Jacques Faty is a Senegalese footballer who plays as a central defender. He is the elder brother of Standard de Liège player Ricardo Faty and is the cousin of former Mariners teammate Mickaël Tavares. Born in Villeneuve-Saint-Georges, Val-de-Marne, Faty was coached at the well-known Clairefontaine Youth Centre before joining Rennes as a youth in 2001, signing on professional terms in 2002, he became an integral part of the 2003–04 Rennes team which achieved qualification to the UEFA Cup. Faty started to lose his place in the team following the arrival of Ghanaian John Mensah early in 2006; the departure of coach László Bölöni to manage AS Monaco did not help his claim either. Pierre Dréossi came in to fill in the vacant coach's position and used Grégory Bourillon and Mensah as the main central defence partnership for the 2006–07 season. Faty became more and more unsettled as the season went on, in October 2006 his patience run out. Faty announced his desire to leave the club when his contract was due to expire in June 2007.
A knee injury to Mensah gave him a run in the side, to his credit, he put in some decent performances, finishing with 24 games in the season. The Rennes management tried to keep him at the club by giving him an extension to his contract, but he declined and opted to join Marseille and enjoy a new experience at "France's top club" as he said when he signed his contract. Faty's stay at Marseille was short-lived. After experiencing the highs of UEFA Champions League and Europa League competition, he was unable to break the first team with only nine appearances, he moved on to fellow Ligue 1 team FC Sochaux. He left Sochaux for Turkish Süper Lig club Sivasspor. Faty returned to Ligue 1 when he was loaned to Bastia from Sivasspor in January 2013. Following this, he moved to the Chinese Super League with Wuhan Zall in mid-2013. On 11 January 2015, he signed for Australian side Sydney FC for the rest of the season, becoming the second player acquired by the club in the transfer window, being an injury replacement for vice-captain.
Sasa Ognenovski. On 11 April 2016, Faty was released from his contract by mutual consent. On the same day of his release, Faty agreed to a one-year deal with the Central Coast Mariners. Faty is an accomplished player in the youth level of international football. In 2001, he captained France's FIFA U-17 World Championship squad to a first-place finish. Faty was a regular starter of the French U-21 international squad, he took part in the 2006 UEFA European Under-21 Football Championship held in Portugal where the French finished as losing semi-finalists. He is no longer available for selection after exceeding the age limit. Faty made his international debut for Senegal national football team on 26 August 2009. Faty's primary position is central defence but he has been fielded in midfield; as of match played 17 January 2016 Jacques Faty's profile, stats & pics Jacques Faty – French league stats at LFP Sivasspor was Jacques Faty Transfer
Sister cities or twin towns are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, counties, prefectures, regions and countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties. The modern concept of town twinning, conceived after the Second World War in 1947, was intended to foster friendship and understanding among different cultures and between former foes as an act of peace and reconciliation, to encourage trade and tourism. By the 2000s, town twinning became used to form strategic international business links among member cities. In the United Kingdom, the term "twin towns" is most used. In mainland Europe, the most used terms are "twin towns", "partnership towns", "partner towns", "friendship towns"; the European Commission uses the term "twinned towns" and refers to the process as "town twinning". Spain uses the term "ciudades hermanadas", which means "sister cities". Germany and the Czech Republic use Partnerstadt / miasto partnerskie / partnerské město, which translate as "partner town or city".
France uses ville jumelée, Italy has gemellaggio and comune gemellato. In the Netherlands, the term is stedenband. In Greece, the word αδελφοποίηση has been adopted. In Iceland, the terms vinabæir and vinaborgir are used. In the former Soviet Bloc, "twin towns" and "twin cities" are used, along with города-побратимы; the Americas, South Asia, Australasia use the term "sister cities" or "twin cities". In China, the term is 友好城市. Sometimes, other government bodies enter into a twinning relationship, such as the agreement between the provinces of Hainan in China and Jeju-do in South Korea; the douzelage is a town twinning association with one town from each of the member states of the European Union. Despite the term being used interchangeably, with the term "friendship city", this may mean a relationship with a more limited scope in comparison to a sister city relationship, friendship city relationships are mayor-to-mayor agreements. In recent years, the term "city diplomacy" has gained increased usage and acceptance as a strand of paradiplomacy and public diplomacy.
