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Villa Park

Villa Park is a football stadium in Aston, England, with a seating capacity of 42,785. It has been the home of Aston Villa Football Club since 1897; the ground is less than a mile from both Witton and Aston railway stations and has hosted sixteen England internationals at senior level, the first in 1899 and the most recent in 2005. Villa Park has hosted 55 FA Cup semi-finals, more than any other stadium. In 1897, Aston Villa moved into the Aston Lower Grounds, a sports ground in a Victorian amusement park in the former grounds of Aston Hall, a Jacobean stately home; the stadium has gone through various stages of renovation and development, resulting in the current stand configuration of the Holte End, Trinity Road Stand, North Stand and Doug Ellis Stand. The club has initial planning permission to redevelop the North Stand, which will increase the capacity of Villa Park from 42,785 to about 50,000. Before 1914, a cycling track ran around the perimeter of the pitch where regular cycling meetings were hosted as well as athletic events.

Aside from football-related uses, the stadium has seen various concerts staged along with other sporting events including boxing matches and international rugby league and rugby union matches. In 1999, the last final of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup took place at Villa Park. Villa Park hosted the 2012 FA Community Shield, as Wembley Stadium was in use for the final of the Olympic football tournament; the Aston Lower Grounds renamed Villa Park, was not the first home of Aston Villa F. C, their previous venue, Wellington Road, faced increasing problems including an uneven pitch, poor spectator facilities, a lack of access and exorbitant rents. As a result, in 1894 Villa's committee began negotiations with the owners of the Aston Lower Grounds, "the finest sports ground in the district." Situated in the former grounds of Aston Hall, a Jacobean stately home, the Lower Grounds had seen varied uses over the years. The kitchen garden of Aston Hall's owner Sir Thomas Holte, after whom the Holte End stand was named, it became a Victorian amusement park with an aquarium and a great hall.

The current pitch stands on the site of the Dovehouse Pool, an ornamental pond, drained in 1889. In place of the pool, the owners of the Lower Grounds built a cycle track and sports ground that opened on 10 June 1889 for a combined cycling and athletics event before a crowd of 15,000. Negotiations continued for two years before the Villa committee reached agreement with the site's owner, Edgar Flower, to rent the Lower Grounds for £300 per annum on a 21-year lease with an option to buy the site at any point during the term; the committee engaged an architect who began preparing plans for the site, which included construction of a new 440 yards cement cycle track to replace the existing cinder one. The main stand was to be built to the east on the Witton Lane side, with the track and pitch enclosed by banking. Construction of the final phase of the stadium began in late 1896 after negotiations with contractors over the price. Several months behind schedule, the almost-complete stadium opened with a friendly against Blackburn Rovers on 17 April 1897, which ended as a 3-0 win, one week after Aston Villa had completed the League and FA Cup'Double'.

The process of fixing issues with the building work continued for several months. As built, the stadium could house 40,000 spectators. After winning the league championship in 1899, Villa's record-breaking average crowd of 21,000 allowed the club to invest in a two-stage ground improvement programme; the first stage extended the terrace covering on the Trinity Road side at the cost of £887. In 1911, Villa bought the freehold of the ground for £8,250, the office buildings in the old aquarium and car park area for £1,500 and the carriage drive and bowling green for £2,000; this was the first stage in plans drawn up by Villa director Frederick Rinder that saw the capacity of Villa Park increased to 104,000. In June 1914, another phase of enhancements began at Villa Park to compete with improvements at other grounds around the country, including Everton's Goodison Park, where a new two-tiered stand had just been completed; the first stage of improvements saw the cycling track removed, new banking at the Holte Hotel End, a re-profiling of all the terracing to bring it closer to the newly squared-off pitch.

Rinder turned to the renowned architect Archibald Leitch to design a new Villa Park. Their joint plans included large banked end stands at the Holte and Witton ends and the incorporation of the original Victorian Lower Grounds buildings, including the aquarium and the newly acquired bowling greens; the outbreak of the First World War hampered design and construction efforts. As a result of inflation, 1919 quotes for the implementation of the pre-war construction plans came to £66,000, compared to the 1914 quote of £27,000. By March 1922 this price had reduced to £41,775, the directors pushed ahead with the plans for the new Trinity Road Stand. Construction began in April 1922 with the stand opened in August. Construction continued throughout the 1922–1923 season, with the stand opened on 26 January 1924 by the Duke of York King George VI, he commented to Rinder that he had "no idea that a ground so finely equipped in every way—and devoted to football—existed." On completion the Trinity Road Stand was considered one of the grandest in Britain, complete with stained glass windows, Italian mosaics, Dutch gables in the style of Aston Hall and a sweeping staircase.

