of the eponymous Nissen hut, made from timber or corrugated iron. In many military forces, NCOs and enlisted personnel will be housed in barracks for service or training. Junior enlisted and sometimes junior NCOs will receive less space and may be housed in bays, while senior NCOs and officers may share or have their own room; the term "Garrison town" is a common expression for any town that has military barracks, i.e. a permanent military presence nearby.
Barracks blockhouses were used to house troops in forts in Upper Canada. The Stone Frigate, completed in 1820, served as barracks in 1837–38, was refitted as a dormitory and classrooms to house the Royal Military College of Canada by 1876; the Stone frigate is a large stone building designed to hold gear and rigging from British warships dismantled to comply with the Rush–Bagot Treaty. The Portuguese Army bases is referred as a quartel. In a barracks, each of the dormitory buildings is referred as a caserna. Most of them are regimental barracks, constituting the fixed component of the Army system of forces and being responsible for the training and general support to the Army. In addition to the regimental administrative and training bodies, each barracks can lodge one or more operational units. Although there are housing blocks within the perimeter of some regimental barracks, the Portuguese current practice is for the members of the Armed Forces to live out of the military bases with their families, inserted in the local civilian communities.
Many of the Portuguese regimental barracks are of the CANIFA model. These type of barracks were built in the 1950s and 1960s, following a standardized architectural model with an area of between 100,000 and 200,000 square metres, including a headquarters building, a guard house, a general mess building, an infirmary building, a workshop and garage building, an officer house building, a sergeant house building, three to ten rank and file caserns, fire ranges and sports facilities. In the 17th and 18th centuries there were concerns around the idea of a standing army housed in barracks.
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte was a Chilean general and dictator of Chile between 1973 and 1990 who remained the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 1998 and was President of the Government Junta of Chile between 1973 and 1981. Pinochet assumed power in Chile following a United States-backed coup d'état on 11 September 1973 that overthrew the democratically elected socialist Unidad Popular government of President Salvador Allende and ended civilian rule. Several academics – including Peter Winn, Peter Kornbluh and Tim Weiner – have stated that the support of the United States was crucial to the coup and the consolidation of power afterward. Pinochet had been promoted to Commander-in-Chief of the Army by Allende on 23 August 1973, having been its General Chief of Staff since early 1972. In December 1974, the ruling military junta appointed Pinochet Supreme Head of the nation by joint decree, although without the support of one of the coup's instigators, Air Force General Gustavo Leigh.
Following his rise to power, Pinochet persecuted leftists and political critics, resulting in the executions of from 1,200 to 3,200 people, the internment of as many as 80,000 people and the torture of tens of thousands. According to the Chilean government, the number of executions and forced disappearances was 3,095. Under the influence of the free market-oriented "Chicago Boys", Pinochet's military government implemented economic liberalization, including currency stabilization, removed tariff protections for local industry, banned trade unions and privatized social security and hundreds of state-owned enterprises; these policies produced high economic growth, but critics state that economic inequality increased and attribute the devastating effects of the 1982 monetary crisis on the Chilean economy to these policies. For most of the 1990s, Chile was the best-performing economy in Latin America, though the legacy of Pinochet's reforms continues to be in dispute, his fortune grew during his years in power through dozens of bank accounts secretly held abroad and a fortune in real estate.
He was prosecuted for embezzlement, tax fraud and for possible commissions levied on arms deals. Pinochet's 17-year rule was given a legal framework through a controversial 1980 plebiscite, which approved a new constitution drafted by a government-appointed commission. In a 1988 plebiscite, 56% voted against Pinochet's continuing as President, which led to democratic elections for the presidency and Congress. After stepping down in 1990, Pinochet continued to serve as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until 10 March 1998, when he retired and became a senator-for-life in accordance with his 1980 Constitution. However, Pinochet was arrested under an international arrest warrant on a visit to London on 10 October 1998 in connection with numerous human rights violations. Following a legal battle, he was released on grounds of ill-health and returned to Chile on 3 March 2000. In 2004, Chilean Judge Juan Guzmán Tapia ruled that Pinochet was medically fit to stand trial and placed him under house arrest.