It is formally used in the workings of the United Cities and Local Governments and the C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group and recognised by the USC Center on Public Diplomacy. A March 2014 debate in the British House of Lords acknowledged the evolution of town twinning into city diplomacy around trade and tourism, but in culture and post-conflict reconciliation; the importance of cities developing "their own foreign economic policies on trade, foreign investment and attracting foreign talent" has been highlighted by the World Economic Forum. The earliest known town twinning in Europe was between Paderborn, Le Mans, France, in 836. Starting in 1905, Keighley in West Yorkshire, had a twinning arrangement with French communities Suresnes and Puteaux; the first recorded modern twinning agreement was between Keighley and Poix-du-Nord in Nord, France, in 1920 following the end of the First World War. This was referred to as an adoption of the French town; the practice was continued after the Second World War as a way to promote mutual understanding and cross-border projects of mutual benefit.
For example, Coventry twinned with Stalingrad and with Dresden as an act of peace and reconciliation, all three cities having been bombed during the war. The City of Bath formed an "Alkmaar Adoption committee" in March 1945, when the Dutch city was still occupied by the German Army in the final months of the war, children from each city took part in exchanges in 1945 and 1946. In 1947, Bristol Corporation sent five'leading citizens' on a goodwill mission to Hanover. Reading in 1947 was the first British town to form links with a former "enemy" city – Düsseldorf; the link still exists. Since 9 April 1956 Rome and Paris have been and reciprocally twinned with each other, following the motto: "Only Paris is worthy of Rome; the support scheme was established in 1989. In 2003 an annual budget of about €12 million was allocated to about 1,300 projects; the Council of European Municipalities and Regions works with the Commission to promote modern, high quality twinning initiatives and exchanges that involve all sections of the community.
It has launched a website dedicated to town twinning. As of 1995, the European Union had more than 7,000 bilateral relationships involving 10,000 European municipalities French and German. Public art has been used to celebrate twin town links, for instance in the form of seven mural paintings in the centre of the town of Sutton, Greater London; the five main paintings show a number of the main features of the London Borough of Sutton and its four twin towns, along with the heraldic shield of each above the other images. Each painting features a plant as a visual representation of its town's environmental awareness. In the case of Sutton this is in a separate smaller painting showing a beech tree, intended as a symbol of prosperity and from whi
Communes of France
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris, to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. "Commune" in English has a historical bias, implies an association with socialist political movements or philosophies, collectivist lifestyles, or particular history. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia, for a large gathering of people sharing a common life. As of January 2015, there were 36,681 communes in France, 36,552 of them in metropolitan France and 129 of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes.
This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. There are only a few exceptions: COM of Saint-Martin, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe région. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. COM of Wallis and Futuna, which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms. COM of Saint Barthélemy, it was a commune inside the Guadeloupe region. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Barthélemy became an overseas collectivity on 22 February 2007. Furthermore, two regions without permanent habitation have no communes: TOM of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean In metropolitan France, the average area of a commune in 2004 was 14.88 square kilometres. The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was smaller, at 10.73 square kilometres. The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune.
This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. Switzerland and the Länder of Rhineland-Palatinate, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia in Germany were the only places in Europe where the communes had a smaller median area than in France; the communes of France's overseas départements such as Réunion and French Guiana are large by French standards. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. In Réunion, demographic expansion and sprawling urbanization have resulted in the administrative splitting of some communes; the median population of metropolitan France's communes at the 1999 census was 380 inhabitants. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy, where the median population of communes in 2001 was 2,343 inhabitants, Belgium, or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10,000 inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36,683 communes have fewer than 500 inhabitants a
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Yoan Gouffran is a French professional footballer who plays for Göztepe in the Turkish Süper Lig. Gouffran plays as a striker or a winger and is renowned for his pace and ability to finish with either foot. Gouffran was born in Val-de-Marne. On 20 May 2007, he was awarded Ligue 2 Player of the Season after a successful season with Caen which saw the club promoted to the Ligue 1. After achieving success with Caen during the 2007–08 Ligue 1 season, it was suspected Gouffran would make a move elsewhere. After consistent rumours linking him with English Premier League club Arsenal, including rumors of him signing a pre-contract agreement with the club, Gouffran opted to stay in Ligue 1, signing a four-year contract with Bordeaux; the transfer fee was priced at €6.5 million and he joined the club on 30 June 2008. After starting the league season off with no league goals after 26 matches, he scored his first league goal for Bordeaux on 29 April 2009 in a key match against Rennes, which Bordeaux won 3–2.