Several commentators including Simon Inglis c

Bowie High School (Maryland)

Bowie High School is a public high school in Bowie, Maryland and a part of Prince George's County Public Schools. It serves: Bowie, Queen Anne CDP, portions of the Brock Hall, Glenn Dale, Woodmore CDPs, it serves sections of the former Greater Upper Marlboro CDP. Bowie High School was built in 1965 in Maryland. In 2005 PGCPS placed the 9th graders in the Belair annex in Bowie as the main school building was becoming overcrowded; the main building remained overcrowded in 2018, as after the move the number of temporary buildings was to go down from 16 to 12. Bowie High is among the top 5 percent of U. S. high schools for AP participation. It has a honors program for motivated students named the SUMMIT program where 60 students take college level honor and AP courses to prepare them for college and career. Alessandro Battilocchio, socialist politician Michael Beasley, NBA basketball player Eva Cassidy and musician JC Chasez, singer-songwriter Brian Ellerbe, basketball coach. Kathie Lee Gifford, entertainer A. J. Hendy, football player Todd Hicks, Pro soccer player Erik Imler, soccer player Mark Jonas, soccer player John Kaleo, football player Brad Schumacher and water polo player Paul Reed Smith, namesake of PRS Guitars.

Chris Volz, Singer/songwriter Bowie High School has high rate of drinking and gained national attention. In 1986 the school initiated programs to curb drunk driving after 15 students were killed in 1979 and 1980. In 1986 another three were killed in a drunk driving accident on the Capital Beltway. List of high schools in Maryland Bowie High School website

Reactions of organocopper reagents

Reactions of organocopper reagents involve species containing copper-carbon bonds acting as nucleophiles in the presence of organic electrophiles. Organocopper reagents are now used in organic synthesis as mild, selective nucleophiles for substitution and conjugate addition reactions. Since the discovery that copper halides catalyze the conjugate addition of Grignard reagents in 1941, organocopper reagents have emerged as weakly basic, nucleophilic reagents for substitution and addition reactions; the constitution of organocopper compounds depends on their method of preparation and the various kinds of organocopper reagents exhibit different reactivity profiles. As a result, the scope of reactions involving organocopper reagents is broad. Organocopper complexes are produced when a copper organolithium are combined. In conjunction with Lewis acidic additives such as boron trifluoride etherate, these reagents are used for conjugate addition reactions. Lower-order cuprates result when organocopper complexes are treated with an equivalent of organolithium.

Alternatively, they may be formed by the treatment of a copper halide with two equivalents of organolithium. They undergo substitution, conjugate addition, carbocupration reactions in the presence of the appropriate organic substrates. Mixed Gilman reagents consist of two different R groups, one of, a non-transferable "dummy" group. Lower-order cyanocuprates are derived from an organolithium compound and copper cyanide. Cyanocuprates undergo SN2' substitution in the presence of allyl electrophiles and conjugate addition reactions in the presence of enones. Higher-order cyanocuprates are formed upon the reaction of two equivalents of organolithium with copper cyanide; these reagents are more reactive towards substitution than the corresponding lower-order cyanocuprates. The mechanism of nucleophilic substitution by lower-order organocuprates depends in a profound way on the structure of the substrate and reaction conditions. Early evidence suggested. Both of these mechanisms predict inversion at the electrophilic carbon, observed in a number of cases.

On the other hand, experiments with radical traps and the observation of racemization during substitution suggest a radical mechanism. In 1941, Kharash discovered that Grignard reagents add to cyclohexenone in presence of Cu resulting in 1,4-addition instead of 1,2-addition; this work foreshadowed extensive studies on the conjugate additions to enones with organocuprates. Note that if a Grignard reagent is used, the reaction with an enone would instead proceed through a 1,2-addition; the 1,4-addition mechanism of cuprates to enones goes through the nucleophilic addition of the Cu species at the beta-carbon of the alkene to form a Cu intermediate, followed by reductive elimination of Cu. In the original paper describing this reaction, methylmagnesium bromide is reacted with isophorone with and without 1 mole percent of added copper chloride. Without added salt the main products are alcohol B from nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group and diene C as its dehydration reaction product. With added salt the main product is 1,4-adduct A with some C.