By the time of his death on 10 December 2006, about 300 criminal charges were still pending against him in Chile for numerous human rights violations during his 17-year rule and tax evasion and embezzlement during and after his rule. He was accused of having corruptly amassed at least 28 million USD. Pinochet was born in Valparaíso, the son of Augusto Pinochet Vera, a descendant of an 18th-century French Breton immigrant from Lamballe, Avelina Ugarte Martínez, a woman whose family had been in Chile since the 17th century and was of partial Basque descent. Pinochet went to primary and secondary school at the San Rafael Seminary of Valparaíso, the Rafael Ariztía Institute in Quillota, the French Fathers' School of Valparaíso, to the Military School in Santiago, which he entered in 1931. In 1935, after four years studying military geography he graduated with the rank of alférez in the infantry. In September 1937, Pinochet was assigned in Concepción. Two years in 1939 with the rank of Sub-lieutenant, he moved to the "Maipo" Regiment, garrisoned in Valparaíso.
He returned to Infantry School in 1940. On 30 January 1943, Pinochet married Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, with whom he had five children: Inés Lucía, María Verónica, Jacqueline Marie, Augusto Osvaldo and Marco Antonio. By late 1945, Pinochet had been assigned to the "Carampangue" Regiment in the northern city of Iquique. Three years he entered the Chilean War Academy but had to postpone his studies because, being the youngest officer, he had to carry out a service mission in the coal zone of Lota; the following year he returned to his studies in the Academy, after obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff, in 1951, he returned to teach at the Military School. At the same time, he worked as a teachers' aide at the War Academy, giving military geography and geopolitics classes, he was the editor of the institutional magazine Cien Águilas. At the beginning of 1953, with the rank of major, he was sent for two years to the "Rancagua" Regiment in Arica. While there, he was appointed professor of the Chilean War Academy, returned to Santiago to take up his new position.
In 1956, Pinochet and a group of young officers were chosen to form a military mission to collaborate in the organization of the War Academy of Ecuador in Quito. He remained with the Quito mission for four-and-a-half years, during which time he studied geopolitics, military geography and military intelligence. At the end of 1959 he returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquarters of the 1st Army Division, based in Antofa
1973 Chilean coup d'état
The 1973 Chilean coup d'état was a watershed moment in both the history of Chile and the Cold War. Following an extended period of social unrest and political tension between the opposition-controlled Congress of Chile and the socialist President Salvador Allende, as well as economic warfare ordered by US President Richard Nixon, Allende was overthrown by the armed forces and national police; the military deposed Allende's Popular Unity government and established a junta that suspended all political activity in Chile and repressed left-wing movements communist and socialist parties and the Revolutionary Left Movement. Allende's appointed army chief, Augusto Pinochet, rose to supreme power within a year of the coup, formally assuming power in late 1974; the Nixon administration, which had worked to create the conditions for the coup, promptly recognized the junta government and supported it in consolidating power. During the air raids and ground attacks that preceded the coup, Allende gave his final speech, in which he vowed to stay in the presidential palace, refusing offers of safe passage should he choose exile over confrontation.
Direct witness accounts of Allende's death agree. Before the coup, Chile had been hailed as a beacon of democracy and political stability for decades, a period that had seen the rest of South America plagued by military juntas and caudillismo; the collapse of Chilean democracy ended a succession of democratic governments in Chile, which had held democratic elections since 1932. Historian Peter Winn characterised the 1973 coup as one of the most violent events in the history of Chile. A weak insurgent movement against the Pinochet regime was maintained inside Chile by elements sympathetic to the former Allende government. An internationally supported plebiscite in 1988 held under the auspices of the military dictatorship was followed by a peaceful transition to an elected civilian government. Allende contested the 1970 presidential election with Jorge Alessandri Rodriguez of the National Party and Radomiro Tomic of the Christian Democratic Party. Allende received 36.6% of the vote. Alessandri was a close second with 35.3%, Tomic third with 28.1%.
Although Allende received the highest number of votes, according to the Chilean constitution and since none of the candidates won by an absolute majority, the National Congress had to decide among the candidates. The 1925 constitution did not allow a person to be president for two consecutive terms; the incumbent president, Eduardo Frei Montalva, was therefore ineligible as a candidate. The CIA's "Track I" operation was a plan to influence the Congress to choose Alessandri, who would resign after a short time in office, forcing a second election. Frei would be eligible to run. Alessandri announced on 9 September. Congress decided on Allende. Soon after hearing news of his win, Allende signed a Statute of Constitutional Guarantees, which stated that he would follow the constitution during his presidency; the U. S. feared the example of a "well-functioning socialist experiment" on the region and exerted diplomatic and covert pressure upon Chile's elected socialist government. At the end of 1971, the Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro made a four-week state visit to Chile, alarming Western observers worried about the "Chilean Way to Socialism".