On the final matchday of the season, 30 May, he scored the winning goal that secured Bordeaux the championship, against his former club Caen who were relegated to Ligue 2. Gouffran denied league leaders Paris Saint-Germain's attempt at winning seven straight Ligue 1 games, when he scored the equalizer in a 1–1 home draw on 6 November 2011; the result meant. Gouffran finished with Bordeaux half way through the 2012–13 season with 8 goals in 20 games. With only six months left on his contract, English Premier League club Newcastle United had a cut price £500,000 bid accepted for Gouffran. On 22 January 2013, Gouffran revealed via Twitter that a move to Newcastle was due to happen the following day: "Tomorrow I will be a new player of Newcastle and I am proud. Thanks to everyone." He added, "Big thanks to everyone who has supported me through bad times. I thank the leadership of the club and the staff for helping me grow I need a new challenge and therefore I hope that you respect my choice. I will follow all the results of the Girondins."
He was unveiled as a Newcastle player on 23 January, after signing a four-and-a-half year contract and given the number 11 shirt. He made his debut for Newcastle on 29 January 2013 in a 1–2 win against Aston Villa at Villa Park, he scored his first Newcastle goal on 9 February in a 2–1 defeat against Tottenham Hotspur. On 2 November, Gouffran scored the first goal for Newcastle in their 2–0 win against Chelsea. After the match, he received rave reviews from manager Alan Pardew. Gouffran continued an impressive run of form, scoring again against Norwich City and added another goal to take his tally to five for the season when he scored the first of Newcastle's two goals against West Bromwich Albion on 30 November 2013. Gouffran followed this up by scoring Newcastle's only goal in a one-all draw at home to Southampton on 14 December. Following his impressive form, he became a fan favourite due to his hard working mentality, a key factor in Newcastle's sudden rise toward the top of the Premier League standings.
On 26 December 2013, Gouffran scored yet again in a comprehensive 5–1 victory over Stoke City at St James' Park, in doing so becoming the first player for Newcastle to score in five consecutive games at St. James' Park since Alan Shearer in 1997; the following season, Gouffran came under criticism from lots of fans as Newcastle avoided relegation on the final day of the season. Under new boss Steve McClaren, Gouffran featured less and was played out of position in central midfield, he only made eight appearances. Despite being linked with a move back to France and having his squad number changed to 20 to make way for new signing Matt Ritchie, Gouffran became a regular in the Championship under manager Rafael Benítez, he made scoring 5 goals. Despite being offered a new contract by Newcastle, Gouffran opted to join Süper Lig side Göztepe on a free transfer on 17 July 2017 as his Newcastle contract expired, he played 76 minutes on his debut in a 2–2 draw against Fenerbahçe on 12 August 2017. Gouffran scored his first goal for Goztepe in a 3–3 draw against Osmanlıspor on February 10, 2018.
Gouffran was a France under-21 international. He took part in the 2006 U-21 Championships in Portugal, where he made four appearances and scored one goal, he made 22 appearances for the U-21s. As of 4 March 2017 Bordeaux Ligue 1: 2008–09 Coupe de la Ligue: 2008–09 Trophée des champions: 2008, 2009Newcastle United EFL Championship: 2016-17 France-19 UEFA European Under-19 Championship: 2005 Ligue 2 player of the year: 2007 Ligue 2 team of the year: 2006–07 Yoan Gouffran – French league stats at LFP Yoan Gouffran at L'Équipe Football Yoan Gouffran – UEFA competition record Yoan Gouffran at ESPN FC
Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region. The department is situated to the southeast of the city of Paris. Val-de-Marne is, together with Seine-Saint-Denis and Hauts-de-Seine, one of three small departments in Île-de-France that form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne. Since January 1, 2016 Val de Marne is included in Métropole du Grand Paris Val-de-Marne is made up of 3 departmental arrondissements and 47 communes: Val-de-Marne was created in January 1968, through the implementation of a law passed in July 1964. Positioned to the south-east of the Paris ring road, it was formed from the southern-eastern part of the Seine department, together with a small portion taken from the broken-up department of Seine-et-Oise. Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Prefecture General Council Citizen Blog
Jérémy Cordoval is a professional footballer who plays for Troyes AC, as a right-back. He represents Guadeloupe national football team internationally. In June 2016, it was announced Cordoval would be rejoining Troyes AC for a second stint, signing a three-year contract, he made his debut for the Guadeloupe national football team on 23 March 2019 in a CONCACAF Nations League qualifier against Martinique, as a starter. Profile at L'Équipe Jérémy Cordoval at National-Football-Teams.com