A 1,6-addition is possible, for example in one step of the commercial-scale production of fulvestrant: Diastereoselective conjugate addition reactions of chiral organocuprates provide β-functionalized ketones in high yield and diastereoselectivity. A disadvantage of these reactions is the requirement of a full equivalent of enantiopure starting material. More catalytic enantioselective methods have been developed based on the copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of Grignard reactions to enones; the proposed mechanism involves transmetalation from the Grignard reagent to copper, conjugate addition, rate-determining reductive elimination. Vinyl and aryl Grignard reagents couple with primary alkyl halides in the presence of a catalytic amount of a copper halide salt; the use of Li2CuCl4 rather than simple copper halide salts improves yields of these coupling reactions. The addition of Grignard reagents to alkynes is facilitated by a catalytic amount of copper halide. Transmetalation to copper and carbocupration are followed by transmetalation of the product alkene back to magnesium.

The addition is syn unless a coordinating group is nearby in the substrate, in which case the addition becomes anti and yields improve. Propargyl methanesulfinates are useful substrates for the synthesis of allenes from stoichiometric organocopper complexes. In this case, the complexes were generated in situ through the combination of a Grignard reagent, copper bromide, lithium bromide. Organocopper complexes often need Lewis acid activation in order to react efficiently. Alkenylcopper complexes generated through carbocupration, are useful for the introduction of a vinyl group in the β position of a carbonyl compound. In this case, as above, magnesium bromide is serving as an activating Lewis acid. Epoxide opening with organocuprates is selective for the less hindered position. Substit

Pigeon Bush railway station

Pigeon Bush railway station was a single platform, rural railway station in an area of the South Wairarapa district known as Pigeon Bush, about 6 kilometres south-west of Featherston, in New Zealand’s North Island. The station was between Cross Creek stations on the Wairarapa Line; the station was bypassed. During work on the Incline Contract for the Rimutaka Incline, land was taken just north-east of Lucena’s Creek for a road diversion around what was to become the yard for a station identified on plans as Lucena’s. By the time the station was opened in 1878, its name had been changed to Pigeon Bush, it had a passenger platform and shelter shed, loading bank, portable sheep loading ramp, a loop siding and a crossing loop. The chief traffic through this station was sheep, but its main purpose was to provide a crossing point for trains. H class Fell locomotives were used to bank trains from Pigeon Bush to Cross Creek until about 1943; the station was signalled in 1922. As a result of the derailing of a mixed train that had just departed Pigeon Bush for Featherston on 19 January 1888 due to severe wind gusts, windbreak fences and rows of willow trees were erected along the length of line most prone to the wind.

However, on 8 October 1936, the Wairarapa railcar Mamari was overturned by a strong wind gust just north of the Pigeon Bush windbreak, coming to rest on its side. There were no fatalities; this incident led to the extension of the windbreak fence during the following three months. The station was closed on 30 October 1955 when the old line over the Rimutaka Ranges was closed while the Rimutaka Deviation was prepared for being opened to traffic. Once the old line and station facilities had been removed, the road reverted to its original course. There are no obvious signs of the station remaining today, save for the road deviation, still visible and now provides access to a neighbouring farm; the railway house, on site and outlasted the station by several decades has been removed. The piles of the rail bridge south of the station that once crossed the Owhango Stream are still in situ; the Rimutaka Incline Railway Heritage Trust aims to restore the original line over the Rimutaka Ranges from Maymorn.

At this stage, they have made no firm plans regarding a line between Cross Featherston. Rimutaka Incline Rimutaka Tunnel Rimutaka Incline Railway Heritage Trust Cameron, Walter Norman. A Line Of Railway: The Railway Conquest of the Rimutakas. Wellington: New Zealand Railway and Locomotive Society. ISBN 0-908573-00-6. Leitch, David. Exploring New Zealand’s Ghost Railways. Wellington: Grantham House Publishing. ISBN 1-86934-048-5. McCracken, Hugh. "Pigeon Bush station". Rimutaka Incline Railway. Retrieved 15 December 2007. McCracken, Hugh. "Stage 4 - Cross Creek to Featherston". Rimutaka Incline Railway. Retrieved 21 December 2007

Numeralla River

The Numeralla River, a perennial river, part of the Murrumbidgee catchment within the Murray–Darling basin, is located in the Monaro region of New South Wales, Australia. The name of the river is claimed to derive from an Aboriginal word meaning "valley of plenty", but Flavia Hodges has called this etymology "highly suspect." The river rises on the northern slopes of the Great Dividing Range, about 12 kilometres east of the village of Nimmitabel, flows north and west, joined by eight tributaries including the Kybeyan and Big Badja rivers before reaching its confluence with the Murrumbidgee River, south of Bredbo and about 18 kilometres north of Cooma. The river is a diverse ecosystem rich with many different animal species such as the uncommonly seen Wanderer's Kingfisher and the Kiora frog, its native freshwater fish fauna had been replaced by introduced trout species, now replaced by the introduced European carp species. Alluvial gold was discovered in and along the river in 1858, with the diggings worked until 1868