In 1972, economics minister Pedro Vuskovic adopted monetary policies that increased the amount of circulating currency and devalued the escudo, which increased inflation to 140 percent in 1972 and engendered a black market economy. In October 1972, Chile suffered the first of many strikes. Among the participants were small-scale businessmen, some professional unions, student groups, its leaders – Vilarín, Jaime Guzmán, Rafael Cumsille, Guillermo Elton, Eduardo Arriagada – expected to depose the elected government. Other than damaging the national economy, the principal effect of the 24-day strike was drawing Army head, Gen. Carlos Prats, into the government as Interior Minister, an appeasement to the right wing. Gen. Prats supported the legalist Schneider Doctrine and refused military involvement in a coup d'état against President Allende. Despite the declining economy, President Allende's Popular Unity coalition increased its vote to 43.2% in the March 1973 parliamentary elections. The Christian Democrats allied with the right-wing National Party, who were opposed to Allende's government.
The internecine parliamentary conflict, between the legislature and the executive branch, paralyzed the activities of government. Allende began convinced they were plotting his assassination. Using his daughter as a messenger, he explained the situation to Fidel Castro. Castro gave four pieces of advice: convince technicians to stay in Chile, only sell copper for US dollars, avoid extreme revolutionary acts which would give opponents an excuse to wreck or control the economy, maintain a proper relationship with the Chilean military until local militias could be established and consolidated. Allende attempted to follow Castro's advice. Prior to the coup, the Chilean military had undergone a process of de-politicization since the 1920s, when military personnel participated in government positions. Subsequently, most military officers remained under-funded; because of the low salaries the milit
Ritual purification is the purification ritual prescribed by a religion by which a person about to perform some ritual is considered to be free of uncleanliness prior to the worship of a deity, ritual purity is a state of ritual cleanliness. Ritual purification may apply to objects and places. Ritual uncleanliness is not identical with ordinary physical impurity, such as dirt stains. Most of these rituals existed long before the germ theory of disease, figure prominently from the earliest known religious systems of the Ancient Near East; some writers remark that similarities between cleansing actions, engaged in by obsessive compulsive people, those of religious purification rites point to an ultimate origin of the rituals in the personal grooming behaviour of the primates, but others connect the rituals to primitive taboos. Some have seen benefits of these practices as a point of health and preventing infections in areas where humans come in close contact with each other. While these practices came before the idea of the germ theory was public in areas that use daily cleaning, the destruction of infectious agents seems to be dramatic.
Others have described a'dimension of purity', universal in religions that seeks to move us away from disgust, to uplift us towards purity and divinity. Away from uncleanliness to purity, away from deviant to moral behavior. In the Bahá'í Faith, ritual ablutions should be done before the saying of the obligatory prayers, as well as prior to the recitation of the Greatest Name 95 times. Menstruating women have the alternative of reciting a verse instead. Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, prescribed the ablutions in his book of laws, the Kitáb-i-Aqdas; these ablutions have a significance beyond washing and should be performed if one has bathed oneself before reciting the obligatory prayer. If no water is available or if an illness would be worsened by the use of water, one may instead repeat the verse "In the Name of God, the Most Pure, the Most Pure" five times before the prayer. Apart from this, Bahá'u'lláh abolished all forms of ritual impurity of people and things and stressed the importance of cleanliness and spiritual purity.
In Japanese Buddhism, a basin called. It is used for tea ceremony; the Bible has many rituals of purification relating to menstruation, sexual relations, nocturnal emission, unusual bodily fluids, skin disease and animal sacrifices. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church prescribes several kinds of hand washing for example after leaving the latrine, lavatory or bathhouse, or before prayer, or after eating a meal; the women in the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church are prohibited from entering the church temple during menses. Baptism, as a form of ritual purification, occurs in several religions related to Judaism, most prominently in Christianity. Many ancient churches were built with a large fountain in the courtyard, it was the tradition for Christians to wash before entering the church for worship. This usage is legislated in the Rule of St. Benedict, as a result of which, many medieval monasteries were built with communal lavers for the monks or nuns to wash up before the Daily Office; the principle of washing the hands before celebrating the holy Liturgy began as an practical precaution of cleanness, interpreted symbolically.