Newsies is a 1992 American musical comedy-drama film produced by Walt Disney Pictures and directed by choreographer Kenny Ortega in his film directing debut. Loosely based on the New York City Newsboys' Strike of 1899 and featuring twelve original songs by Alan Menken and an underscore by J. A. C. Redford, it stars David Moscow, Bill Pullman, Robert Duvall and Ann-Margret; the film was an initial box office bomb, received negative-to-mixed reviews at the time of its release. Yet the picture gained a large cult following on home video, and was adapted into a successful stage adaptation on Broadway. The play was nominated for eight Tony Awards, winning two including Best Original Score for Menken and Feldman. In 1899, 17-year-old Jack "Cowboy" Kelly is one of many struggling newspaper hawkers in New York City, selling copies of the New York World on the streets of Manhattan; when David Jacobs and his younger brother Les join the "newsies", Jack notices David's intelligence and Les's marketable cuteness and self-servingly takes them under his wing.

Unlike most of the newsies and Les are not orphans or runaways. Jack is invited to the Jacobs' home for dinner. Jack laments his isolation due to lacking a family of his own. Attempting to outdo his business rival William Randolph Hearst, New York World publisher Joseph Pulitzer raises the prices that the newsies must pay to buy newspapers from his distribution centers. Angered and David galvanize the other Manhattan newsies to go on strike. While the others spread the word to newsies in New York's other boroughs and Les confront Pulitzer and are thrown out of his office. Bryan Denton, a reporter for The Sun, takes an interest in the boys' story. Jack and David take their cause to the Brooklyn newsies, but their leader, "Spot" Conlon, is reluctant to join the strike; this dejects the Manhattan newsies, but David riles them up until they ambush the distribution center and destroy all of the newspapers. Disabled newsie "Crutchie" is captured by Pulitzer's enforcers, the Delancey brothers, placed in an orphanage and juvenile detention center called the Refuge, run by the sketchy Warden Snyder, who neglects the orphans so that he can embezzle money given to him by the city for their care.

The newsies try to ward off strikebreakers, but the struggle turns violent and turns out to be a trap set by the Delancey brothers. Just as the newsies are about to be arrested, Spot Conlon arrives with the Brooklyn newsies and the two groups unite to repel the police. Denton puts the story on the front page of The Sun, the newsies plan to hold a rally. Snyder informs Pulitzer that Jack is an escapee from the Refuge, giving Pulitzer legal cause to have him arrested. Jack has breakfast with Sarah on the roof of the Jacobs' apartment building; the police break up the rally and arrest the newsies. Snyder reveals to the others that Jack's real name is Francis Sullivan. Jack is sentenced to four years of rehabilitation in the Refuge. Denton can no longer report on the strike. Jack is taken to see Pulitzer, who offers to waive his sentence and pay him a salary if he will work as a strikebreaker; when Pulitzer threatens to have the other newsies thrown into the Refuge, Jack complies. The boys attempt to rescue Jack.

The newsies are dismayed to see Jack report for work the next day. When the Delanceys attack the Jacobs children, Jack steps in to save them, knowing this will break his deal with Pulitzer; the newsies learn from Denton that their strike has had little effect on public opinion, since the city thrives on child labor and Pulitzer has ordered newspapers not to report on the strike. Using an old printing press of Pulitzer's, they publish a "Newsie Banner" which they distribute to child workers citywide. Denton shares the paper with Governor Theodore Roosevelt, exposing the mistreatment of children at the Refuge. Numerous child laborers join the strike. Jack and David confront Pulitzer, who gives in to their demands. Roosevelt has Snyder arrested, releases the children from the Refuge, thanks Jack for alerting him to the situation, he offers Jack a ride, Jack asks to be taken to the train yards so he can head to Santa Fe. The newsies are disheartened by this, but Jack returns shortly, having been convinced by Roosevelt that he still has things to accomplish in New York.

As the newsies celebrate his return and Jack kiss, Spot gets a ride back to Brooklyn from Roosevelt. Walt Disney Pictures tapped its film financing partner, Touchwood Pacific Partners, to fund the production of the film; the production had a $15 million budget. Alan Menken's longtime collaborator, Howard Ashman, was too sick from AIDS to work with Menken on this film, he would die on March 14, 1991. Menken brought in lyricist Jack Feldman to help. Newsies was released on April 1992 via distributor Buena Vista Pictures; the film did not recoup its $15 million budget, making less than a fifth of that at the box office. On Rotten Tomatoes, the film's average score is 39% based on 38 reviews, with an average rating of 5/10. On Metacritic, the film has a w