"In the third century there are traces of a custom of washing the hands as a preparation for prayer on the part of all Christians. The churching of women is still performed in a number of Eastern Christian churches. In Reformed Christianity, ritual purity is achieved though the Confession of Sins, Assurance of Forgiveness, Sanctification. Through the power of the Holy Spirit, believers offer their whole being and labor as a'living sacrifice'. Various traditions within Hinduism follow different standards of ritual purification. Within each tradition the more orthodox groups follow stricter rules, but the strictest rules are prescribed for brahmins those engaged in the temple worship. An important part of ritual purification in Hinduism is the bathing of the entire body in rivers considered holy such as the Ganges. Punyahavachanam i
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law. According to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, which came into force on 1 July 2002, when committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack directed at any civilian population, a "forced disappearance" qualifies as a crime against humanity and, thus, is not subject to a statute of limitations. On 20 December 2006, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance. Forced disappearance implies murder; the victim in such a case is abducted, illegally detained and tortured during interrogation, killed, with the body hidden.
A murder will be surreptitious, with the corpse disposed of to escape discovery so that the person vanishes. The party committing the murder has plausible deniability, as nobody can provide evidence of the victim's death. "Disappearing" political rivals is a way for regimes to engender feelings of complicity in populations. The difficulty of publicly fighting a government that murders in secret can result in widespread pretense that everything is normal, as it did in the Dirty War in Argentina. In international human rights law, disappearances at the hands of the state have been codified as "enforced" or "forced disappearances" since the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action. For example, the Rome Statute establishing the International Criminal Court defines enforced disappearance as a crime against humanity, the practice is addressed by the OAS's Inter-American Convention on Forced Disappearance of Persons. There is some authority indicating that enforced disappearances occurring during armed conflict, such as the Third Reich's Night and Fog program, may constitute war crimes.
In February 1980 the United Nations established the Working Group on Enforced or Involuntary Disappearances, "the first United Nations human rights thematic mechanism to be established with a universal mandate". Its main task "is to assist families in determining the fate or whereabouts of their family members who are disappeared". In August 2014, the Working Group reported 43,250 unresolved cases of disappearances in 88 different States; the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance, adopted by the UN General Assembly on 20 December 2006 states that the widespread or systematic practice of enforced disappearances constitutes a crime against humanity. It gives victims' families the right to seek reparations, to demand the truth about the disappearance of their loved ones; the Convention provides for the right not to be subjected to enforced disappearance, as well as the right for the relatives of the disappeared person to know the truth. The Convention contains several provisions concerning prevention and sanctioning of this crime, as well as the rights of victims and their relatives, the wrongful removal of children born during their captivity.
The Convention further sets forth the obligation of international co-operation, both in the suppression of the practice, in dealing with humanitarian aspects related to the crime. The Convention establishes a Committee on Enforced Disappearances, which will be charged with important and innovative functions of monitoring and protection at international level. An international campaign of the International Coalition against Enforced Disappearances is working towards universal ratification of the Convention. Disappearances work on two levels: not only do they silence opponents and critics who have disappeared, but they create uncertainty and fear in the wider community, silencing others who would oppose and criticise. Disappearances entail the violation of many fundamental human rights. For the disappeared person, these include the right to liberty, the right to personal security and humane treatment, the right to a fair trial, to legal counsel and to equal protection under the law, the right of presumption of innocence among others.
Their families, who spend the rest of their lives searching for information on the disappeared, are victims. The evocation of the crime of forced disappearance begins with the history of the rights in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, formulated on 26 August 1789 in France by the authorities that came out of the French Revolution, where it was stated in Articles 7 and 12: art. 7. No person may be charged, detained or imprisoned except in cases determined by law and in the manner prescribed therein; those requesting, executing or executing arbitrary orders must be punished...... art. 12. The guarantee of the rights of man and of the citizen needs a public force; this force is therefore instituted for the benefit of all, not for the particular utility of those who are in charge of it. Throughout